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  • "Going for an Indian" or "having a curry" is almost as stereotypically British as roast dinners or fish and chips.


  • There are around 12,000 curry houses in Britain.


  • The word came from the Tamil "kari", which meant a spiced sauce,

    這個字是來自塔米爾語的 "kari" 意思是加辛香料的醬,

  • but gradually, the term was adapted and used as a generic term for any stew-like food from the Indian subcontinent,


  • rather ignoring such subtleties as regional differences and completely different flavors, textures, cooking methods, and ingredients.


  • The first definite mention of "curry" in English is [in] 1598.

    1598 年,英文首次明確的提到「咖哩」這個詞。

  • But the first recipe for curry published in Britain wasn't until 1747, by which time, Brits, long-time traders with India, were slowly taking over the country.

    但直到 1747 年,英國才出版第一本咖哩的食譜。在那時,與印度進行長期交易的英國商人,慢慢地掌控了整個國家。

  • Thousands of British men and women spent time in India; they had Indian cooks and servants.


  • And while some tried to maintain Western eating habits, most quickly embraced the taste of their new home.


  • When they returned to Britain, they brought their new love of Indian food back with them.


  • Those who'd lived in India knew very well that not all Indian dishes were curry,


  • and when the first, albeit short-lived, Indian restaurant in Britain opened in London in 1810,

    1810 年,第一間印度餐廳開在英國倫敦,雖然它營業不久。

  • its menu contained "khichdi", "chutnee", and "pulao", dishes later known by the anglicized names "kedgeree", "chutney", and "pilaf".

    它的菜單上有 "khichdi"、"chutnee"、 "pulao",後來被英語化成「米豆粥、酸辣醬和抓飯」。

  • Manuscript books kept by those in the know also differentiated between dishes, but they were very much a minority, and in Britain, curry became a catch-all term for almost anything with Indian spices.


  • Slowly, certain dishes, especially chicken curry, which used an elderly fowl which had stopped laying eggs, entered the mainstream repertoire.


  • Ready-made curry powders were widely sold.


  • British palates were not used to Indian spices, and the early recipes are more like gently-flavored meaty stews laden with turmeric, ginger, and galangal, with cayenne for a hit.


  • By the 19th century, curry was in every cookbook, mainly as a leftover dish.

    到 19 世紀時,每本食譜書中都有咖哩,主要都是吃剩的料理。

  • The Anglo-Indian cuisine of this era was a hybrid, using pickled cucumbers to replace mango, apple instead of tamarind, and ready-made spice blends galore.


  • It was great, but had very little in common with its Eastern roots.


  • Queen Victoria took a different approach, regularly eating Indian dishes prepared by the cook to her Indian attendants, who'd joined the royal staff at her Golden Jubilee in 1887.

    維多莉亞女王採取不同的態度,她經常吃大廚準備煮給印度侍者的食物,他們在 1887 年的金禧紀念日時加入了皇室工作。

  • There were a few eating houses run by Indiansmainly for other Indiansin port towns, but it took until the 1920s for high-profile restaurants to open, catering for a British market.

    在港口小鎮有幾間餐館是由印度人經營,多是為了在地的印度人所開,直到 1920 年代才有出現迎合英國市場的知名餐館。

  • By 1946, there were around 20 Indian restaurants in London.

    到 1946 年時,倫敦約有 20 間印度餐館。

  • Boomtime for curry came after the Second World War, when the partition of India brought migrants from Punjab and Sylhet to Britain.


  • In the 1970s, civil war in Bangladesh saw many Bangladeshis flee to Britain, and even today, many apparently generic Indian restaurants are really Bangladeshi.

    1970 年代的孟加拉公民戰爭時,許多孟加拉人逃到英國去,即便到了現代,許多看似一般的印度餐館其實都是孟加拉人開的。

  • Curry in its 1970s form was cheap and cheerful, adapted for British tastes.

    1970 年代的咖哩很便宜、讓人感到愉快,也改造成英國人的口味。

  • In 2001, the then foreign secretary Robin Cook declared boldly that Britain's national dish was chicken tikka masala, a classic example of an Indian dish, buttered chicken, meeting British tastes.

    2001 年時,時任外相羅賓·庫克大膽宣稱瑪沙拉雞是英國國菜,那是一道經典的印度料理,奶油雞迎合英國人的口味。

  • In this case, with the addition of cream and, allegedly, cream of tomato soup.


  • In the last decade or so, the British relationship to Indian food has changed.


  • Most of us have grown out of wanting something so hot it'll hospitalize us.


  • Leading Indian chefs are teaching us that there is so much more to Indian food than the comforting predictability of the average restaurant menu.


  • Maybe after 250 years, we've simply come full circle.

    也許 250 年後,我們兜了個圈又回到原樣。

"Going for an Indian" or "having a curry" is almost as stereotypically British as roast dinners or fish and chips.


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