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  • You probably don't have a problem playing video games or browsing social media on your phone.

    用手機玩電子遊戲或瀏覽社交媒體可能沒什麼問題。

  • In fact I have no doubt you could sit in front of a screen and do both of those activities

    事實上,我毫不懷疑你可以坐在螢幕前進行這兩項活動

  • for 2 hours, or even longer without breaking your concentration.

    2 個小時,甚至更長時間,而不會分散你的注意力。

  • But what about half an hour of studying?

    但學習半小時又如何呢?

  • Oof.

  • That might be too hard.

    這可能太難了。

  • How about working on your side business for another hour?

    再做一個小時的副業如何?

  • Hmm.

  • Doesn't sound too appealing.

    聽起來不太吸引人。

  • Even though you logically know that studying, exercising, building a business or something

    即使從邏輯上講,你知道學習、鍛鍊、創業或其他事情

  • equally productive, will bring you more benefits in the long run, you still prefer watching

    同樣富有成效,從長遠來看會給你帶來更多好處,但你還是更喜歡看

  • TV, playing video games and scrolling through social media.

    看電視、玩電子遊戲和瀏覽社交媒體。

  • One might argue that it's obvious why.

    也許有人會說,原因顯而易見。

  • One activity is easy and doesn't require much effort, while the other activity is difficult

    一項活動很簡單,不需要付出太多努力,而另一項活動則很困難

  • and it requires you to apply yourself.

    這就需要你自己去努力。

  • But some people seem to have no problem studying, exercising, or working on their side projects, regularly.

    但有些人似乎經常學習、鍛鍊或從事自己的副業都不成問題。

  • Which begs the question: Why are some people more motivated to tackle difficult things?

    這就引出了一個問題:為什麼有些人更有動力去解決困難?

  • And is there a way to make doing difficult things, easy?

    有沒有辦法讓困難的事情變得簡單?

  • To answer this question, we need to look at this brain neurotransmitter: Dopamine.

    要回答這個問題,我們需要了解這種腦神經遞質:多巴胺

  • Dopamine is often considered a pleasure molecule.

    多巴胺通常被認為是一種快樂分子。

  • But that's not quite what it does.

    但這並不完全是它的作用。

  • Dopamine is what makes us desire things.

    多巴胺讓我們對事物產生慾望。

  • And it's that desire that gives us the motivation to get up and do stuff.

    正是這種願望給了我們起床做事的動力。

  • If you're not sure how powerful dopamine is, let me introduce you to a few experiments

    如果您還不清楚多巴胺的威力有多大,讓我向您介紹幾個實驗

  • neuroscientists did on rats.

    神經科學家在老鼠身上所做的研究。

  • The researchers implanted electrodes in the brains of rats.

    研究人員在老鼠的大腦中植入了電極。

  • Whenever the rat pulled a lever, the researchers stimulated the rat's reward system in the brain.

    每當老鼠拉動槓桿時,研究人員就會刺激老鼠大腦中的獎勵系統。

  • The result was that the rats developed a craving so strong they kept pulling the lever, over

    結果是,大鼠產生了強烈的渴望,它們不斷拉動槓桿,超過了

  • and over for hours.

    而且一連幾個小時都是如此。

  • The rats would refuse to eat or even sleep.

    老鼠會拒絕進食,甚至拒絕睡覺。

  • They would just keep pressing the lever until they would drop from exhaustion.

    他們只是不停地按壓槓桿,直到筋疲力盡倒下。

  • But then the process was reversed.

    但隨後的過程卻發生了逆轉。

  • The researchers blocked the release of dopamine in the brain's reward center.

    研究人員阻止了大腦獎賞中心多巴胺的釋放。

  • As a result, rats became so lethargic that even getting up to get a drink of water was

    結果,大鼠變得昏昏欲睡,甚至連站起來喝口水都很困難。

  • not worth the effort.

    不值得

  • They wouldn't eat.

    他們不吃東西。

  • They didn't want to mate.

    它們不想交配。

  • They didn't crave anything at all.

    他們根本不渴望任何東西。

  • You could say that the rats lost all will to live.

    可以說,老鼠們完全喪失了生存的意志。

  • However, if food was placed directly in their mouths, the rats would still eat and enjoy

    但是,如果將食物直接放進老鼠的嘴裡,它們仍然會吃,而且吃得津津有味。

  • the food.

    食物

  • They just didn't have the motivation to get up and do it themselves.

    他們只是沒有動力站起來自己去做。

  • You would think that it's thirst or hunger that motivates us to get food or water.

    你會認為是口渴或飢餓促使我們去獲取食物或水。

  • But there's also dopamine that plays a key role here.

    但多巴胺也在其中發揮著關鍵作用。

  • Those rat experiments might be extreme cases.

    那些大鼠實驗可能是極端情況。

  • But you can see similar effects dopamine has in humans and in our daily lives.

    但在人類和我們的日常生活中,你也能看到多巴胺的類似作用。

  • In fact, your brain develops priorities in large part based on how much dopamine it's

    事實上,你的大腦在很大程度上是根據多巴胺的含量來確定優先順序的。

  • expecting to get.

    期望得到

  • If an activity releases too little dopamine, you won't have much motivation to do it.

    如果一項活動釋放的多巴胺太少,你就不會有太大的動力去做。

  • But if an activity releases a lot of dopamine, you'll be motivated to repeat it, over and over.

    但是,如果一項活動能釋放大量多巴胺,你就會有動力一次又一次地重複這項活動。

  • So which behaviors release dopamine?

    那麼,哪些行為會釋放多巴胺呢?

  • Any activity where you anticipate there's a potential reward, releases it.

    任何活動,只要你預料到會有潛在的回報,就釋放它。

  • But if you know there are no immediate rewards with the behavior, your brain won't release it.

    但如果你知道這種行為不會立即得到回報,你的大腦就不會釋放這種行為。

  • For example, before you eat comfort food, your brain releases dopamine, because you

    例如,在吃安慰性食物之前,你的大腦會釋放多巴胺,因為你

  • anticipate that the food will make you feel good.

    預期食物會讓你感覺良好。

  • Even if it actually makes you feel worse.

    即使這會讓你感覺更糟。

  • That's because your brain doesn't even care if the high dopamine activity is damaging

    這是因為你的大腦根本不在乎高多巴胺活動是否會造成損害

  • to you.

    給你。

  • It just wants more of it.

    它只是想要更多。

  • A stereotypical example would be someone who's a drug addict.

    一個刻板的例子就是吸毒者。

  • He knows that what he's doing is not good for him.

    他知道自己的所作所為對自己不利。

  • But all he wants is to get more of that drug.

    但他只想獲得更多的毒品。

  • Besides getting you high, cocaine and heroin release unnatural amounts of dopamine, which

    可卡因和海洛因除了讓人興奮之外,還會釋放出非自然的多巴胺,而多巴胺會

  • in turn makes you crave them even more.

    反過來又會讓你更加渴望它們。

  • Of course it has to be noted that nearly everything releases some amount of dopamine.

    當然,必須指出的是,幾乎所有東西都會釋放一定量的多巴胺。

  • Even drinking water when you're thirsty, does.

    即使口渴時喝水也是如此。

  • But the highest dopamine release happens when you get a reward randomly.

    但是,當你隨機獲得獎勵時,多巴胺的釋放量最高。

  • One such example is playing on a slot machine in a casino.

    其中一個例子就是在賭場玩老虎機。

  • Even if you've only been losing money until that point, you eventually expect to get a

    即使在此之前你一直在虧錢,你最終也會期望得到一個

  • bigger reward.

    更大的回報。

  • You just don't know when it could happen. And in today's digital society, we are flooding

    你只是不知道它何時會發生。在當今的數字社會,我們充斥著

  • our brains with unnaturally high amounts of dopamine on a daily basis, even if we don't

    我們的大腦每天都會攝入超常量的多巴胺,即使我們沒有

  • know it.

    知道它。

  • Some examples of high dopamine behaviors include: scrolling through social media websites, playing

    高多巴胺行為的一些例子包括:滾動瀏覽社交媒體網站、玩遊戲、看電視、看電影、看電影

  • video games, watching internet pornography, etc.

    電子遊戲、觀看網絡色情等。

  • We anticipate some sort of reward with each one of those behaviors.

    我們期待每一種行為都能帶來某種獎勵。

  • That's why we're constantly checking our phones.

    這就是為什麼我們總是不停地看手機。

  • We expect to see a text message or some other notification.

    我們希望看到一條簡訊或其他通知。

  • And we know that eventually we're going to receive it.

    我們知道,我們最終會得到它。

  • We're becoming like those rats pulling the lever, tying to get a new dopamine hit.

    我們正變得像那些拉動槓桿的老鼠,試圖獲得新的多巴胺刺激。

  • And you might think, "Oh so what?"

    你可能會想:"哦,那又怎樣?"

  • "It's not like it's harming me in any way."

    "它不會對我造成任何傷害"

  • But you'd be wrong.

    但你錯了。

  • Our bodies have a biological system called homeostasis.

    我們的身體有一個名為 "平衡 "的生物系統。

  • It means that our body likes to keep internal physical and chemical conditions at a balanced level.

    這意味著我們的身體喜歡保持內部物理和化學條件的平衡。

  • Whenever an imbalance occurs, our body adapts to it.

    只要出現失衡,我們的身體就會適應它。

  • Let me give you an example: When it's cold outside, our body temperature falls.

    我來舉個例子:室外寒冷時,我們的體溫會下降。

  • And as a result, we start shivering to generate heat and warm the body.

    是以,我們開始顫抖,以產生熱量並溫暖身體。

  • However when it's hot outside, our body temperature rises.

    然而,當室外天氣炎熱時,我們的體溫會升高。

  • And we start sweating to lose some of that heat.

    我們開始出汗,以散熱。

  • Essentially our body is looking to maintain a temperature of around 37 degrees Celsius

    從根本上說,我們的身體希望保持 37 攝氏度左右的溫度

  • or 98 degrees Fehrenheit, no matter what.

    或 98 華氏度,無論如何都不行。

  • But there is another way homeostasis manifests itself.

    但是,平衡還有另一種表現形式。

  • And that is through tolerance.

    這就是寬容。

  • For example, someone who rarely drinks alcohol, will get drunk really fast.

    例如,很少喝酒的人很快就會喝醉。

  • But someone who drinks on a regular basis, will have to drink more alcohol, because their

    但是,經常喝酒的人就必須喝更多的酒,因為他們的

  • body has developed a tolerance to it.

    身體已經對它產生了耐受性。

  • Essentially it takes more and more alcohol to make them drunk, because they've become

    從根本上說,要讓他們喝醉,需要越來越多的酒精,因為他們已經變得

  • less sensitive to its effects.

    對其影響不那麼敏感。

  • And it's not much different with dopamine.

    多巴胺也是如此。

  • Your body tries to maintain homeostasis, so it down-regulates your dopamine receptors.

    您的身體試圖維持平衡,是以會下調多巴胺受體。

  • Essentially your brain gets used to having high levels of dopamine and those levels become

    從根本上說,你的大腦已經習慣了高水平的多巴胺,而這些水準的多巴胺會變成

  • your new normal.

    你的新常態。

  • Thus you develop a dopamine tolerance.

    是以,你會產生多巴胺耐受性。

  • This can be a huge problem, because the things that don't give you as much dopamine, don't

    這可能是個大問題,因為那些不會給你帶來那麼多多巴胺的東西,不會

  • interest you any longer.

    你不再感興趣了。

  • And it's much more difficult to motivate yourself to do them.

    而且,要激勵自己去做這些事就更難了。

  • They feel boring and less fun, because they don't release as much dopamine, compared to

    它們會讓人感覺無聊、沒意思,因為它們不會釋放出那麼多的多巴胺,相比之下

  • the things that do release it in high amounts.

    大量釋放它的東西。

  • That's why people tend to prefer playing video games or browsing the internet, compared to

    這就是為什麼人們更喜歡玩電子遊戲或瀏覽互聯網,而不是

  • studying or working on their business.

    學習或工作。

  • Video games make us feel good and comfortable, as they release a lot of dopamine.

    電子遊戲能釋放大量多巴胺,讓人感覺舒適愜意。

  • Sadly things like working hard or reading, releases it in lower amounts.

    可悲的是,像努力工作或閱讀這樣的事情會以較低的量釋放它。

  • This is one of the reasons why drug addicts who try to quit, have a hard time adjusting to

    這也是試圖戒毒的吸毒者很難適應的原因之一。

  • a normal life.

    正常的生活。

  • Their dopamine tolerance gets so high that normal life isn't able to match it.

    他們的多巴胺耐受性會變得非常高,以至於正常生活無法與之匹配。

  • They become like those rats from previous experiments who have no motivation to do anything

    他們變得像以前實驗中的那些小白鼠一樣,沒有做任何事情的動力

  • if there's not enough dopamine release.

    如果多巴胺釋放不足。

  • And it's not just drug addicts.

    而且不僅僅是吸毒者。

  • People who are addicted to video games, social media or internet pornography experience the

    沉迷於電子遊戲、社交媒體或網絡色情的人都會有以下經歷

  • same thing.

    同一件事。

  • Once their dopamine tolerance gets too high, they simply aren't able to enjoy low dopamine

    一旦多巴胺耐受性過高,他們就無法享受低多巴胺的樂趣了。

  • behaviors.

    行為。

  • Which begs the question: Is there anything that can be done to prevent this?

    這就引出了一個問題:有什麼辦法可以防止這種情況發生嗎?

  • The answer is you need to perform a dopamine detox.

    答案就是你需要進行多巴胺排毒。

  • By now might already have an idea what dopamine detox is going to look like.

    現在,你可能已經知道多巴胺戒毒會是什麼樣子了。

  • What you're going to do is set aside a day, where you're going to avoid all the highly

    你要做的就是留出一天時間,在這一天裡,你要避開所有高度危險的事情。

  • stimulating activities.

    激勵性活動。

  • You're going to stop flooding your brain with high amounts of dopamine and you're going

    你要停止讓大腦充斥大量多巴胺,你要

  • to let your dopamine receptors recover.

    讓你的多巴胺受體恢復。

  • Just a disclaimer: If you're suffering from a drug addiction, then I suggest you seek

    免責聲明:如果你有毒癮,我建議你尋求

  • professional help, as you've probably formed a physiological and psychological dependence.

    專業人士的幫助,因為你可能已經形成了生理和心理依賴。

  • And I don't want you to experience any extreme withdrawal symptoms.

    我不希望你出現任何極端的戒斷症狀。

  • Now back to the detox.

    現在回到排毒問題上來。

  • For 1 whole day you will try to have as little fun as possible.

    在整整一天的時間裡,你要儘量少玩。

  • You won't be using the internet, or any technology like your phone or computer.

    您不會使用互聯網、手機或電腦等任何技術。

  • You're not allowed to listen to music, you're not allowed to masturbate or eat any junk food.

    你不能聽音樂,不能手淫,也不能吃任何垃圾食品。

  • Basically you're going to remove all sources of external pleasure for the entire day.

    基本上,你要在一整天內消除所有外部快樂的來源。

  • You're going to embrace boredom.

    你要擁抱無聊。

  • And trust me, there will be a lot of boredom.

    相信我,會有很多無聊的事情。

  • You are however allowed to do the following: Go for a walk.

    不過,您可以做以下事情:散步

  • Meditate and be alone with your thoughts.

    冥想,與自己的思想獨處。

  • Reflect on your life and goals.

    反思自己的生活和目標。

  • Write down any ideas you get.

    寫下你的任何想法。

  • Not on your computer or phone, but on a physical piece of paper.

    不是在電腦或手機上,而是在一張紙上。

  • All of this might seem quite intense.

    所有這一切似乎都很緊張。

  • But if you want radical results and you want them fast, you need to be able to take radical action.

    但是,如果你想要快速取得根本性的成果,你就必須能夠採取根本性的行動。

  • Now you might be asking yourself: Why would this even work?

    現在你可能會問自己這樣做有什麼用?

  • You can think of it this way.

    你可以這樣想。

  • Let's say that you've been eating every single meal at the best restaurant in your town.

    假設你每頓飯都在鎮上最好的餐廳吃。

  • As a result, what happened is that those fancy meals became your new normal.

    結果,那些花哨的飯菜成了你的新常態。

  • If someone offered you a bowl of plain rice, you would probably refuse.

    如果有人給你一碗白米飯,你可能會拒絕。

  • It simply wouldn't taste as good as your usual restaurant meal.

    它的味道根本無法與普通餐廳的飯菜相提並論。

  • But if you suddenly find yourself stranded on a deserted island and you're starving,

    但是,如果你突然發現自己被困在一個荒島上,而且飢腸轆轆、

  • suddenly that bowl of plain rice doesn't seem so bad.

    突然間,那碗白米飯似乎也沒那麼難吃了。

  • And that is what the dopamine detox does.

    這就是多巴胺排毒的作用。

  • It starves you of all