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  • Understanding Art Case Study: Inside Out

    理解藝術的個案研究:腦筋急轉彎

  • Western culture has a long history of emotional anxiety,

    西方文化對於焦慮症是很有淵源的

  • by which I mean anxiety about emotions.

    我的意思是對情緒的焦慮

  • Thinkers from the Classical period to the Modern

    從古典時期到現代時期的思想家

  • have pitted emotion against reason

    將情感與理性相比時,都將彼此視為對立

  • as opposing forces vying for the mind's control.

    且互相爭奪對於思想的控制

  • An emotional person was seen as weak giving in

    一個情緒化的人被視為弱者

  • to the path of least resistance to base desires

    且選擇最不費力且能

  • ruled by capricious feelings.

    任性地被基本慾望控制

  • Yoda: "Fear is the path to the Dark Side."

    尤達:「恐懼是通往黑暗的道路。」

  • The strong on the other hand would rule their emotions with reason.

    另一方面,強者會用理智來控制他們的情緒

  • "Everyone feels pressure; the point is don't let it show."

    「每個人都感到壓力;重點是不要讓它顯示出來」

  • Disney personified this struggle in a short 8-minute cartoon

    迪士尼將這種鬥爭在 1933 年具象化為一個 8 分鐘卡通短片

  • from 1933 called, aptly, 'Reason and Emotion'.

    叫「理性和情感」

  • "Within the mind of each of us, these two wage a ceaseless battle for mastering."

    「在我們每個人的心中,這兩個人為掌權而不停地吵架。」

  • The short is a lightly disguised propaganda piece

    這部短片是一個輕微偽裝的宣傳片

  • hardening Americans against fear tactics

    加強了美國人對抗軸心國

  • used by the Axis powers in World War 2.

    在第二次世界大戰中使用的恐懼戰術

  • But it was nonetheless a point of reference for

    但它仍然是腦筋急轉彎彼特·達克特導演

  • the Pixar team led by director Pete Docter,

    所帶領的皮克斯團隊

  • responsible for the film 'Inside Out'.

    的參考點

  • Docter's film is a far more nuanced take on the

    達克特的電影對心靈的內在運作

  • inner workings of the mind,

    更加細緻入微

  • appropriate for a post-40 and post-culture evolution age

    適合 40 年後和後文化進化時代的人

  • when we're encouraged, ostensibly at least,

    當我們受到鼓勵時,表面上

  • to embrace emotions

    至少可以接受情緒上的起伏

  • rather than urged to master them.

    而不是試著去駕馭他們

  • The film tells the story of the eleven year old Riley

    這部電影講述了十一歲的萊莉

  • as she navigates a move across the country

    搬家跨越了整個國家

  • and, more centrally, how five emotions

    更仔細地說,講述了他五個情緒

  • Joy, the leader,

    身為指揮的樂樂

  • Sadness, Fear, Disgust and Anger

    憂憂、驚驚、厭厭和怒怒

  • balance the control of her mind

    如何從像是任務控制室的總部

  • from a mission control-like headquarters

    去掌控他的情緒

  • In this model, each day consists of discrete moments

    隨著這個框架,每一天都是包含著

  • colored by one of the five emotions

    由五種情緒中所染色的片段

  • which are sent during sleep to a vast archive

    在睡眠時,這些記憶會被送到龐大的

  • of long-term memories

    長期記憶檔案中

  • Very rarely, an experience is so formative

    極少數情況下,有些經歷成為了萊莉的成長要素

  • that it creates a core memory which

    它能成為一個核心記憶

  • goes on to form the basis of Riley's personality

    並且各維持著一座塑造萊莉性格的個性島嶼

  • imagined as theme park islands

    它們被想像為主題樂園似的島嶼

  • When Joy and Sadness are accidentally ejected

    當樂樂和憂憂意外地從總部被彈出去

  • from Headquarters, the film chronicles

    這部電影記錄了

  • their cathartic journey through several other mental regions

    他們透過經過不同的心志區域去宣洩情緒

  • including Imagination Land,

    這之中包括了幻想樂園

  • a Dream Production company

    還有看起來像派拉蒙影業工廠

  • that looks like the Paramount lab,

    的夢境製片廠

  • Abstract Thought,

    抽象思維區

  • and a Subconscious Jail.

    還有一個潛意識監獄

  • The catharsis comes when Joy realises that

    當樂樂理解到憂憂並非無用

  • Sadness is not only useful,

    當樂樂理解到憂憂並非無用

  • but essential, perhaps even more essential than she is

    而是很重要,甚至可能比自己更能發揮作用去

  • to Riley's harmonious mental functioning

    幫助萊莉靜下心來

  • and overall happiness.

    且得到快樂,此刻,萊莉的情緒才得以宣洩

  • The film itself and its message to embrace

    這部電影本身是告訴我們

  • sadness, to feel what needs feeling

    去擁抱悲傷,感受到我們此刻需要的情緒

  • is surely a token of progress against

    這肯定是象徵我們對於長期的情感焦慮

  • our long standing emotional anxiety

    的一大進展

  • But is this model of the mind and its emotions

    但是,這個對心志以及情緒的模型

  • an accurate one ?

    是否正確?

  • 'Inside Out' bases its theory of emotions

    腦筋急轉彎的情緒理論

  • in large part on the work of Paul Ekman,

    大部分建構在保羅·艾克曼的研究成果

  • an influential scientist in the psychology of emotion

    他是情緒心理學中一位有影響力的科學家

  • Ekman posits that there are seven basic emotions

    艾克曼斷定人有七個主要情緒

  • with universal facial signals,

    還有通用面部表情

  • the ones featured in the film, plus two

    包括電影裡的五個情緒再加兩個

  • that were cut: surprise and contempt.

    被刪掉的:驚訝和滿足

  • These basic emotions are ubiquitous,

    這些基本情緒是隨處可見的

  • the world over, Ekman says, and can be read

    艾克曼聲稱可以

  • on the faces of anyone,

    在每個人的臉上看見

  • whether that's by an astute listener

    不論他是否是個精明的聽眾

  • or facial recognition software like those

    或是像這些的面部識別軟體

  • Ekman has helped develop controversially

    艾克曼幫助開發了一些有爭議的

  • for security and marketing uses.

    安全和營銷產品

  • Ekman and other consultants on the film

    艾克曼和其他電影裡德諮詢師

  • have praised Inside Out for providing a model

    都稱讚腦筋急轉彎提供了

  • for kids that is engaging

    一個有科學根據

  • as well as scientifically sound.

    且能吸引孩子看的榜樣

  • But though Ekman's model may be

    雖然艾克曼的規範可能是

  • the dominant one in the psychology of emotion

    現今情緒心理學的主流

  • right now, it's by no means the only.

    這不代表他是唯一的理論

  • Indeed, the field is a far more fractious one

    的確,這個領域比電影的科學顧問所接露的

  • than the film scientific consultants let on.

    更為複雜些

  • 'Inside Out' seems to suggest that

    腦筋急轉彎闡述了

  • a child's experiences will be defined by

    孩子的成長經驗

  • whichever emotion is at the helm.

    由特定的情緒主導而決定

  • What's more of that overall personality

    更多的是, 由彩色核心記憶

  • determined by colored core memories

    所決定的整體性格

  • has an emotional driver.

    更是情感的主要動力

  • This model stands opposite to the key insights

    這個模板與心理分析的主要論點是相違的

  • of psychoanalysis for example, which holds that

    舉例來說,心理分析說到

  • emotions can be transferred, transformed

    情緒可以被轉移且改變的

  • or distorted expressions of unconscious ideas

    或是被潛意識

  • and repressed experiences.

    和壓抑的經驗所扭曲

  • In other words, feelings of sadness or joy

    換句話說,感到傷心、愉快

  • or fear, are frequently far removed

    或恐懼,經常被它們

  • from their causes.

    的成因忽略

  • Understanding them as specific entities is

    理解這些情緒特定的特質

  • troublesome because they are often not

    是很麻煩的,因為它們時常

  • what they seem to be,

    不像表面上看到的那樣

  • which is to say that understanding emotion

    也就是說,將情緒理解為

  • as the driver and not the expression of ideas

    事情的主因而不是一種想法與經驗的展現

  • and experience may ignore underlying causes.

    可能會忽略根本成因

  • Indeed, the idea that emotions or memories can be

    的確,對於情緒和記憶能以夠分割開來討論

  • separate or discrete in any way is a dubious one.

    本身是件值得懷疑的事

  • The film itself begins to challenge this

    電影一開始挑戰這個問題

  • at the end when the control panel in Headquarters

    但到最後,總部的控制台

  • is expanded to fit all the emotions

    擴大成足以容納所有的情緒

  • and when the memory orbs start to reflect

    而記憶球也開始反映出

  • mixed experience.

    情緒混合的記憶

  • But a sense that experience can be quantified,

    但這種經驗可以量化的情緒

  • pervades the film.

    貫穿了整個電影

  • And, like anything, that may reflect more about

    而且,就像任何事情一樣

  • our culture at the moment than the science itself.

    這可能比科學本身更能反映我們的文化

  • For Joy and Sadness, the scariest place in the film

    對樂樂和憂憂來說,整部電影最可怕的地方

  • isn't the subconscious prison

    不是潛意識牢籠裡關著的

  • that houses Riley's worst fears,

    萊莉最深沉的恐懼

  • but a giant pit in the centre of Riley's mind

    而是在萊莉心中一個巨大的坑

  • where memories are forgotten forever

    在那裡,記憶會被永遠忘記

  • without any hope of recall.

    再也無法召回

  • In an increasingly data-driven culture

    在現今資訊爆炸的世界裡

  • where more data equals more truth,

    更多的資訊代表了更多的事實

  • the greatest anxiety of all,

    隨之,最令人焦慮的是

  • is the loss of information.

    資訊的喪失

  • And the headquarters of Riley's mind

    在萊莉心中的總部

  • does feel a bit manajurial

    因為有著控制板和使用手冊

  • with its control panel and user manuals,

    而看起來有點像經理的辦公室

  • and Riley a bit like an automaton,

    而萊莉看起來像是個機器

  • controlled by a highly sophisticated

    由一群精明的

  • technocratic operation.

    技術人員操縱著

  • The decision-making process is a bit wonky too,

    決策過程也有點不穩定

  • since the latest neuroscience tells us

    因為最新的神經科學告訴我們

  • that the frontal lobe enacts a kind of executive function

    額葉會執行一種功能

  • that mediates between the emotions

    它是我們腦中的邊緣系統用以調解我們的情緒

  • in the limbic system, and higher cognitive functions

    以及更高的認知功能

  • like reflection and critical thinking,

    如反思和批判性思維

  • obviously not always in favour of the latter.

    但它明顯並不時常運用後者

  • Maybe at this point you're saying the same thing

    也許在這一點上你說的

  • as the voice in my own head:

    與我自己腦海中的聲音相同

  • it's a kid's movie, it's a comedy!

    這是個給小孩的電影,這是個喜劇!

  • and that's very true.

    而你說的是對的

  • And the director, Pete Docter,

    導演彼特·達克特

  • has never held this film up as an academic

    從來沒有把這部電影作為學術研究

  • or therapeutic tool.

    或是心理治療的工具

  • He admits the need for poetic and comedic licence,

    他承認電影需要詩意和笑點

  • adding an executive function like

    他加入了一些素材像是

  • the kind I just mentioned for example,

    我剛剛舉的例子

  • would no doubt made the film too complex

    的確會讓電影變得複雜些

  • as would any number of other things,

    就像其他東西一樣

  • like the two basic emotions he left out,

    像是他排除的另外兩個基本情緒

  • or any other emotion.

    或是其他情緒

  • I don't think his dramatic instincts

    我不認為他的戲劇直覺

  • can be questioned here

    有任何可以質疑的地方

  • Under the premises of the emotional model

    在腦筋急轉彎裡展現

  • that 'Inside Out' presents,

    的情緒範本

  • the narrative unfolds with grace, subtlety,

    它優雅精巧地敘事

  • and intense pointiancy.

    卻也有著深刻的準確性

  • I'll leave the formal critique to someone else,

    我會讓別人去做更正式些的評論

  • but there's no doubt that this is masterful filmmaking.

    不容質疑的是,這絕對是大師級的電影

  • I had the tears to prove it.

    我淚灑這部便得以為證

  • But it does raise questions about the effect

    但它的確讓大家對於主流的心智模型所對人造成的影響

  • of popular models of the mind.

    引起興趣

  • Pixar tells stories so mythic and archetypal,

    皮克斯講故事的方式是如此像神話的經典

  • and so well, that it's all but impossible

    又講得如此之好,幾乎很難

  • not to internalise some of their elements,

    不內化它們的元素

  • especially for kids.

    即使是給小孩子的

  • If the result is that kids learn earlier and better

    如果結果是孩子們更早且更好地理解到

  • why it's important to accept and expect

    接受和期待悲傷是重要的

  • sadness, then I think it's unquestionably a good thing.

    那麼我認為這無疑是一件好事

  • But Sadness and Joy and Fear and Disgust and Anger,

    但是,憂憂、樂樂、驚驚、厭厭和怒怒

  • are not discreet things, or self-contained,

    並不是件嚴肅或自我滿足的東西

  • or even fully internal.

    也不是全然在內心的

  • Neither are personality traits, or, for that matter,

    就像我們的人格一樣,或者就此而言

  • personalities.

    是各種人格

  • Any model of emotion is going to reflect a split

    任何情緒的範本都將反映出

  • between biology and culture,

    生物學與文化之間

  • between neuroscience and theoretical psychoanalysis.

    神經科學與理論精神分析之間的分歧

  • Don't let anyone tell you that that debate has been decided

    別讓任何人告訴你討論已經有個一定的結果

  • one way or the other.

  • There are as many emotional theories

    有很多情緒理論

  • as there are emotional psychologists.

    就像有很多情緒心理學家一樣

  • What's interesting and ironic about 'Inside Out',

    腦筋急轉彎很有趣且經典的地方是

  • is that Riley may come of as a bit robotic,

    萊莉可能感覺有點像機器人

  • but a more complex and complete framework

    但是,從樂樂身上,我們可以發現一個更複雜且完整的

  • for the inner workings of the mind

    內在心理運作系統

  • can be found in Joy herself:

  • a character who questions and reflects,

    樂樂是個質詢且思考

  • who turns inward, not to another smaller headquarters,

    他向自己的內心尋找,但並不是向著更小的控制台

  • but a cauldron of indistinct compounds of feeling,

    而是向著一種混雜感情的大鍋

  • influenced by chemistry, situation, and other people.

    這些都被化學、當下情況和他人所影響

  • 'Inside Out' may not be perfectly accurate,

    腦筋急轉彎也許並不完全正確

  • but the film inspires something more important

    但這電影卻講出了更為重要的東西

  • than that, something that doesn't require

    這是一些不需要

  • scientific exactness.

    科學數據佐證

  • Emotional intelligence.

    的情緒智商

  • It is a sunny day outside right now, hey everybody!

    大伙,現在外頭很晴朗

  • Thanks for watching! Uhm, I love Pixar generally but I love this movie just cause it gives you so much

    謝謝你們的觀賞!我愛皮克斯但我喜歡這部電影,因為它給你許多機會去

  • to dig into and explore and I had a lot of fun making this and putting this together.

    深入挖掘和探索,我很開心能夠做這影片並把它放在一起

  • Uhm, if you think that the Nerdwriter and what I'm doing here is something that you're not seeing elsewhere

    如果你認為 Nerdwriter 和我在這裡所做的事情是你在 YouTube 其他地方沒有看到的

  • on youtube, you can pledge to my channel by clicking here and going to my Patrion

    你可以點擊這裡並轉到我的 Patrion 來訂閱我的頻道

  • it's what funds this project and helps me improve the quality, there's so much more I want to do,

    這是為這個項目提供資金並幫助我提高質量的東西,還有更多我想做的事

  • there's more series that i'm going to be introducing soon, uhm, and the funding is what makes it possible

    我想趕快介紹更多系列,而這資金能幫助我把它變成可能

  • I mean, that's the unique relationship between you and me, there's nothing in between us

    這是你我之間的獨特關係,我們之間並沒有任何曖昧關係

  • and what you give me, the money you give me, helps me to make this project better and more in-depth

    而你給予我的東西、你給我的資金,能夠幫助我使這個項目更好,更深入

  • and I hope that you trust that I will do that by, you know, by the quality of the content that I've made so far.

    我希望你能夠相信我會通過我迄今為止所做的內容的質量來履行這一切

  • So thank you so much again for watching and I'll see you next Wednesday.

    謝謝你的觀賞,我們下禮拜三見

Understanding Art Case Study: Inside Out

理解藝術的個案研究:腦筋急轉彎

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 萊莉 樂樂 腦筋 電影 憂憂 記憶

內外兼修。情感理論活了過來 (Inside Out: Emotional Theory Comes Alive)

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    irene Hu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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