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  • Look at these shapes and consider this question: Which one is a bouba and which one is a kiki?

    看看這些形狀回答這個問題:誰是「布巴」,誰是「奇奇」?

  • This question was asked to American college students and Tamil speakers in India and more than 95% of people gave the same response. I did too.

    受訪的美國大學生和印度語使用者超過 95% 的人答案都一樣,我也是。

  • People thought the bouba was soft and rounded and the kiki was sharp and jagged.

    大家認為「布巴」圓滑柔軟,「奇奇」尖銳不平。

  • Psychologists call it the bouba/kiki effect.

    心理學家稱之為「布巴/奇奇效應」。

  • It's not baby talk, it shows we can draw meaning from things without… "meaning".

    這不是無稽之談,代表我們能憑空產生意義。

  • And even when we're talking to someone in the same language, our body language, tone, pitch and accent convey information beyond what we intend.

    即使以相同語言交談,我們的肢體、語氣、聲調與口音,透露的訊息比我們想像得還多。

  • I think a lot about accents because it seems, at least to some of YOUR ears, that I have an accent. I've certainly never noticed it.

    我對口音特別有興趣,因為對大多數人而言,至少對你們有些人而言,我似乎有口音,我卻從來沒注意到。

  • Accents develop because people living in close proximity grow to share a way of speaking and we have an own-accent bias.

    口音是住在鄰近區域的人,互相發展出的說話方式,我們對自己的口音會產生偏好。

  • Studies have shown that even one-year-old babies have a preference for sounds of the language spoken in their home.

    研究發現,即使一歲嬰兒也偏好在家中常聽到的口音。

  • But, why does the English speaking world have so many accents in the first place?

    但是,英語一開始如何發展出各種口音呢?

  • If England colonised South Africa, Australia, Canada and the United States, there must have been a point where the British descendants lost their English accent and developed a local way of speaking.

    英國曾殖民南非、澳州、加拿大和美國,那麼一定有英國口音被當地口音取代的時間點。

  • Everyone always forgets about New Zealand.

    大家都忘了紐西蘭。

  • The records are kind of sketchy.

    資料有些粗略。

  • The first settlement in America was in 1607, but the first voice records we have are from the late 1800s.

    英國 1607 年起殖民美國,而現存最早的音訊出現在 19 世紀末。

  • Somewhere in that time of 200 odd years across the Atlantic, accents changed.

    大約在 200 多年前橫越大西洋的時候,口音改變了。

  • In England it became fashionable to pronounce a soft "r", to have a non-rhetoric accent, so hard sounds like hahd.

    在英國流行將輕柔的「r」音發成不捲舌的重音,「hard」聽起來像「hahd」。

  • And in America they retained their rhetoric accent so hard has a hard "r".

    而在美國捲舌音保留,所以「hard」中「r」的發音明顯。

  • So it makes sense that accents in countries colonised later, like Australia, are non-rhetoric.

    那之後被殖民的國家,如澳州,有不捲舌的口音就說得通了。

  • Like this one.

    就像我的口音。

  • And the way you talk can carry information about your level of education, ethnicity and socio-economic status.

    說話方式也透露某些資訊,如教育程度、國藉及社經地位。

  • It's not always accurate but it can affect people's perceptions.

    雖然不一定正確但會影響別人的觀感。

  • One study at The University of Chicago looked at the effects that accents have on credibility.

    芝加哥大學研究口音與可信度的關係。

  • When a person with an accent made a factual statement say, “A giraffe can go without water longer than a camel can.”

    如果有口音的人陳述一件事實:「長頸鹿比駱駝更耐渴。」

  • People were less likely to believe it was true.

    大家會懷疑其所言為真。

  • And the heavier the accent, the less believable they were perceived to be.

    口音越重的人越不被信任。

  • Another study in the UK found people were more likely to rate a suspect as guilty if they had a regional English accent compared to a London accent.

    另一項英國研究顯示,若嫌犯有地區性的英國口音,多數人容易認定這個嫌犯有罪。

  • Come to think of it, a lot of bad guys in American movies have foreign accents.

    想想,許多美國電影裡的壞人都有外國口音。

  • "You have 13 hours in which to solve the Labarynth."

    「你有 13 個小時走出迷宮。」

  • "This is just how your father looked before he died."

    「這就是你父親臨死前的樣子。」

  • "I can't understand a word you said the whole time."

    「你說什麼我一個字都聽不懂。」

  • "I think what you are hearing is my accent."

    「我想你聽到的是我的口音。」

  • When we hear our own accents we have a positive-bias towards the prosody, that's the rhythm, stress and intonation of speech.

    我們熟悉自己的口音,會對這種韻律,也就是節奏和語調,產生正面偏見。

  • Because you like how someone talks, when you're processing what they say your brain regions involved with emotions are involved.

    當你喜歡某些人的說話方式,在聆聽他說話時,大腦中處理情緒的區域被啟動。

  • It's called affective processing.

    我們稱之為「情感處理系統」。

  • When you like one thing and it causes you like another thing even more without you realizing.

    所以你的口音偏好不知不覺讓你更喜歡這個人。

  • While we favour those from our own groups, with the internet having it's own social groups and dialect, what is "our own group" these days anyway?

    當我們比較喜歡那些我們自己的族群時,在現在網路普及下,我們有自己的社交族群跟自成體系的用語,那所謂「我們自己人」又是什麼呢?

  • With so much ambiguity, it's almost like we need a universal, accent-free language.

    如此模稜兩可,看來我們需要一個無口音的通用語言啊!

  • In case you were wondering a giraffe can last longer without water than a camel can.

    你還在懷疑長頸鹿真的比駱駝耐渴嗎?

  • Just trust me.

    就相信我吧!

Look at these shapes and consider this question: Which one is a bouba and which one is a kiki?

看看這些形狀回答這個問題:誰是「布巴」,誰是「奇奇」?

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腔調的心理學 (The Psychology of Accents)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 24 日
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