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  • In ancient Greece, headaches were considered powerful afflictions.

    在古希臘,頭痛被視為巨大的折磨

  • Victims prayed for relief from Asclepius, the god of medicine.

    患者向醫神阿斯克勒庇俄斯祈求減輕痛苦

  • And if pain continued,

    如果痛苦持續不斷

  • a medical practitioner would perform the best-known remedy

    醫生就會執行一個眾所皆知的療法

  • drilling a small hole in the skull to drain supposedly infected blood.

    在腦袋鑽個小洞,讓那些可能被感染的血液流出

  • This dire technique, called trepanation,

    這個可怕的技術,稱為環鋸術

  • often replaced the headache with a more permanent condition.

    經常使患者得到其他永久性的傷害

  • Fortunately, doctors today don't resort to power tools to cure headaches.

    幸好現今的醫生不會使用電動工具來治療頭痛

  • But we still have a lot to learn about this ancient ailment.

    但我們對這古老的疾病還是有許多東西要了解

  • Today, we've classified headaches into two camps

    現在,我們將頭痛分成兩大類

  • primary headaches

    原發性頭痛

  • and secondary headaches.

    跟次發性頭痛

  • The former are not symptomatic of an underlying disease, injury, or condition;

    前者不是一種潛在的疾病、傷害或身體狀況的徵兆

  • they are the condition.

    它們本身就是種身體狀況

  • But we'll come back to them in a minute

    但我們待會再回來討論它

  • because while primary headaches account for 50% of reported cases,

    因為雖然在有記錄的案例中,原發性頭痛佔了 50%

  • we actually know much more about secondary headaches.

    實際上我們對次發性頭痛有更多認識

  • These are caused by other health problems,

    這些是因為其他健康問題而引起的

  • with triggers ranging from dehydration and caffeine withdrawal

    觸發原因從脫水、咖啡因戒斷

  • to head and neck injury,

    到頭部與頸部損傷

  • and heart disease.

    以及心臟病

  • Doctors have classified over 150 diagnosable types,

    醫生已歸類出超過 150 種可診斷的類型

  • all with different potential causes, symptoms, and treatments.

    全都有潛在發生原因、症狀與療法

  • But we'll take just one common case —a sinus infectionas an example.

    但我們就先以最常見的案例來說明,鼻竇炎

  • The sinuses are a system of cavities

    鼻竇是鼻腔周圍的系統

  • that spread behind our foreheads, noses, and upper cheeks.

    遍布於我們的前額、鼻子與顴骨

  • When our sinuses are infected,

    當我們的鼻竇受感染

  • our immune response heats up the area,

    我們的免疫系統會提升這個區域的溫度

  • roasting the bacteria and inflaming the cavities well past their usual size.

    熱死這裡的細菌,使這些腔室發炎、腫大

  • The engorged sinuses put pressure on the cranial arteries and veins,

    充血的鼻竇對顱部動脈與靜脈加壓

  • as well as muscles in the neck and head.

    還有頭部跟頸部肌肉

  • Their pain receptors, called nociceptors, trigger in response,

    它們的痛覺受器,稱為傷害感受器,被觸發並進行回應

  • cueing the brain to release a flood of neuropeptides

    提醒腦部釋放大量神經肽

  • that inflame the cranial blood vessels, swelling and heating up the head.

    使得頭部血管發炎、腫大,也使頭部升溫

  • This discomfort, paired with hyper-sensitive head muscles,

    這樣的不適感,加上頭部肌肉屬於高度敏感肌肉

  • creates the sore, throbbing pain of a headache.

    造成痛苦、頭部抽痛

  • Not all headache pain comes from swelling.

    並非所有頭痛都來自組織腫大

  • Tense muscles and inflamed, sensitive nerves

    繃緊的肌肉與發炎的、敏感的神經

  • cause varying degrees of discomfort in each headache.

    會對每次頭痛造成不同程度的不適感

  • But all cases are reactions to some cranial irritant.

    但全部案例都是對某些頭部刺激產生反應

  • While the cause is clear in secondary headaches,

    雖然次發性頭痛的起因很清楚了

  • the origins of primary headaches remain unknown.

    原發性頭痛的起因還是個未知數

  • Scientists are still investigating potential triggers for the three types of primary headaches:

    科學家還在調查三種原發性頭痛潛在的觸發原因:

  • recurring, long-lasting migraines;

    持續性偏頭痛

  • intensely painful, rapid-fire cluster headaches;

    叢集性頭痛

  • and, most common of all, the tension headache.

    以及最常見的,緊縮型頭痛

  • As the name suggests,

    如字面所說

  • tension headaches are known for creating the sensation of a tight band squeezed around the head.

    緊縮型頭痛的由來,是因為就像有條帶子在頭上束緊的感覺

  • These headaches increase the tenderness of the pericranial muscles,

    這些頭痛增加顱骨骨膜肌肉的敏感性

  • which then painfully pulse with blood and oxygen.

    會隨著發送血液與氧氣的脈衝引起疼痛

  • Patients report stress, dehydration, and hormone changes as triggers,

    病人轉述壓力、脫水與荷爾蒙變化是為起因

  • but these don't fit the symptoms quite right.

    但這些症狀的描述並不完全準確

  • For example, in dehydration headaches,

    例如脫水導致的頭痛

  • the frontal lobe actually shrinks away from the skull,

    實際上額葉會有點萎縮

  • creating forehead swelling

    造成前額腫起

  • that doesn't match the location of the pain in tension headaches.

    這跟緊縮型頭痛的痛點不同

  • Scientists have theories for what the actual cause is,

    科學家對於真正的起因有些推測

  • ranging from spasming blood vessels

    從血管痙攣

  • to overly sensitive nociceptors,

    到過度敏感的傷害感受器

  • but no one knows for sure.

    但沒人敢肯定

  • Meanwhile, most headache research is focused on more severe primary headaches.

    同時,大多數頭痛研究著重在更嚴重的原發性頭痛

  • Migraines are recurring headaches, which create a vise-like sensation on the skull

    偏頭痛是種不斷復發的頭痛,就像有個虎頭鉗夾住頭部的感覺

  • that can last from four hours to three days.

    可以持續四小時至三天

  • In 20% of cases, these attacks are intense enough to overload the brain with electrical energy,

    在 20% 的病例中,這樣疼痛造成的電流足以使腦袋超載

  • which hyper-excites sensory nerve endings.

    高度刺激感官神經末梢

  • This produces hallucinations called auras,

    這會產生幻覺,稱為先兆

  • which can include seeing flashing lights

    包括看見閃爍光線

  • and geometric patterns and experiencing tingling sensations.

    幾何圖案,以及經歷刺痛的感覺

  • Cluster headaches, another primary headache type,

    叢集性頭痛,另一種原發性頭痛類型

  • cause burning, stabbing bursts of pain behind one eye,

    在單眼產生灼燒感、戳刺般劇痛

  • leading to a red eye, constricted pupil, and drooping eyelid.

    導致眼睛充血、瞳孔縮小、眼瞼下垂

  • What can be done about these conditions, which dramatically affect many people's quality of life?

    碰到這些嚴重影響生活品質的狀況,大家能做些什麼?

  • Tension headaches and most secondary cases

    緊縮型頭痛與其他大多數次發性頭痛案例

  • can be treated with over-the-counter pain medications,

    可以吃頭痛成藥治療

  • such as anti-inflammatory drugs that reduce cranial swelling.

    像是消炎藥可以減少頭部腫脹

  • And many secondary headache triggers,

    許多次發性頭痛的起因

  • like dehydration,

    像脫水

  • eye strain,

    用眼過度

  • and stress,

    以及壓力

  • can be proactively avoided.

    都能主動預防

  • Migraines and cluster headaches are more complicated,

    偏頭痛跟叢集性頭痛則複雜多了

  • and we haven't yet discovered reliable treatments that work for everyone.

    我們還沒發現對每個人都有效的可靠療法

  • But thankfully, pharmacologists and neurologists are hard at work

    但謝天謝地,藥理學家與神經學家都很努力

  • cracking these pressing mysteries that weigh so heavily on our minds.

    破解我們腦中神秘且沉重的壓力

In ancient Greece, headaches were considered powerful afflictions.

在古希臘,頭痛被視為巨大的折磨

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 頭痛 肌肉 案例 發炎 療法

【TED-Ed】為什麼會頭痛? (What causes headaches? - Dan Kwartler)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 05 月 06 日
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