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  • Why do we cringe when we hear "Shakespeare?"

    為什麼當我們聽到「莎士比亞」時會感到畏懼?

  • If you ask me, it's usually because of his words.

    如果你問我,我會說 這通常是由於他所使用的言辭

  • All those thines and thous and therefores and wherefore-art-thous can be more than a little annoying.

    所有這些你 (thou)、你的 (thine)、和你為什麽 (wherefore-art-thou) 可能很討厭

  • But you have to wonder, why is he so popular?

    但你得想想,為什麼他這麼受歡迎?

  • Why have his plays been made and remade more than any other playwright?

    為何他的作品比其他劇作家的作品獲得更多演出和重新編排的機會?

  • It's because of his words.

    這是由於他的用字

  • Back in the late 1500s and early 1600s, that was the best tool that a person had, and there was a lot to talk about.

    在十六世紀晚期和十七世紀初,劇場是最好的工具,它時常掀起許多話題

  • However, most of it was pretty depressing.

    然而,大部分的作品都令人沮喪

  • You know, with the Black Plague and all.

    你知道,它們大多與黑死病和其他什麽的有關

  • Shakespeare does use a lot of words.

    莎士比亞的確使用許多語彙

  • One of his most impressive accomplishments is his use of insults.

    他最令人印象深刻的成就之一就是他對侮辱的使用

  • They would unify the entire audience; and no matter where you sat, you could laugh at what was going on onstage.

    侮辱的言辭把所有觀眾聯繫在一塊兒,不管你坐哪,你都可以嘲笑舞臺上發生的所有事

  • Words, specifically dialogue in a drama setting, are used for many different reasons: to set the mood of the scene, to give some more atmosphere to the setting, and to develop relationships between characters.

    言辭,特別是在戲劇中的對話,由於許多不同的原因而被使用著:它們可以設置劇中情緒的基調,它們可以增添更多氛圍,它們也可以用來發展劇中角色與角色之間的關係

  • Insults do this in a very short and sharp way.

    侮辱以非常簡潔、犀利的方式來完成這些事

  • Let's first go to "Hamlet."

    首先,讓我們看看《哈姆雷特》(Hamlet) 一劇

  • Right before this dialogue, Polonius is the father of Ophelia, who is in love with Prince Hamlet.

    就在這對話前,波洛紐斯是奧菲麗亞的父親,而奧菲麗亞深愛著哈姆雷特王子

  • King Claudius is trying to figure out why Prince Hamlet is acting so crazy

    克勞狄斯國王想弄清楚為什麼自從他和哈姆雷特的母親結婚後

  • since the king married Prince Hamlet's mother.

    哈姆雷特的舉止便如此瘋狂

  • Polonius offers to use his daughter

    波洛紐斯建議利用他的女兒

  • to get information from Prince Hamlet.

    從哈姆雷特王子那裡獲得情報

  • Then we go into Act II Scene 2.

    接著我們進入第二幕第二場

  • Polonius: "Do you know me, my lord?"

    波洛紐斯:「閣下,您認識我嗎?」

  • Hamlet: "Excellent well. You're a fishmonger."

    哈姆雷特:「很熟啊,你是個魚販。」

  • Polonius: "Not I, my lord."

    波洛紐斯:「不,閣下。」

  • Hamlet: "Then I would you were so honest a man."

    哈姆雷特:「那我希望你是個老實人。」

  • Now, even if you did not know what "fishmonger" meant,

    現在,即使你不知道「魚販」意謂著什麽

  • you can use some contextual clues.

    你可以使用一些上下文線索來瞭解

  • One: Polonius reacted in a negative way, so it must be bad.

    一: 波洛紐斯以消極的方式回應,所以這肯定很糟

  • Two: Fish smell bad, so it must be bad.

    二: 魚的氣味不好,所以它肯定很糟

  • And three: "Monger" just doesn't sound like a good word.

    三:「Monger」聽起來就不像個好詞

  • So from not even knowing the meaning,

    所以從對一個語彙的真實意義毫無所悉開始

  • you're beginning to construct some characterization

    你正開始建構一些關係的特質

  • of the relationship between Hamlet and Polonius,

    這樣的特質定義了哈姆雷特和波洛紐斯之間的關係

  • which was not good.

    這關係並不很好

  • But if you dig some more, "fishmonger" means a broker of some type,

    但如果你繼續往下探索, 「魚販」意謂著某種類型的中間商

  • and in this setting, would mean like a pimp,

    在這個背景下,意味著,他就像個皮條客

  • like Polonius is brokering out his daughter for money,

    波洛紐斯就像中間販,利用他女兒攢錢牟利

  • which he is doing for the king's favor.

    他正為國王做這件事

  • This allows you to see that Hamlet is not as crazy as he's claiming to be,

    這使你可以理解,哈姆雷特並不如他所自稱的瘋狂

  • and intensifies the animosity between these two characters.

    同時加劇了這些兩個角色之間的敵意

  • Want another example?

    想要另一個例子嗎?

  • "Romeo and Juliet" has some of the best insults of any of Shakespeare's plays.

    《 羅密歐與茱麗葉 》 有莎士比亞劇作中的最好的侮辱

  • It's a play about two gangs,

    它是一部關於兩個幫派

  • and the star-crossed lovers that take their own lives.

    和相愛的人引領自己生命的劇作

  • Well, with any fisticuffs you know that there is some serious smack talk going on.

    嗯,你知道那兒有一些嚴重的臺詞對話

  • And you are not disappointed.

    你並不感到失望

  • In Act I Scene 1, right from the get-go

    在第一幕第一場,從一開始

  • we are shown the level of distrust and hatred

    劇本向我們展示了不信任和仇恨的水平

  • the members of the two families, the Capulets and Montagues, meet.

    蒙太古家族與凱普萊特家族勢不兩立

  • Gregory: "I will frown as I pass by, and let them take it as they list."

    葛列格里:「我路過時會對他們橫個白眼,看看他們會怎樣。」

  • Sampson: "Nay, as they dare, I will bite my thumb at them,

    桑普森:「我諒他們不敢怎樣,我會向他們咬我的大拇指,

  • which is a disgrace to them, if they bear it."

    這是羞辱他們,看看他們受不受得了。」

  • Enter Abraham and Balthazar.

    亞伯拉罕和巴薩哲進來了

  • Abraham: "Do you bite your thumb at us, sir?"

    亞伯拉罕:「你向我們咬你的大拇指嗎?」

  • Sampson: "I do bite my thumb, sir."

    桑普森:「我是咬了我的大拇指。」

  • Abraham: "Do you bite your thumb at us, sir?"

    亞伯拉罕:「你是向我們咬你的大拇指嗎?」

  • Okay, so how does this development help us understand mood or character?

    好吧,所以這發展如何幫助我們理解劇中人心境或角色?

  • Well, let's break it down to the insult.

    嗯,讓我們分解一下侮辱

  • Biting your thumb today may not seem like a big deal,

    在今天,咬你的大拇指可能聽來不是個大問題

  • but Sampson says it is an insult to them.

    但桑普森說這是對他們的侮辱

  • If they take it so, it must have been one.

    如果他們這樣說,肯定當時是如此

  • This begins to show us the level of animosity between even the men who work for the two Houses.

    這向我們顯示了為兩家工作的人之間所擁有的敵意程度

  • And you normally would not do anything to someone unless you wanted to provoke them into a fight,

    你通常不會對某些人 做什麽,除非你想要挑釁

  • which is exactly what's about to happen.

    這正是正要發生的事

  • Looking deeper, biting your thumb in the time in which the play was written

    更深地看來,咬你的大拇指在這齣戲寫就時

  • is like giving someone the finger today.

    就如同今天給向某人亮出那手指

  • A pretty strong feeling comes with that,

    一個很強烈的感覺隨之而來

  • so we now are beginning to feel the tension in the scene.

    所以我們現在開始感到這一場的緊張氣氛

  • Later on in the scene, Tybalt, from the House of the Capulets, lays a good one on Benvolio from the House of the Montagues.

    在稍後的一場,來自凱普萊特家族的提伯爾特,對勢不兩立的蒙太古家族成員班伏里奧展示了一個明確示範

  • Tybalt: "What, art thou drawn among these heartless hinds?

    提伯爾特:「怎麼,你跟這些沒用的奴才吵架嚒?

  • Turn thee, Benvolio, and look upon thy death."

    過來,班伏里奧, 讓我結束你生命。」

  • Benvolio: "I do but keep the peace; put up thy sword,

    班伏里奧:「我不過維持和平而已;收起你的劍,

  • or manage it to part these men with me."

    不然就幫我分開這些人。」

  • Tybalt: "What, drawn and talk of peace!

    提伯爾特:「什麽?你既拔出了劍,休談和平!

  • I hate the word, as I hate hell, all Montagues, and thee.

    我痛恨這個詞,如同我痛恨地獄, 和痛恨你們所有蒙太古家族人一般

  • Have at thee, coward!"

    看劍,懦夫 !」

  • Okay, heartless hinds.

    好吧,不中用的奴才

  • We know that once again, it's not a good thing.

    我們知道,再一次地,它不是一件好事

  • Both families hate each other, and this is just adding fuel to the fire.

    兩家族痛恨對方,這只是火上加油罷了

  • But just how bad is this stinger?

    但這毒刺有多糟?

  • A heartless hind is a coward,

    不中用的奴才是懦夫

  • and calling someone that in front of his own men, and the rival family,

    當著這人和敵方家庭這麼叫他

  • means there's going to be a fight.

    意味著,有一場决鬥就要發生了

  • Tybalt basically calls out Benvolio,

    基本上,提伯爾特臭駡了班伏里奧

  • and in order to keep his honor, Benvolio has to fight.

    為了保持榮譽,所以班伏里奧必須决鬥

  • This dialogue gives us a good look at the characterization between these two characters.

    這個對話給讓我們得以好好看出 這兩個角色之間關係的表徵

  • Tybalt thinks that the Montagues are nothing but cowardly dogs,

    提伯爾特認為蒙太古家族的人 只不過是懦弱的狗罷了

  • and has no respect for them.

    他對他們毫無尊重

  • Once again, adding dramatic tension to the scene.

    再一次地,這添加了整場戲的張力

  • Okay, now here's a spoiler alert.

    好,現在是劇透警報

  • Tybalt's hotheadedness and severe hatred of the Montagues

    伯爾特的頑固以及他對蒙太古家族的嚴重仇恨

  • is what we literature people call his hamartia,

    就是我們文學人所說的悲劇性弱點 (Hamartia)

  • or what causes his downfall.

    或者是導致他垮下的原因

  • Oh, yes. He goes down at the hands of Romeo.

    哦,是的。他毀於羅密歐的手

  • So when you're looking at Shakespeare,

    所以,當你觀看莎士比亞時

  • stop and look at the words,

    停下來,並看看那些言辭語彙

  • because they really are trying to tell you something.

    因為它們真的在試圖告訴你一些事

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 TED-Ed 哈姆雷特 侮辱 家族 大拇指 莎士比亞

【TED-Ed】莎士比亞的侮辱 (Insults by Shakespeare - April Gudenrath)

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2017 年 04 月 05 日
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