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  • In the 11th and 12th centuries,

    在西元十一和十二世紀

  • most English commoners were illiterate.

    大多數的英國平民都是文盲

  • Since they had no way to learn the Bible,

    由於他們無法閱讀、了解聖經

  • the clergy came up with an inventive solution:

    神職人員們便想出了 一個創造性的解決方案:

  • they'd create plays out of certain Bible stories

    他們把一些聖經故事寫成劇本

  • so even people who couldn't read could learn them.

    讓文盲也能學習聖經

  • These were called mystery plays

    這些戲劇被稱為神秘劇

  • because they revealed the mystery of God's word.

    因為它們揭示了神的話語的奧秘

  • At about the same time,

    大約在同一時期

  • the clergy also developed plays

    神職人員也發展出一套

  • about the saints of the church,

    有關教會聖徒的劇作

  • called miracle plays.

    它們被稱為聖蹟劇

  • In the beginning,

    剛開始的時候

  • the clergy members acted out Bible stories

    神職人員在大教堂的臺階上

  • on the steps outside the cathedral.

    表演聖經故事

  • The audience reacted so well

    由於觀眾的熱烈迴響

  • that soon they needed to move out to the street

    很快地,他們必須搬到

  • around the town square.

    市鎮廣場附近的大街上演出

  • By building moving carts to put on each play

    藉由移動推車的搭造

  • and by lining up one after the other,

    以及成排的接續演出

  • they could put on cycles of stories,

    他們可以連續演出一系列的故事

  • which would take the viewer

    觀眾得以從

  • from Genesis

    創世記

  • to Revelation.

    一路觀賞到啟示錄

  • These movable carts, called pageants,

    這些稱為露天劇 (Pageant) 的移動推車

  • looked like huge boxes on wheels.

    看上去就好像有輪子的巨箱

  • Each was two stories tall.

    每輛車都有兩層樓高

  • The bottom story was curtained off

    底層被遮蔽起來

  • and was used for costumes, props, and dressing.

    用於服裝、道具、和梳妝

  • The top platform was the stage for the performance.

    頂部平臺用來演出

  • Spectators assembled in various corners of the town,

    觀眾聚集在市鎮的不同角落

  • and the pageant would move around in the cycle

    露天劇便在鎮上移動,循環演出

  • until the villagers had seen the entire series.

    直到村民們看完整個系列為止

  • Soon, the plays required more actors

    很快地,這些戲劇必須招募更多演員

  • than the clergy could supply.

    比神職人員還要多的演員

  • So, by the 13th century,

    所以到了十三世紀時

  • different guilds were asked to be responsible

    不同的行會便被要求負責

  • for acting out different parts of the cycle.

    這些循環故事中不同部分的演出

  • The assignments were meant to reflect

    而這些演出得要反映

  • the guilds' professions.

    行會的專業

  • For example, the carpenter's guild might put on

    比如說,木匠行會可能得

  • the story of Noah's Ark,

    呈現《諾亞方舟》的故事

  • and the baker's guild might put on The Last Supper.

    麵包師傅的行會可能要 演出《最後的晚餐》

  • Can you imagine what might happen to the story

    你能想像屠夫行會演出 《耶穌受難記》

  • if the butcher's guild put on The Crucifixion of Christ?

    他們會如何表現耶穌釘十架的故事嗎?

  • Yes, without the clergy,

    是的,少了神職人員的參與

  • the plays soon started changing

    這些劇目便很快地

  • from their true Bible stories.

    脫離原本的聖經故事

  • By the end of the 14th century, a new form of drama,

    到了十四世紀,便發展出一種新形式的

  • called the morality play, had evolved.

    被稱為道德劇的戲劇型態

  • Faith,

    信仰

  • truth,

    真理

  • charity,

    愛心慈善

  • and good deeds

    好人好事

  • all became characters on the stage.

    全變成了舞臺上的角色

  • And, at the same time, the opposite virtues

    同時,道德的對立面

  • of falsehood,

    虛假

  • covetousness,

    貪婪

  • worldly flesh,

    世俗肉體

  • and the devil

    和魔鬼

  • became the antagonists.

    皆成了反派

  • The morality plays were allegorical stories

    道德劇是一種寓言故事

  • in which these characters battled for the control of the soul.

    這些角色們 為了爭取靈魂的控制權而大動干戈

  • Audiences loved the immoral characters,

    觀眾們不但喜歡背德的角色

  • and spectators were encouraged

    還可以熱情地

  • to interact with the actors.

    與演員進行互動

  • Throwing rotten food

    投擲腐爛的食物

  • and even getting into scuffles with other spectators

    或觀眾相互群毆的場面

  • became very common.

    變得相當常見

  • The character of the devil

    魔鬼的角色

  • often would roam through the crowds

    往往漫遊於人群之中

  • and pull unsuspecting watchers

    拖拉毫無戒心的觀眾

  • into a hell that was depicted as a dragon's mouth.

    到畫作為龍口的地獄之中

  • The virtuous Biblical stories had morphed

    聖經的道德故事,從原先的擬仿

  • into crude and sometimes comic stories.

    轉變為野蠻混亂的 時而滑稽的故事

  • The clergy intended to teach against immorality.

    神職人員原本打算 以此教育人民對抗邪惡

  • How ironic, then, that the morality plays

    諷刺的是,道德劇催化惡行

  • actually encouraged vices as more popular than virtues.

    惡行比美德顯得更受歡迎

  • By the mid-15th century,

    到了十五世紀中

  • the church started to outlaw these performances.

    教會開始禁止這類表演

  • Town charters required that any theater

    市鎮的憲章規定,任何劇院

  • must be built outside the city wall.

    都必須建立在城牆外頭

  • One of the first theaters

    其中一個劇院

  • was built like a larger version of a pageant,

    被打造得像個 大版本的露天劇

  • with tiers of gallery seating

    劇場還有一排排樓座

  • encircling a grassy area in front of the stage.

    包圍舞臺前的草地

  • Sound familiar?

    這聽來很熟悉嗎?

  • A young William Shakespeare

    年輕的威廉 · 莎士比亞

  • developed his craft here at the theater

    就在這劇院裡打造他的劇作

  • that was eventually renamed The Globe.

    它最終更名為環球劇場 (The Globe)

  • The medieval morality play had led to Renaissance playwrights

    中世紀的道德劇成就了 文藝復興時期的劇作家

  • who were inspired by the inner struggles

    道德劇中那些涉及內心掙扎 困索、以及人類良知的環節

  • and the conscience of man.

    啓發了文藝復興劇作家

  • And that, in essence, is how drama emerged

    戲劇,作為一種文學藝術形式

  • as a literary art form.

    便由此而生了

In the 11th and 12th centuries,

在西元十一和十二世紀

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 聖經 故事 戲劇 觀眾 劇院

【TED-Ed】文學樣式中的戲劇是從何而生? Development of English drama - Mindy Ploeckelmann

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