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  • When we talk, sometimes we say things directly.

    我們說話時,有時會用直接的方式說。

  • "I'm going to the store. I'll be back in five minutes."

    「我要去商店,五分鐘內回來。」

  • Other times though, we talk in a way

    不過其他時候,我們會用一種

  • that conjures up a small scene.

    讓人聯想到一個小場景的方式說話。

  • "It's raining cats and dogs out," we say, or,

    我們會說:「外面正在下貓與狗。」(外面正在下著傾盆大雨),

  • "I was waiting for the other shoe to drop."

    或說:「我正在等另一隻鞋掉下來」(我正提心吊膽地等待結果)。

  • Metaphors are a way to talk about one thing

    隱喻就是透過描述別的東西

  • by describing something else.

    來談論某項事物。

  • That may seem roundabout, but it's not.

    這聽起來似乎像在繞圈子,但實際上並不是。

  • Seeing and hearing and tasting are how we know anything first.

    最初,我們就是透過觀看、聆聽與品嚐來了解所有事物。

  • The philosopher William James described the world of newborn infants

    哲學家威廉.詹姆士曾形容新生兒的世界為

  • as a "buzzing and blooming confusion."

    「嗡嗡作響且繁盛的困惑。」

  • Abstract ideas are pale things compared to those first bees and blossoms.

    比起初見的蜜蜂和花朵,抽象概念顯得暗淡無力。

  • Metaphors think with the imagination and the senses.

    隱喻用想像力及感官進行思考。

  • The hot chili peppers in them explode in the mouth and the mind.

    隱喻像辣椒般引爆了嘴巴和思想。

  • They're also precise.

    它們還十分精確。

  • We don't really stop to think about a raindrop the size of an actual cat or dog,

    我們不會停下來去思考雨滴是否與真實的貓或狗大小相同,

  • but as soon as I do, I realize that I'm quite certain the dog has to be a small one

    但只要我真的去想,我會明確知道一定是小型的狗──

  • a cocker spaniel, or a dachshundand not a golden lab

    可卡犬、臘腸狗──而不會是黃金獵犬

  • or Newfoundland. I think a beagle might be about right.

    或紐芬蘭犬。我想大概會像小獵犬那麼大。

  • A metaphor isn't true or untrue in any ordinary sense.

    隱喻在任何的一般常理中並無真假之分。

  • Metaphors are art, not science, but they can still feel right or wrong.

    隱喻是藝術,不是科學,但還是可以體會出對或錯。

  • A metaphor that isn't good leaves you confused.

    不好的隱喻會讓你困惑。

  • You know what it means to "feel like a square wheel,"

    你知道「感覺像方正的輪胎」是什麼意思,

  • but not what it's like to be "tired as a whale."

    卻不明白什麼是「累得像鯨魚」。

  • There's a paradox to metaphors.

    隱喻有一個悖論。

  • They almost always say things that aren't true.

    它們幾乎總是描述不真實的事物。

  • If you say, "there's an elephant in the room,"

    如果你說:「那裡有一隻大象在房間裡」(顯而易見卻被忽略的問題),

  • there isn't an actual one, looking for the peanut dish on the table.

    其實並不是有一頭真的大象在尋找桌上的花生盤。

  • Metaphors get under your skin by ghosting right past the logical mind.

    隱喻繞過了邏輯思維,讓你有深刻的理解。

  • Plus, we're used to thinking in images.

    此外,我們習慣了用畫面去思考。

  • Every night we dream impossible things.

    每晚我們都夢見不可能發生的事。

  • And when we wake up, that way of thinking's still in us.

    而當我們醒來時,那種思考模式還在我們腦中。

  • We take off our dream shoes,

    我們脫去夢境之鞋

  • and button ourselves into our lives.

    然後扣上鈕扣重回現實生活。

  • Some metaphors include the words "like" or "as."

    有些隱喻會用「像」或「如同」。

  • "Sweet as honey." "Strong as a tree."

    「和蜂蜜一樣甜。」「和樹一樣強壯。」

  • Those are called similes.

    那些叫作明喻。

  • A simile is a metaphor that admits it's making a comparison.

    明喻是直接表明它在做比喻的一種隱喻。

  • Similes tend to make you think.

    明喻往往令你思考。

  • Metaphors let you feel things directly.

    隱喻則讓你直接感受事物。

  • Take Shakespeare's famous metaphor,

    以莎士比亞著名的隱喻為例,

  • "All the world's a stage." "The world is like a stage" just seems thinner,

    「全世界就是個舞台」。「世界就像個舞台」就似乎感覺力道較為薄弱,

  • and more boring.

    也比較無聊。

  • Metaphors can also live in verbs.

    動詞中也存在隱喻。

  • Emily Dickinson begins a poem: "I saw no way, the heavens were stitched,"

    艾蜜莉.狄更生有一首詩的開頭是:「我看不到路,天堂已被缝合」,

  • and we know instantly what it would feel like if the sky were a fabric sewn shut.

    而我們馬上就知道如果天空是一塊被縫合的布是什麼感覺。

  • They can live in adjectives too.

    隱喻也可以用在形容詞上。

  • "Still waters run deep," we say of someone

    「靜水流深」,是我們在描述

  • quiet and thoughtful. And the "deep" matters as much

    靜默卻深藏不露的人。而「深」的隱喻作用

  • as the "stillness" and the "water" do.

    不亞於「靜」和「水」。

  • One of the clearest places to find good metaphors is in poems.

    最明顯能找到好隱喻的地方之一就是詩。

  • Take this haiku by the 18th century Japanese poet Issa.

    以小林一茶這首 18 世紀的日文俳句詩為例。

  • "On a branch floating downriver, a cricket singing."

    「一根漂浮的樹枝順流而下,有隻蟋蟀停在上面歌唱。」

  • The first way to meet a metaphor is just to see the world through its eyes.

    發現隱喻的第一個方法是僅從蟋蟀的角度看世界。

  • An insect sings from a branch passing by in the middle of the river.

    一根樹枝流經河流中央,一隻昆蟲在上面歌唱。

  • Even as you see that though, some part of you recognizes in the image

    但即便你看見了那幅畫面,某部分的你仍能認出該畫面

  • a small portrait of what it's like to live in this world of change and time.

    描繪出活在由變化和時間構成的世界是什麼感覺。

  • Our human fate is to vanish, as surely as that small cricket will.

    我們人類注定會消逝,就像那隻小蟋蟀一樣。

  • And still, we do what it does. We live. We sing.

    但我們仍舊會做牠做的事。我們活著。我們唱歌。

  • Sometimes a poem takes a metaphor and extends it,

    有時詩會產生一個隱喻並延伸它,

  • building on one idea in many ways.

    以許多種方式塑造一個概念。

  • Here's the beginning of Langston Hughes' famous poem "Mother to Son."

    這是朗斯頓.休斯的著名詩〈母親致兒子〉的開頭

  • "Well, son, I'll tell you. Life for me ain't been no crystal stair.

    「兒子啊,我告訴你。我的人生中從沒有水晶般的樓梯

  • It's had tacks in it, and splinters,

    有的只是釘子、破碎木片,

  • and boards torn up, and places with no carpet on the floor."

    以及裂開的木板,很多地方連地毯都沒有。」

  • Langston Hughes is making a metaphor that compares

    朗斯頓.休斯做了一個隱喻,

  • a hard life to a wrecked house you still have to live in.

    將艱辛的生活對比成一間不得不居住的破碎屋子。

  • Those splinters and tacks feel real.

    那些破碎木片和釘子感覺很真實。

  • They hurt your own feet and your own heart,

    它們劃傷了你的腳掌和內心,

  • but the mother is describing her life here,

    但這位母親在這裡所描述的是她的生活,

  • not her actual house.

    而不是她真正的房子。

  • And hunger, and cold exhausting work and poverty are what's also inside those splinters.

    而飢餓、又冷又累的工作和貧窮也在那些碎片當中。

  • Metaphors aren't always about our human lives and feelings.

    隱喻並不總與我們的生活和感受有關。

  • The Chicago poet Carl Sandburg wrote

    芝加哥詩人卡爾.桑德堡曾寫道

  • "The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches, and then moves on."

    「踮著小貓的細步,霧來了。它靜靜地拱腰坐下並俯視海港和城市,然後走了。」

  • The comparison here is simple.

    這裡的比喻很簡單。

  • Fog is being described as a cat.

    霧被形容是一隻貓。

  • But a good metaphor isn't a puzzle,

    但一個絕妙的隱喻並非謎語,

  • or a way to convey hidden meanings.

    或傳達隱藏意義的方式。

  • It's a way to let you feel and know something differently.

    隱喻是讓你用不同感受去了解事物的一種方式,

  • No one who's heard this poem forgets it.

    聽過這首詩的人都不會遺忘它。

  • You see fog, and there's a small grey cat nearby.

    你看見霧,而它附近伴隨著一隻灰貓。

  • Metaphors give words a way to go beyond their own meaning.

    隱喻讓詞語超出它們本身的意思。

  • They're handles on the door of what we can know,

    它們像門上的把手,是我們所知道

  • and of what we can imagine.

    且可以想像的。

  • Each door leads to some new house,

    每扇門都通往某間新房子,

  • and some new world that only that one handle can open.

    而某個新世界就只有唯一那個門把能打開。

  • What's amazing is this:

    真正令人讚嘆的是:

  • By making a handle, you can make a world.

    藉由做出門把,你就可以創造出一個世界。

When we talk, sometimes we say things directly.

我們說話時,有時會用直接的方式說。

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 隱喻 蟋蟀 事物 破碎 思考

【TED-Ed】隱喻的藝術(The art of the metaphor - Jane Hirshfield)

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    Why Why 發佈於 2013 年 03 月 28 日
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