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  • Did you know that 1 in 20 workers worldwide is a migrant?

    你知道嗎,全世界每20個工人中就有一個是移民?

  • The migrant experience, it's a powerful one.

    移民的經驗,這是一個強大的經驗。

  • In an environment where we're talking about global inclusive growth, this entire group

    在我們談論全球包容性增長的環境中,這整個集團

  • of people is being left behind and ignored.

    的人正在被拋在後面,被忽視。

  • A migrant worker is defined as someone who lives and works in a country where they don't

    移徙工人被定義為在一個他們不在的國家生活和工作的人。

  • hold citizenship.

    擁有公民身份。

  • And some 67% of migrant workers reside in high-income countries.

    而大約67%的移民工人居住在高收入國家。

  • That's nearly 114 million people.

    這相當於近1.14億人。

  • So, what are the ways their presence bolsters an economy, and what are the challenges that

    那麼,他們的存在以何種方式支持經濟,又有哪些挑戰?

  • lie ahead?

    擺在面前的是什麼?

  • The growing speed of economic globalization has created more migrant workers than ever

    經濟全球化的速度越來越快,創造了比以往更多的移民工人

  • before.

    之前。

  • As long as there's been history, people have been going overseas to work.

    只要有歷史,人們就會去海外工作。

  • And it's connected with the economic cycles as well.

    而且它也與經濟週期有關。

  • That's Sri Jegarajah.

    這就是斯里-傑格拉傑。

  • He's a Singapore-based senior correspondent for CNBC and has covered international markets

    他是CNBC駐新加坡的高級記者,曾報道國際市場。

  • for over 15 years.

    超過15年的時間。

  • Sri, it's really great to have you here.

    斯里,你能來這裡真是太好了。

  • It's my pleasure, Nessa.

    這是我的榮幸,內薩。

  • There's a lot that we can unpack about migrant workers right, but we're focusing now on

    關於移民工人,我們有很多東西可以解讀,但我們現在的重點是

  • their impact on the global economy.

    他們對全球經濟的影響。

  • And seeing that many are concentrated in wealthy countries, is it just the appeal of well-paying

    而看到許多人都集中在富裕國家,是否只是因為高薪的吸引力?

  • jobs that's motivating them?

    激勵他們的工作是什麼?

  • There are a number of push and pull factors.

    有一些推動和拉動的因素。

  • What it comes down to is the dynamics of the international labor markets.

    它歸結為國際勞動力市場的動態。

  • And it's exactly like that, it's exactly like a market.

    而它恰恰是這樣的,它恰恰是一個市場。

  • You go where you get the best price for your unit of labor, whether you are skilled, unskilled

    你去你的勞動組織、部門得到最好的價格,無論你是熟練的,還是非熟練的

  • or semi-skilled worker.

    或半熟練工人。

  • That dictates the flow.

    這就決定了流量的大小。

  • Then of course, globalization.

    然後,當然是全球化。

  • The increasingly interconnected world has just accelerated those trends.

    日益相互關聯的世界只是加速了這些趨勢。

  • The barriers to entry have come down in the workforce.

    勞動力的准入門檻已經降低了。

  • There are the demographics involved.

    這裡面涉及到人口統計學的問題。

  • Fertility rates have been falling, low birth rates, higher ageing population, and that

    生育率一直在下降,出生率低,人口老齡化加劇,而且

  • depletes the available pool of labour, creates the dynamics for entrants into the economy.

    消耗了可用的勞動力,為進入經濟的人創造了動力。

  • But who are the biggest drivers of a migrant workforce?

    但誰是移民勞動力的最大驅動力?

  • In 2020, the top three sources for remittances, which is the money workers send home, were

    2020年,匯款(即工人寄回家的錢)的前三個來源是

  • the United States, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, all high-income countries.

    美國、阿拉伯聯合酋長國和沙特阿拉伯,都是高收入國家。

  • In the same year, the top 5 recipient countries for remittances inflows were India, China,

    同年,匯款流入的前5個接受國是印度、中國。

  • Mexico, the Philippines and Egypt, all low to middle-income countries.

    墨西哥、菲律賓和埃及,都是中低收入國家。

  • In fact, India has received the highest number of remittances since 2008.

    事實上,自2008年以來,印度收到的匯款數量是最高的。

  • The foreign exchange factor is a big driver in terms of the flow.

    就流量而言,外匯因素是一個很大的驅動力。

  • So if you take the Singapore example, many foreign workers, migrant workers who work

    是以,如果你以新加坡為例,許多外國工人,工作的移民工人

  • in the construction industry, in the shipbuilding industry, from Bangladesh and from India for

    在建築業、造船業中,來自孟加拉國和印度的工人們正在努力工作。

  • example, Sri Lanka too, come here because they can remit their salary in Singapore dollar

    例如,斯里蘭卡人也來這裡,因為他們可以用新加坡元匯出他們的工資。

  • terms back to their families, which will inevitably mean more currency in their bank account,

    條款回到他們的家庭,這將不可避免地意味著他們的銀行賬戶上有更多貨幣。

  • better standard of living for their family.

    為他們的家庭提供更好的生活標準。

  • Is it just the pay that's drawing them?

    吸引他們的僅僅是薪酬嗎?

  • It's not necessarily a case of country A, which is lower to middle income, workers there

    這不一定是A國的情況,它是中低收入國家,那裡的工人

  • looking at country B, which is at a higher stage of economic development, better prospects,

    看看B國,它處於經濟發展的更高階段,前景更好。

  • higher exchange rate and thinking, I'll have a piece of that.

    更高的匯率,並想,我也要分一杯羹。

  • It is across different countries of different rates of economic development.

    這是在不同的經濟發展速度的國家之間。

  • An example was the U.K. in the 80s.

    一個例子是80年代的英國。

  • There were many British construction workers who went to work in Germany, when the Berlin

    有許多英國建築工人去德國工作,當柏林

  • Wall came down during the East-West reunification, because there were opportunities.

    在東西方統一期間,牆倒了,因為有機會。

  • So that's an example of the higher-income country, not necessarily a developing country,

    所以這是一個高收入國家的例子,不一定是開發中國家。

  • where the workforce and labor have shifted.

    勞動力和勞工已經轉移的地方。

  • It's a broad global theme that manifests itself in different ways across the income

    這是一個廣泛的全球主題,在不同的收入中以不同的方式表現出來。

  • spectrum.

    頻譜。

  • What are some of the commonalities of low-income countries who are providing these migrant

    提供這些移民的低收入國家有哪些共同點?

  • workers?

    工人?

  • Countries like Indonesia, Bangladesh, like the Philippines, they're still trying to

    像印度尼西亞、孟加拉國、菲律賓這樣的國家,他們仍在努力

  • move higher up the value chain.

    向價值鏈的高端發展。

  • They're at that stage of economic development where it's a lot of agriculture, a lot of

    他們正處於經濟發展的階段,那裡有很多農業,有很多

  • manufacturing.

    製造。

  • And they have not yet fully developed a higher-value tech industry, for example.

    而且他們還沒有完全發展出更高價值的科技產業,比如說。

  • So those workers, who may even want to transition, may not be able to do so because the infrastructure

    是以,那些甚至可能想要轉型的工人,可能無法做到這一點,因為基礎設施

  • isn't there, the upscaling isn't there and they are stuck.

    不在那裡,升級不在那裡,他們被卡住了。

  • And they see the prospects, with the skills that they have, are better in other countries

    他們看到,以他們所擁有的技能,在其他國家的前景會更好。

  • within Asia, Singapore, Malaysia for example.

    在亞洲範圍內,例如新加坡、馬來西亞。

  • And they gravitate there.

    他們就會向那裡靠攏。

  • While there is no internationally accepted statistical definition of labour migration,

    雖然沒有國際公認的勞動力遷移的統計定義。

  • they are usually categorized by the sectors they work in.

    他們通常按其工作的部門進行分類。

  • And the challenges differ according to their skillset.

    而挑戰也因其技能的不同而不同。

  • You have varying degrees of exclusion, varying degrees of injustice, when it comes to the

    你有不同程度的排斥,不同程度的不公正,當它涉及到

  • issues of basic pay, working conditions, living conditions, recourse to basic labor rights

    基本工資、工作條件、生活條件、求助於基本勞動權利等問題

  • and advice.

    和建議。

  • In fact, there are very strong laws that are put in place to protect and safeguard their

    事實上,有非常強大的法律來保護和保障他們的利益。

  • rights.

    權利。

  • It's enforcing those laws that's the tricky part because that comes down to the companies

    執行這些法律才是最棘手的部分,因為這涉及到公司的問題。

  • that employ them.

    僱用他們的公司。

  • And typically, many of these companies, many of these contractors and subcontractors, it's

    通常,這些公司中的許多人,這些承包商和分包商中的許多人,它是

  • not really a huge priority for them.

    對他們來說,這並不是一個巨大的優先事項。

  • According to Human Rights Watch, Qatar's two million migrant workers make up an estimated

    根據人權觀察的數據,卡達的200萬名移民工人中,估計有一半以上的人是來自中國。

  • 95% of the country's workforce.

    佔全國勞動力的95%。

  • The country has faced intense international scrutiny over its treatment of migrant workers16

    該國在對待移民工人的問題上面臨著激烈的國際審查16

  • since it won the 2010 bid to host the World Cup in 2022.

    自從它在2010年贏得2022年世界盃的主辦權後。

  • And many of them are in debt.

    而且他們中的許多人都在負債。

  • Pre-pandemic, that was a big, big problem.

    在大流行之前,這是個很大很大的問題。

  • Also, there is no basic insurance or health coverage for when these men are hurt in an

    此外,當這些人在事故中受傷時,沒有基本的保險或健康保障。

  • accident in the workplace.

    工作場所的事故。

  • The vulnerability of migrant workers was highlighted even further with the pandemic18, as borders

    隨著大流行病的發生,移民工人的脆弱性更加突出18,因為邊境

  • were closed and mobility was heavily restricted.

    被關閉,流動性受到嚴重限制。

  • A lot of these men and women cannot go back because of the restrictions in their own country,

    這些男人和女人中的很多人不能回去,因為他們自己國家的限制。

  • and have to stay here and have to work because of the economic desperation in their own country.

    並不得不留在這裡,因為他們自己國家的經濟絕望而不得不工作。

  • The situation is quite different for migrant workers who still had their jobs in their

    對於那些仍然在自己國家有工作的移民工人來說,情況則完全不同。

  • host country.

    東道國。

  • For example, at one point in December 2020, almost half of migrant workers living in packed

    例如,在2020年12月的某一時刻,幾乎有一半居住在包裝內的移民工人。

  • dormitories in Singapore had had a Covid-19 infection.

    新加坡的宿舍曾有過Covid-19感染。

  • Social distancing in a dormitory, where there are 12 men sleeping there and using that as

    在一個宿舍裡,有12個男人睡在那裡,並以此作為社會距離。

  • their living quarters, transmission will happen.

    他們的生活區,傳輸會發生。

  • Covid will spread.

    Covid會傳播。

  • And that happened.

    而這一切都發生了。

  • We saw that.

    我們看到了這一點。

  • We saw that in Singapore, we saw in Malaysia, we saw that in Thailand.

    我們在新加坡看到,我們在馬來西亞看到,我們在泰國看到。

  • If there was anything good that came out of this pandemic, it did shine a much-needed

    如果說這次大流行有什麼好處的話,那就是它確實照亮了一個亟需的

  • light on the living conditions of these workers in Singapore, and I'm sure it's the case all

    我相信在新加坡,這些工人的生活條件都是這樣的。

  • over the world as well.

    在世界範圍內也是如此。

  • Despite the challenges, migrant workers provide a great benefit not only to their host country,

    儘管有這些挑戰,移民工人不僅為他們的東道國提供了巨大的利益。

  • but for the countries they hail from.

    但對於他們所來自的國家而言。

  • What does it bring a country?

    它能給一個國家帶來什麼?

  • And I think it brings a country an incredible diversity, richness and economic benefit.

    而且我認為它給一個國家帶來了難以置信的多樣性、豐富性和經濟利益。

  • It will benefit the broader economy because of a lot of demographic challenges related

    這將有利於更廣泛的經濟,因為有很多與人口有關的挑戰。

  • to low birth rates, the ageing population.

    對低出生率、人口老齡化的影響。

  • Those are really challenging, longer-term, big structural demographic questions that

    這些都是真正具有挑戰性的、長期的、大的結構性人口問題。

  • are not going to be resolved anytime soon.

    暫時不會很快得到解決。

  • The money migrant workers send back home is such a lifeline to the families who are receiving

    移徙工人寄回家的錢對接受他們的家庭來說是一條生命線。

  • them.

    他們。

  • So, the official record of remittance flows to low and middle-income countries was $540

    是以,流向低收入和中等收入國家的匯款的官方記錄是540美元

  • billion in 2020.

    2020年將達到10億美元。

  • If we're going to start to think seriously about global inclusive economic growth, then

    如果我們要開始認真思考全球包容性經濟增長問題,那麼

  • it cuts both ways as well.

    這也是雙向的。

  • I think many of the countries, the countries where they are from, start thinking seriously

    我認為許多國家,他們所在的國家,開始認真思考

  • about how can we reconfigure our economy, to make it more attractive for this pool of

    我們如何能夠重新配置我們的經濟,使其對這批人更有吸引力?

  • labour that feel that there are no opportunities or the opportunities are better overseas because

    覺得沒有機會或機會在海外更好的勞工,因為

  • of the income and the exchange rate.

    的收入和匯率。

  • How can we retool and reconfigure our economy, to offer a value-added incentive for them

    我們如何能夠重新調整和配置我們的經濟,為他們提供一個增值的激勵機制?

  • to stay in that country?

    留在那個國家?

  • Because after all, they are assets.

    因為畢竟他們是資產。

  • And losing them to another country is, yes it's part of labour mobility, but I think

    而失去他們到另一個國家是,是的,這是勞動力流動的一部分,但我認為

  • it also says a lot for the lack of a longer-term structural plan to really take the economy

    這也說明了缺乏一個長期的結構性計劃來真正推動經濟發展。

  • to the next stage in those countries.

    在這些國家進入下一個階段。

  • Over time, migrant workersboth high- and low-skilled - bring substantial economic

    隨著時間的推移,移民工人--包括高技能和低技能工人--都會帶來大量的經濟收入。

  • benefits to their host countries, especially high-income ones.

    對他們的東道國,特別是高收入國家的好處。

  • Addressing the shorter-term challenges could be the key to maintaining this progress.

    應對短期挑戰可能是保持這一進展的關鍵。

  • Sri, did you know that three out of four of my grandparents are migrants and they all

    斯里,你知道嗎,我的祖父母四人中有三人是移民,他們都是

  • worked here.

    在這裡工作過。

  • I think everyone has that story, you know, “bring me your huddled masses yearning to

    我想每個人都有這樣的故事,你知道,"把你那蜷縮在一起的民眾帶到我這裡來,他們渴望得到幫助。

  • breathe free.”

    自由呼吸"。

  • And my parents, it's something that resonates with me as well.

    還有我的父母,這也是讓我產生共鳴的事情。

  • The civil war in Sri Lanka escalated and really started to take a turn for the worse.

    斯里蘭卡的內戰不斷升級,並真正開始轉向惡化。

  • My parents came to the UK in 1968.

    我的父母在1968年來到了英國。

  • My father wanted to improve his skill set as a doctor, and we made our lives there.

    我父親想提高他作為醫生的技能,我們就在那裡生活了。

Did you know that 1 in 20 workers worldwide is a migrant?

你知道嗎,全世界每20個工人中就有一個是移民?

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為什麼富國如此依賴移民工人 | CNBC解讀 (Why rich countries are so dependent on migrant workers | CNBC Explains)

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