字幕列表 影片播放 已審核 字幕已審核 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 We live in a society obsessed with music. 我們住在一個迷戀音樂的社會。 We use music to worship, tell stories, to celebrate, to work, exercise, declare our love and sometimes our hatred, and, arguably most importantly, to dance. 我們用音樂來朝拜，說故事，慶祝，工作，運動，示愛和有時釋出我們的仇恨，但可以說最主要的，來伴舞。 And, of course, we play music ourselves because, well, it's a pleasant thing to do. 當然的，我們也做音樂演奏因為這是一項娛樂。 Thousands of years ago in Ancient Greece, when it came to music, things weren't much different. 在幾千年前的古希臘，就音樂而論，跟當今的差異不大， They might have had lyres and tunics instead of MP3 players and jeans, but the Ancient Greeks were just as obsessed with music as we are today. 雖然他們是穿著丘尼卡撥奏里拉，而不是穿著牛仔褲聽 MP3；但古希臘人對音樂的迷戀，決不亞於現代人。 In fact, music was such an important part of Ancient Greek society that it makes us seem tame by comparison. 其實音樂是古希臘社會不可或缺的一部分，比較起來我們猶如小巫見大巫。 To really understand just how integral music was to the Ancient Greeks, let's begin by acquainting ourselves with a bit of their mythology. 要了解音樂如何是古希臘人生活不可或缺的一部分，我們首先需要從古希臘神話說起。 In Ancient Greek mythology, it was believed that human creativity was the result of divine inspiration from a group of goddesses known as the Muses. 在古希臘神話中，人類的創造力是來自一群稱為繆斯（Muse）的女神，她們神聖的啟示。 While scholars have argued over the years that there are anything between 3 and 13 Muses, the standard number accepted today is 9. 多年來，繆斯的總人數，是學者的爭論點，介於 3 到 13 之間，但普遍被認為的繆斯人數是 9 個。 Each Muse oversees her own specific area of artistic expertise, ranging from song and dance to history and astronomy. 每個繆斯有她特別監督的一項藝術專長，包括了從歌、舞到歷史和天文。 It might seem strange to categorize history and astronomy as creative pursuits, but the Ancient Greeks saw these disciplines as more than just school subjects. 你可能覺得將歷史和天文列為藝術學科之一有點稀奇，但古希臘人對這些學科的看法是超乎於我們一般的認知。 These were the hallmarks of civilization in what, to their eyes, was a pretty barbaric world. 他們認為在當時充滿野性的社會，這些學科是文明的象徵。 An educated, civilized person was expected to be proficient in all aspects of creative thought inspired by the Muses, and the common medium through which these disciplines were taught, studied, and disseminated was music. 一個文明受過教育的人，必須精通所有啟示於繆斯的創意思惟，而最普遍用來教學、學習、並傳播這些學科的媒體，是音樂。 You see, it's no coincidence that the word Muse is very similar to the word music. 事實上，這不是一種巧合，繆斯的英文名稱 - Muse，類似英文的音樂單字 - music。 It's where the word originates. Muse 是 music 的起源。 Poetry, be it a love poem or an epic poem about a dragon-slaying hero, was sung with a musical accompaniment. 詩，不管是一首情詩或一首描述一個弒龍英雄的史詩，都是由音樂伴奏唱出的。 Dancing and singing, obviously, were accompanied by music. 當然的，音樂也伴隨歌舞。 Theater was always a combination of spoken word and music. 戲劇通常都是台詞和音樂的組合。 History was recounted through song. 歷史由歌曲來講述。 Even the study of astronomy was linked to the same physical principles as musical harmony, such as the belief held by many Greek thinkers that each of the planets and stars created their own unique sound as they traveled through the cosmos, thrumming like an enormous guitar string light-years long. 就連天文和音樂和聲的物理原理也密不可分。例如很多希臘思想家相信，每個行星和恆星在它們穿梭宇宙的同時，都會發出它們獨特的聲音，就像漫彈著光年長的吉他弦。 However, music pervaded more aspects of their lives than just education. 然而，音樂並不僅止於教育，也充斥在他們的生活各處。 Ancient Greeks considered music to be the basis for understanding the fundamental interconnectedness of all things in the universe. 古希臘人認為音樂是理解宇宙萬物彼此之間根本關係的基礎。 This concept of connectivity is known as harmonia, and it's where we get the word harmony. 這連通性的概念稱為 harmonia (和諧)，也是英文字 harmony (和諧/和聲) 的來源。 Music was used as a form of medicine to treat illnesses and physical complaints, as a vital accompaniment to sporting contests, and as a means to keep workers in time as they toiled away on monotonous or menial tasks. 音樂可以作為一種藥，來治療疾病和身體的不適，是體育競賽很重要的搭伴，和用來保持工人單調的或瑣碎的工作節拍。 One of the most important applications of music in Ancient Greek society is found in the belief that music can affect a person's ethos. 在古希臘社會，音樂有一項很重要的用途，啟發於他們對音樂能影響個人精神氣質 (ethos) 的信仰。 A word we still use today, ethos is a person's guiding beliefs or personal ethics, the way that one behaves towards oneself and others. Ethos 是當今仍在使用的字，這包含了個人的信仰或個人道德，個人對自已和他人的行為方式。 The Greek philosopher Plato, one of the most famous and influential Greek thinkers of the time, asserted that music had a direct effect on a person's ethos. 希臘哲學家柏拉圖 (Plato)，當時希臘最有名和有影響力的思想家之一，宣稱音樂能直接影響一個人的精神氣質。 Certain kinds of music could incite a person to violence while others could placate a person into a benign, unthinking stupor. 某些音樂能引發人的暴力，而有些音樂能安撫一個人，使他進入良性的無思考狀態。 According to Plato, only very specific types of music were beneficial to a person's ethos. 根據柏拉圖，只有某些特殊類型的音樂有益於個人精神氣質。 One should only listen to music that promotes intelligence, self-discipline, and courage, and all other kinds of music must be avoided. 每個人應該只聽能提升智能，自律，和膽識的音樂，和避免其他種類的音樂。 Furthermore, Plato fervently denounced any music that deviated from established musical conventions, fearing that doing so would lead to the degradation of the standards of civilization, the corruption of youth, and eventually complete and utter anarchy. 同時，柏拉圖也強烈的反對任何偏離傳統樂理的音樂，他擔心非傳統音樂將會降低文明的標準，使青少年墮落，甚至導致世界混亂。 While Plato's fears can seem extreme, this argument has appeared in modern times to condemn musical trends such as jazz or punk or rap. 雖然柏拉圖的擔憂看似極端，他的說法已被利用來譴責近代音樂潮流，例如爵士樂、龐克音樂、或饒舌歌曲。 What do you think Plato would say about the music you listen to? 你覺得柏拉圖對你喜愛的音樂，會有什麼意見? Is it beneficial to your ethos, or will it degenerate you into a gibbering, amoral barbarian? 它們是有益於你的精神氣質，或是會使你墮落成為一個口齒不清，沒道德的野蠻人?