Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • When Reverend Jim Jones founded the Peoples Temple in 1955,

    Jim Jones 牧師在 1955 年創立了人民聖殿教

  • few could have imagined its horrifying end.

    很少人能預料到可怕的結局

  • This progressive religious movement rose in popularity and gained support

    這種激進的宗教活動越來越受歡迎

  • from some of San Francisco's most prominent politicians.

    而且得到了一些舊金山最傑出的政治家的支持

  • But in 1977, amidst revelations of brainwashing and abuse,

    但在 1977 年,期間被揭露出洗腦和虐待

  • Jones moved with several hundred followers

    Jones 和幾百名追隨者

  • to establish the commune of Jonestown in Guyana.

    一起在蓋亞那建立了瓊斯鎮

  • Built as a utopian paradise, the colony was more like a prison camp,

    被稱為烏托邦天堂,而殖民地更像一個戰俘營

  • and when a congressional delegation arrived to investigate its conditions,

    當一個國會代表團來調查教團的情况時

  • Jones executed his final plan.

    Jones 執行了最後的計畫

  • On November 18, 1978, 909 men, women, and children died

    1978 年 11 月 18 日,909 名男女和小孩

  • after being forced to drink poisoned Flavor Aid.

    被迫飲用有毒的酷愛飲料後死亡

  • That grizzly image has since been immortalized as shorthand slang

    灰色的形象從此被當作一種全心投入的

  • for single-minded cult-like thinking,

    邪教般思維的俚語代稱

  • "They drank the Kool-aid."

    「他們喝了酷愛飲料。」(盲目聽從)

  • Today, there are thousands of cults around the world.

    現今,世界上有成千上萬的邪教組織

  • It's important to note two things about them.

    重要的是要注意兩件事

  • First, not all cults are religious.

    首先,並非所有的邪教都是宗教性質

  • Some are political,

    有些是政治性

  • therapy-based,

    有些以治療為主

  • focused on self-improvement,

    有些專注於自我提升

  • or otherwise.

    或是其他性質

  • And on the flip side,

    另一方面

  • not all new religions are what we're referring to as cults.

    並不是所有的新宗教都是我們所說的邪教

  • So what exactly defines our modern understanding of cults,

    所以,我們現代對邪教理解的確切定義是什麼?

  • and why do people join them?

    為什麼人們會加入邪教?

  • Broadly speaking, a cult is a group or movement

    一般來說,邪教是一個團體或活動

  • with a shared commitment to a usually extreme ideology

    通常共同致力於一種極端思想

  • that's typically embodied in a charismatic leader.

    這通常表現在一個有魅力的領導者身上

  • And while few turn out as deadly as Jonestown or Heaven's Gate,

    雖然很少邪教組織會像瓊斯鎮或天堂之門那樣極端

  • which ended in a mass suicide of 39 people in 1997,

    在 1997 年以 39 人的大規模自殺告終

  • most cults share some basic characteristics.

    大多數邪教有一些基本特徵

  • A typical cult requires a high level of commitment from its members

    一個典型的邪教需要其成員的高度忠誠

  • and maintains a strict hierarchy,

    並維持嚴格的等級制度

  • separating unsuspecting supporters and recruits

    把不知情的支持者和新會員

  • from the inner workings.

    從內部工作中分離出來

  • It claims to provide answers to life's biggest questions

    邪教聲稱為生活中最大的問題提供答案

  • through its doctrine,

    透過組織的教義

  • along with the required recipe for change

    隨著改變的必要配方

  • that shapes a new member into a true believer.

    將新成員塑造成真正的信徒

  • And most importantly, it uses both formal and informal systems

    最重要的是,邪教利用正式和非正式的影響

  • of influence and control to keep members obedient,

    以及控制來保持成員的順從

  • with little tolerance for internal disagreement or external scrutiny.

    對內部分歧或外部監督的容忍程度不大

  • You might wonder whether some of these descriptions

    你可能想知道這些描述是否

  • might also apply to established religions.

    也適用於已建立的宗教

  • In fact, the world "cultus" originally described

    事實上,世界上的「邪教」最初形容的是

  • people who cultivated the worship of certain gods

    通過執行儀式和維護寺廟

  • by performing rituals and maintaining temples.

    來崇拜某些神的人

  • But in time, it came to mean excessive devotion.

    但隨著時間過去,這代表過度投入

  • Many religions began as cults,

    許多宗教起源於邪教

  • but integrated into the fabric of the larger society as they grew.

    但隨著社會的發展,他們融入了更龐大的社會結構

  • A modern cult, by contrast, separates its members from others.

    相比之下,現代的邪教將其成員與其他人區分開來

  • Rather than providing guidelines for members to live better lives,

    而不是為成員提供更好的生活指引

  • a cult seeks to directly control them,

    邪教試圖直接控制他們

  • from personal and family relationships,

    從個人和家庭關係

  • to financial assets and living arrangements.

    到金融資產和生活安排

  • Cults also demand obedience to human leaders

    邪教也要求服從領袖

  • who tend to be highly persuasive people

    他們往往是很有說服力的人

  • with authoritarian and narcissistic streaks

    帶有獨裁和自戀的特徵

  • motivated by money, sex, power, or all three.

    受到金錢、性、權力或三者的驅使

  • While a cult leader uses personal charisma to attract initial followers,

    而邪教領袖利用個人魅力來吸引最初的追隨者

  • further expansion works like a pyramid scheme,

    就像金字塔計畫般進一步擴張

  • with early members recruiting new ones.

    以及早期成員招募新人

  • Cults are skilled at knowing whom to target,

    邪教擅長知道誰是目標

  • often focusing on those new to an area,

    經常注意那些新來的人

  • or who have recently undergone some personal or professional loss.

    或最近經歷了一些人身傷害或財產損失的人

  • Loneliness and a desire for meaning

    孤獨和對價值的渴望

  • make one susceptible to friendly people offering community.

    使他易受到提供群體的友善人士影響

  • The recruitment process can be subtle,

    招募過程不易察覺

  • sometimes taking months to establish a relationship.

    有時候需要幾個月來建立關係

  • In fact, more than two-thirds of cult members are recruited by a friend,

    事實上,超過三分之二的邪教成員是由朋友招募的

  • family member,

    家庭成員

  • or co-worker

    或同事

  • whose invitations are harder to refuse.

    他們的邀請更難拒絕

  • Once in the cult, members are subjected to multiple forms of indoctrination.

    一旦進入邪教,成員就會受到多種形式的灌輸

  • Some play on our natural inclination to mimic social behaviors or follow orders.

    有些人利用我們天生會仿照社會行為或服從命令的習慣

  • Other methods may be more intense

    其他方式可能更加激烈

  • using techniques of coercive persuasion involving guilt, shame, and fear.

    利用強制說服的技巧,包括內疚、羞愧和恐懼

  • And in many cases, members may willingly submit out of desire to belong

    在許多情況下,成員可能會因渴望有歸屬感而自願服從

  • and to attain the promised rewards.

    並獲得承諾的回報

  • The cult environment discourages critical thinking,

    邪教環境阻礙了批判性思考

  • making it hard to voice doubts

    讓人難以表達疑慮

  • when everyone around you is modeling absolute faith.

    當你周遭的每一個人都在塑造絕對的信仰

  • The resulting internal conflict, known as cognitive dissonance,

    由此產生的內部衝突,稱為認知失調

  • keeps you trapped,

    讓你陷入困境

  • as each compromise makes it more painful to admit you've been deceived.

    每次妥協都讓你承認自己被欺騙而更痛苦

  • And though most cults don't lead members to their death,

    雖然大多數邪教不會導致成員死亡

  • they can still be harmful.

    他們仍然是有害的

  • By denying basic freedoms of thought, speech, and association,

    透過否認思想、言論和結社的基本自由

  • cults stunt their members' psychological and emotional growth,

    邪教阻礙了成員的心理和情感的成長

  • a particular problem for children,

    特別是兒童的問題

  • who are deprived of normal developmental activities and milestones.

    他們被剝奪了正常的發展活動和轉捩點

  • Nevertheless, many cult members eventually find a way out,

    然而,許多邪教組織成員最終找到了出路

  • whether through their own realizations,

    無論是透過他們自己的醒悟

  • the help of family and friends,

    還是家人和朋友的幫助

  • or when the cult falls apart due to external pressure or scandals.

    或是邪教因外部壓力或醜聞而分崩離析的時候

  • Many cults may be hard to identify,

    許多邪教可能難以辨認

  • and for some, their beliefs, no matter how strange,

    對於一些人來說,他們的信仰,無論多麼奇怪

  • are protected under religious freedom.

    都受到宗教信仰自由的保護

  • But when their practices involve harassment,

    但當他們的行為涉及騷擾

  • threats,

    威脅

  • illegal activities,

    非法活動

  • or abuse,

    或虐待

  • the law can intervene.

    法律就可以介入

  • Believing in something should not come at the cost of your family and friends,

    相信某件事不應該以你的家人和朋友作為代價

  • and if someone tells you to sacrifice your relationships

    如果有人告訴你犧牲你的人際關係

  • or morality for the greater good,

    或是為了更大的善

  • they're most likely exploiting you for their own.

    他們很可能是要利用你

When Reverend Jim Jones founded the Peoples Temple in 1955,

Jim Jones 牧師在 1955 年創立了人民聖殿教

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 邪教 成員 宗教 服從 招募

【TED-Ed】邪教組織有什麼樣的力量吸引人們加入?(Why do people join cults? - Janja Lalich)

  • 19829 1117
    gotony5614.me97 發佈於 2018 年 08 月 18 日
影片單字