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  • I was offered a position as associate professor of medicine

    我曾經在耶魯大學

  • and chief of scientific visualization

    擔任醫學系

  • at Yale University

    副教授

  • in the department of medicine.

    以及科學視覺化主任。

  • And my job was to write many of the algorithms and code

    我的工作是替美國太空總署寫演算法及程式

  • for NASA to do virtual surgery

    讓即將出發進入太空飛行的宇航員

  • in preparation for the astronauts going into deep spaceflight,

    練習做虛擬手術,

  • so they could be kept in robotic pods.

    因而太空人可以在太空裝內做實驗。

  • One of the fascinating things about what we were actually working on

    我們的計畫裡有一件很有趣的事,

  • is that we were seeing, using new kinds of scanning technologies,

    就是我們透過最新的掃描科技

  • things that had just never been seen before --

    觀看那些前所未見的東西--

  • I mean, not only in disease management,

    我的意思是,新科技不僅運用於疾病管理,

  • but also things that allowed us to see things about the body

    還可以讓我們看到那些

  • that just made you marvel.

    讓你驚嘆不已的身體結構。

  • I remember one of the first times we were looking at collagen.

    我記得我們最初幾次看膠原蛋白。

  • And your entire body, everything --

    你全身所有的構造--

  • your hair, skin, bone, nails --

    你的頭髮、皮膚、骨頭、指甲--

  • everything is made of collagen.

    每一樣都由膠原蛋白組成。

  • And it's a kind of rope-like structure

    它的結構很像繩子,

  • that twirls and swirls like this.

    像這樣螺旋纏繞。

  • And the only place that collagen changes its structure

    唯一一個膠原蛋白改變結構的地方

  • is in the cornea of your eye.

    是你的角膜。

  • In your eye,

    在你的眼睛裡,

  • it becomes a grid formation,

    它變成格狀的結晶結構,

  • and therefore, it becomes transparent, as opposed to opaque.

    因此它從原本的不透明變成透明的。

  • So perfectly organized a structure,

    這個組織是如此的完美,

  • it was hard not to attribute divinity to it.

    你很難不把它歸功於神蹟。

  • Because we kept on seeing this over and over and over again

    因為我們不斷地在身體的不同部位

  • in different parts of the body.

    看到這樣的結構。

  • One of the opportunities I had

    我曾有個機會

  • was one person was working on a really interesting

    是與一位在美國國立衛生研究院

  • micromagnetic resonance imaging machine with the NIH.

    研究非常有趣的核磁共振的人共事。

  • And what we were going to do

    我們做的事情

  • was scan a new project

    是發展一個新計畫,

  • on the development of the fetus from conception to birth

    要使用這些新科技

  • using these kinds of new technologies.

    掃描從受孕到出生的胎兒發育。

  • So I wrote the algorithms in code,

    所以我寫了一些演算程式,

  • and he built the hardware -- Paul Lauterbur --

    而他--美國化學教授羅特博--則製造機器,

  • then went onto win the Nobel Prize for inventing the MRI.

    他後來因為發明核磁共振而得到諾貝爾獎。

  • I got the data.

    而我得到了這些資料。

  • And I'm going to show you a sample of the piece,

    我現在要播出這個計畫的部分成果

  • "From Conception to Birth."

    從受孕到出生(又譯:孕─目睹子宮內的奇蹟。天下文化)

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • Video text: "From Conception to Birth"

    影片文字:從受孕到出生

  • Oocyte

    卵母細胞

  • Sperm

    精子

  • Egg Inseminated

    受精的卵

  • 24 Hours: Baby's first division

    24小時:寶寶第一次細胞分裂

  • The fertilized ovum divides a few hours after fusion ...

    受精卵在新細胞完成融合後數小時開始分裂...

  • And divides anew every 12 to 15 hours.

    每12至15小時分裂一次。

  • Early Embryo

    胚胎早期

  • Yolk sack still feeding Baby.

    仍然由卵黃囊供給寶寶營養。

  • 25 Days: Heart chamber developing

    25天:心室開始成長

  • 32 Days: Arms & hands are developing

    32天:手臂及雙手開始成形

  • 36 Days: Beginning of the primitive vertabrae

    36天:脊椎骨的原始形態出現

  • These weeks are the period of the most rapid development of the fetus.

    這幾個星期是胚胎成長最快速的時期。

  • If the fetus continues to grow at this speed for the entire nine months,

    如果胚胎在這九個月都照這個速率持續成長,

  • it would be 1.5 tons at birth.

    寶寶出生時會重達1.5噸。

  • 45 Days

    45天

  • Embryo's heart is beating twice as fast as the mother's.

    胚胎的心臟跳動比媽媽的快兩倍。

  • 51 Days

    51天

  • 52 Days: Developing retina, nose and fingers

    52天:視網膜、鼻子以及指頭開始生長

  • The fetus' continual movement in the womb

    胎兒在子宮裡不停地動

  • is necessary for muscular and skeletal growth.

    對肌肉及骨骼的生長不可或缺。

  • 12 Weeks: Indifferent penis --

    12週:沒有性別之分的陰莖─

  • girl or boy yet to be determined

    尚不能分辨是男是女

  • 8 Months

    八個月

  • Delivery: the expulsion stage

    分娩:胎兒脫出期

  • The moment of birth

    出生的瞬間

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Alexander Tsiaras: Thank you.

    亞歷山大:謝謝。

  • But as you can see,

    不過正如你所見,

  • when you actually start working on this data,

    當你開始處理這些資料,

  • it's pretty spectacular.

    其實是很壯觀的。

  • And as we kept on scanning more and more,

    而且當我們繼續的掃描,

  • working on this project,

    持續進行這個計畫,

  • looking at these two simple cells

    看著這兩個簡單的細胞

  • that have this kind of unbelievable machinery

    居然擁有這種令人無法置信的機制

  • that will become the magic of you.

    可以長成神奇的「你」。

  • And as we kept on working on this data,

    當我們繼續處理資料

  • looking at small clusters of the body,

    看著身體的這個小小的部分,

  • these little pieces of tissue

    這團小小的組織

  • that were a trophoblast coming off of a blastocyst,

    從囊胚分化出來的滋養細胞群,

  • all of a sudden burrowing itself into the side of the uterus,

    瞬間就在子宮壁上著床,

  • saying, "I'm here to stay."

    說:「我要在這停留。」

  • All of a sudden having conversation and communications

    瞬間就跟雌激素及黃體素

  • with the estrogens, the progesterones,

    對話及溝通,

  • saying, "I'm here to stay, plant me,"

    說:「我要在這裡長大,養我。」

  • building this incredible trilinear fetus

    長成這個不可思議的三胚層胚胎,

  • that becomes, within 44 days,

    在44天內

  • something that you can recognize,

    長成一個你可以辨識的胎兒雛形,

  • and then at nine weeks

    然後在九週內

  • is really kind of a little human being.

    長成一個小小的人。

  • The marvel of this information:

    這項資訊令人驚異之處在於

  • How do we actually have this biological mechanism

    到底我們是如何在體內

  • inside our body

    擁有這樣的生物機制

  • to actually see this information?

    能夠了解這樣的資訊?

  • I'm going to show you something pretty unique.

    我們來看一段非常特別的東西。

  • Here's a human heart at 25 [weeks].

    這個是胎兒在25週大時的心臟。

  • It's just basically two strands.

    看起來只是兩股絞線。

  • And like this magnificent origami,

    就像美麗的摺紙,

  • cells are developing

    細胞成長的速率

  • at one million cells per second at four weeks,

    在第四週時為每一秒產生一百萬個細胞,

  • as it's just folding on itself.

    就好像自己在摺疊複製自己。

  • Within five weeks, you can start to see the early atrium and the early ventricles.

    五週內你就可以開始看見心房及腦室的初始結構。

  • Six weeks, these folds are now beginning

    六週時,這些摺疊就開始

  • with the papilla on the inside of the heart

    與心臟內的乳頭肌一起

  • actually being able to pull down

    能夠拉扯

  • each one of those valves in your heart

    你心臟裡的每一個瓣膜

  • until you get a mature heart --

    直到你的心臟成熟為止--

  • and then basically the development of the entire human body.

    直到你的全身結構發展完成。

  • The magic of the mechanisms

    這些在每一個遺傳結構內

  • inside each genetic structure

    準確的告訴神經細胞要去哪裡的機制,

  • saying exactly where that nerve cell should go --

    其不可思議之處在於--

  • the complexity of these mathematical models

    這些數學模型的複雜程度,

  • of how these things are indeed done

    這些事情是怎樣發生的

  • are beyond human comprehension.

    遠遠超過人類所能理解。

  • Even though I am a mathematician,

    即使像我身為數學家,

  • I look at this with marvel

    我也要驚嘆

  • of how do these instruction sets

    當我們在成形的時候

  • not make these mistakes

    是如何讓這些指令

  • as they build what is us?

    不出錯?

  • It's a mystery, it's magic, it's divinity.

    這真神秘,真不可思議,真是神蹟。

  • Then you start to take a look at adult life.

    然後你開始觀察成人的生命。

  • Take a look at this little tuft of capillaries.

    看看這些小小綹的微血管。

  • It's just a tiny sub-substructure, microscopic.

    這只是一個微小的次次結構,非常微觀的。

  • But basically by the time you're nine months and you're given birth,

    但是基本上當你在體內九個月大,即將出生時,

  • you have almost 60,000 miles of vessels

    你的體內擁有

  • inside your body.

    將近六萬英哩(九萬六千多公里)的血管。

  • I mean, and only one mile is visible.

    而且只有一英哩是看的見的。

  • 59,999 miles

    其他的59,999英哩

  • that are basically bringing nutrients and taking waste away.

    基本上都在輸送營養及帶走廢物。

  • The complexity of building that within a single system

    在一個單一系統內建造這個的複雜度,

  • is, again, beyond any comprehension

    再說一次,是超乎理解的,

  • or any existing mathematics today.

    也不是所有現存的數學公式可以解答的。

  • And that instruction set,

    而這些指令,

  • from the brain to every other part of the body --

    從頭腦到身體的每一部分--

  • look at the complexity of the folding.

    看看這些摺疊有多複雜。

  • Where does this intelligence

    到底身體從何而知

  • of knowing that a fold can actually hold more information,

    摺疊結構其實可以儲存更多的資料,

  • so as you actually watch the baby's brain grow --

    所以現在你在看的是寶寶的腦子成長--

  • and this is one of the things that we're doing right now.

    這也正是我們在做的事。

  • We're actually doing the launch of two new studies

    我們正開始作兩個新的研究

  • of actually scanning babies' brains from the moment they're born.

    要從寶寶一出生起就開始掃瞄他們的腦子。

  • Every six months until they're six years old --

    每六個月掃瞄一次,直到他們六歲為止--

  • we're going to be doing actually to about 250 children --

    我們要掃描大約250個小孩--

  • watching exactly how the gyri and the sulci of the brains fold

    觀察他們的腦迴及腦溝如何發展

  • to see how this magnificent development

    觀察這個令人讚嘆的發展,

  • actually turns into memories and the marvel that is us.

    如何轉化成記憶及奇蹟的「我們」。

  • And it's not just our own existence,

    而且這奇蹟不僅僅在於我們的存在本身,

  • but how does the woman's body understand

    還在於女性的身體要如何理解

  • to have genetic structure that not only builds her own,

    這些遺傳結構,不但讓她自己成長,

  • but then has the understanding

    而且還能了解到

  • that allows her to become

    自己要成為

  • a walking immunological, cardiovascular system

    一個活的免疫及心血管系統

  • that basically is a mobile system

    基本上就是一個行動保溫箱,

  • that can actually nurture, treat this child with a kind of marvel

    用這種奇妙的方法培育、對待孩子,

  • that is beyond, again, our comprehension --

    再說一次,這實在不是我們能理解的--

  • the magic that is existence, that is us?

    而我們,人類的存在不就是奇蹟?

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

I was offered a position as associate professor of medicine

我曾經在耶魯大學

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【TED】亞歷山大‧席亞瑞斯:從受孕到出生--視覺化影像 (Conception to birth -- visualized | Alexander Tsiaras)

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