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  • this video is made possible by brilliant start learning intuitively with brilliant for 20% off by being one of the 1st 200 people to sign up by clicking the link in the description.

    這個視頻是由輝煌的開始學習直觀與輝煌的20%的折扣,通過點擊描述中的鏈接註冊的第200人之一。

  • Think for a moment about every single person you've ever met in your life.

    想一想你生命中遇到的每一個人。

  • Then think about everybody you've ever heard of and finally think about everybody alive on the planet right now.

    然後想想你聽說過的所有人,最後想想現在地球上活著的所有人。

  • No matter how far away or close all of these people may seem, including me talking to you right now through this video, all of us are related to you and all of you are related to me.

    不管這些人看起來有多遠或多近,包括我現在通過這個視頻跟你說話,我們所有人都跟你有關,你們所有人都跟我有關。

  • So how can this be using some very simple math?

    那麼,這怎麼能用一些很簡單的數學呢?

  • We can take a glance at your family tree.

    我們可以對你的家譜一目瞭然。

  • You obviously had to parents and your parents each had two parents of their own, which means you have four grand parents.

    你明明有父母,而你的父母各自有自己的兩個父母,也就是說你有四個祖父母。

  • You have eight great grand parents and this number doubles each generation.

    你有八個曾祖父母,這個數字每一代都會翻倍。

  • You go back just five generations ago or 125 years before the date you were born, you theoretically would have had 32 ancestors living on Earth at that time.

    你回到五代以前,也就是你出生的125年前,理論上你當時在地球上應該有32個祖先生活。

  • However, going back 1000 years before you were born or 40 generations ago, you would find with this math that you would have over a trillion ancestors living in the Middle Ages, which is more people than have ever existed in all of time combined.

    然而,回到你出生前1000年或40代以前,你會發現,通過這樣的計算,你將有超過一萬億的祖先生活在中世紀,這比所有時間存在的人加起來還要多。

  • Obviously, there's a variable we haven't accounted for in these calculations yet, and that variable is incest.

    很顯然,在這些計算中,我們還沒有考慮到一個變量,這個變量就是亂倫。

  • Ah, lot of it for most of human history, the only people somebody may ever really meet where the people in their local village, town or tribe.

    啊,在人類歷史上的大部分時間裡,唯一可能真正遇到的人是當地村鎮或部落的人。

  • This obviously limited the dating pool to just a handful of options.

    這顯然將約會池限制在了少數幾個選項中。

  • And those options often included people like cousins.

    而這些選擇往往包括了表哥表姐等人。

  • Not all of your ancestors air unique toe only you or your family.

    不是所有的祖先都是獨一無二的,只有你或你的家族才有。

  • If you compare your family tree with your friends tree and you go back far enough, you'll see the shape of the tree slowly vanish and see something that resembles more of a Web.

    如果你把你的家族樹和你的朋友樹進行比較,你再往前追溯,你會發現樹的形狀慢慢消失,看到的東西更像一張網。

  • As you draw your two webs out, you'll eventually find a common ancestor between yourselves at some point, which would make you both distantly related the further back in time we go, the more common ancestors all of us end up having about 0.5% of the modern human population conclusion direct ancestry from Genghis Khan, largely in the region of Asia, between China and Uzbekistan.

    當你把你們兩個網畫出來的時候,你們最終會在某一個點上找到你們之間的共同祖先,這將使你們兩個有遠親關係,時間越往後走,我們所有人的共同祖先越多,最終約有0.5%的現代人類人口結論直接祖先來自成吉思汗,主要在亞洲地區,在中國和烏茲別克斯坦之間。

  • Going even further, nearly anybody with European ancestry can trace their origins to the same group of ancestors roughly 1000 years ago.

    更進一步說,幾乎任何有歐洲血統的人都可以追溯到大約1000年前的同一群祖先。

  • This means that statistically, if you have European ancestry, anybody living in Europe around the ninth century who had Children and grandchildren is one of your direct ancestors, meaning that since Charlemagne had 18 kids, he's most likely somewhere in your family Web.

    這意味著,據統計,如果你有歐洲的祖先,任何人生活在歐洲九世紀左右,誰有子女和孫子是你的直接祖先之一,這意味著,由於查理曼有18個孩子,他很可能在你的家庭網絡的某個地方。

  • But who is the most recent person that all of us alive on earth watching this video could mutually trace all of our ancestries back to.

    但是,我們地球上所有活著的人看了這個視頻後,可以相互追溯所有祖先的最近的人是誰。

  • This person is known as the most recent common ancestor, or M R C a.

    此人被稱為最近的共同祖先,即M R C a。

  • And he or she is believed to have existed not terribly long ago.

    而他或她被認為是在不久前存在的。

  • They may have existed as recently as just 300 b.

    他們可能在公元前300年就已經存在了。

  • C.

    C.

  • E, just after the conquest of Alexander the Great, and they almost certainly lived somewhere in East Asia.

    E,就在亞歷山大大帝征服之後,他們幾乎可以肯定生活在東亞的某個地方。

  • In either Kamchatka, Japan, Taiwan or Indonesia.

    在堪察加半島、日本、臺灣或印度尼西亞。

  • This person had amazing reproductive success and was likely a merchant that traveled extensively with their offspring, venturing, often creating their own offspring over time in the far flung parts of the world like the America's and Australia.

    這個人有驚人的繁殖成功率,很可能是一個商人,帶著自己的後代廣泛旅行,冒險,經常在美洲、澳洲等世界遙遠的地方創造自己的後代,久而久之。

  • This single human who lived there in this time is the direct ancestor of every single person alive today, which links all of us together in the giant family web that we call humanity.

    這個時代生活在那裡的單個人類是今天活著的每一個人的直接祖先,它把我們所有人都聯繫在一起,在我們稱之為人類的巨大家庭網中。

  • But it doesn't mean that MRC A was the first person to have Children.

    但這並不意味著MRC A是第一個生孩子的人。

  • Nor does it mean that nobody else alive then has direct descendants.

    也不意味著當時活著的人都沒有直接的後代。

  • Today there are many MRC A is simply the first person in world history who can count universal descendants today.

    今天有很多MRC A簡直是當今世界歷史上第一個可以計算普遍後裔的人。

  • But many of our ancestors lived significantly further in the past than they.

    但我們的許多祖先在過去生活的時間比他們遠得多。

  • A 9000 year old skeleton dubbed Cheddar Man was discovered in a cave near the English city of Cheddar back in 19 oh, three.

    一具被稱為切達人的9000年前的骨架在英國切達市附近的一個山洞裡被發現,早在19哦,3。

  • Recent DNA analysis of the remains revealed something astonishing.

    最近對遺體的DNA分析發現了一些驚人的事情。

  • 9000 years and 300 generations later, Cheddar Man has a direct descendants living today, and he Onley lives half a mile away from the side of the cave and teaches history.

    9000年300代後,切達人有直系後裔生活在今天,他安利住在半里外的洞邊,教授歷史。

  • If you rewind the clock even further back, it's possible that 70,000 years ago the entire global population of humans may have shrunk to a little as 10 1000 people.

    如果把時鐘再往前倒,有可能在7萬年前,全球人類的總人口可能已經縮減到只有1萬1000人。

  • That's only 1/9 of the seating capacity at Wembley Stadium.

    這只是溫布利球場座位數的1/9。

  • And then, when you consider those few people were spread out across Africa and Eurasia, you remember what I said earlier.

    然後,當你考慮到那幾個人分佈在非洲和歐亞大陸的時候,你就會想起我剛才說的話。

  • Most people only ever dated people who lived nearby because they literally had no other options.

    大多數人只和住在附近的人約會,因為他們真的沒有其他選擇。

  • We all share multiple common ancestors that all of us can claim to be descended from.

    我們都有多個共同的祖先,我們都可以宣稱自己是他們的後裔。

  • It's just that that person in 300 B.

    只是那個人在300B。

  • C is the most recent one that all of us can claim if you think about it in terms like this, if you fail to have Children, you're the first person in an unbroken chain going back hundreds of thousands of years to fail to do so.

    C是最近的一個,如果你用這樣的方式去想,我們所有人都可以聲稱,如果你沒有生孩子,你是幾十萬年來不間斷的鏈條中第一個沒有生孩子的人。

  • In fact, it's even more serious than that when you consider the most recent common ancestor of all living things.

    事實上,當你考慮到所有生物的最新共同祖先時,這比這更嚴重。

  • Today, this organism is known as the last universal common ancestor, or Luca.

    今天,這種生物被稱為最後一個普遍的共同祖先,即盧卡。

  • For short.

    簡而言之。

  • Luca is believed to have existed 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago and everything that's a life on earth right now, from you and me to bananas, that annoying mosquito Greg and the bacteria on your face are all direct descendants of it.

    盧卡被認為在35億到38億年前就已經存在了,現在地球上的一切生命,從你我到香蕉,那個討厭的蚊子格雷格和你臉上的細菌都是它的直接後代。

  • When you think like that, if you fail to reproduce during your life, you're the first organism in an unbroken chain going back over three billion years to fail.

    當你這樣想的時候,如果你在你的一生中未能繁殖,你就是30億年前未曾中斷的鏈條中第一個失敗的生物體。

  • And that may make your ancient ancestor Luca rather sad.

    而這可能會讓你的古代祖先盧卡相當傷心。

  • But what's interesting about all of this is that if you go back far enough, not only is all of humanity one giant, interconnected family, but all of life itself on Earth is just one incomprehensibly huge, interconnected family.

    但這一切的有趣之處在於,如果你回溯到足夠遠的地方,不僅全人類是一個巨大的、相互聯繫的家庭,而且地球上所有的生命本身也只是一個難以理解的巨大的、相互聯繫的家庭。

  • So the next time you stop that bug or swat that mosquito, remember that you both are technically part of the same big family.

    所以,下次當你攔住那隻蟲子或拍打那隻蚊子的時候,請記住,你們倆在技術上都是同一個大家庭的一員。

  • The origins of humanity and life itself are as mysterious as they are interesting, but they're still a surprising amount that we actually know.

    人類和生命本身的起源既神祕又有趣,但其實我們知道的還是很多,令人驚訝。

  • Using math, we can calculate certain things like where your ancestors probably originated from, and we can come up with theories like who all of us are directly descended from.

    利用數學,我們可以計算出某些東西,比如你的祖先大概是從哪裡來的,我們可以得出我們所有人都是誰的直系後裔這樣的理論。

  • The scientists that work.

    工作的科學家們。

  • To figure all of these things out are like detectives investigating 1000 year old crime scenes that literally impact all of us today, and the computational biology course at Brilliant will explain to you how all of it works and why it affects you personally.

    要弄清楚所有這些事情就像偵探調查1000年前的犯罪現場一樣,從字面上影響著我們今天所有的人,而輝煌的計算生物學課程將向你解釋這一切是如何運作的,以及為什麼它會影響你個人。

  • The course has an entire section dedicated to human ancestry.

    這門課有一整節專門講人類祖先。

  • That this video was heavily influenced by brilliant, as I'm sure you know by now is the best place to learn about complex topics because they teach you the intuitive ideas behind them.

    這段視頻深受輝煌的影響,我相信你現在已經知道,是學習複雜主題的最佳場所,因為他們教你背後的直觀想法。

  • So you understand how it all works together rather than just memorizing phrases.

    所以你明白這一切是如何結合在一起的,而不僅僅是背誦短語。

  • If you want to become the kind of person who can explain where your ancestors came from, going back thousands of years based on your own genetic evidence, then brilliant is the right place for you as they have courses not only on that, but on plenty of other interesting topics like computer science, artificial neural networks or logic.

    如果你想成為那種能根據自己的基因證據解釋你的祖先從哪裡來,追溯到幾千年前的人,那麼輝煌是你的正確選擇,因為他們不僅有這方面的課程,還有很多其他有趣的主題,如計算機科學、人工神經網絡或邏輯學。

this video is made possible by brilliant start learning intuitively with brilliant for 20% off by being one of the 1st 200 people to sign up by clicking the link in the description.

這個視頻是由輝煌的開始學習直觀與輝煌的20%的折扣,通過點擊描述中的鏈接註冊的第200人之一。

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B1 中級 中文 祖先 所有人 人類 輝煌 後代 地球

為什麼你和其他人都有關係 (Why You're Related to Everybody Else)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 08 日
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