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  • You may not realize it but your brain actually processes information in two very distinct ways.

    你可能沒有發現,大腦處理資訊其實有兩種截然不同的方式。

  • Like, when you look at this photo, you instantly know she has blonde hair, is visibly angry and likely has some choice words to yell.

    像看到這張照片時,你立即知道她有一頭金髮、明顯在生氣,而且可能要開始罵人了。

  • Without any effort you experienced fast thinking, but if you look at the following problem something different happens.

    你能輕而易舉體驗到所謂的「快速思考」但接下來的情況可能就會有不同的結果了。

  • Sure, you immediately know it's a multiplication problem and you knew you could solve it if you had the energy, but didn't.

    你一眼看出這是個乘法問題,並知道如果用心就可以算出答案,即便你現在沒有。

  • If you do try your muscles will tense, your pupils will dilate, and your heart rate will increase.

    如果硬著頭皮試試,你會開始肌肉緊繃、瞳孔擴大、心跳加速。

  • Now you've experienced slow thinking.

    你正體驗所謂的「慢速思考」

  • These two systems of fast and slow thinking dictate much of our perception and reaction in life.

    「快速思考」和「慢速思考」這兩個系統主宰了我們大部份感知及日常反應。

  • Take these lines for example, it's clear that they're different lengths, but if you measure them they're actually the exact same length.

    以這幾條線為例,它們看起來長度明顯不同,但如果實際測量會發現,長度其實一樣。

  • Even now that you know, system one, or your fast thinking can't stop seeing the illusion because it acts automatically.

    即便知道真相,你的一號系統或快速思考仍會自動讓你看到錯覺。

  • A similar effect is seen here, which figure is the largest?

    在看另一個類似狀況,哪一個人物看起來最大?

  • Again, they are all the same size,

    一樣,他們其實大小相同,

  • but the suggestion of perspective and depth causes your system one to interpret the picture as three-dimensional even though it's on a flat two-dimensional surface.

    但透視法和深度錯覺讓一號系統誤以為這張圖片為三度空間,即使它只是二次元平面。

  • It's making quick work of the available information and so you're conscious system two, or slow thinking,

    一號系統是根據現有資訊來產生即時反應,所以你的二號系統,或稱為慢速思考,

  • must compensate after the fact and choose not to believe your intuition or instinct.

    必須事後補強,並選擇不要相信直覺。

  • Want to see your system two in action?

    想了解二號系統的運作方式?

  • I'll show you a string of four digits, you read them aloud and add one to each of the original digits.

    我會秀出一組四碼數字,請將數字大聲念出,並把每位數加一。

  • If the card reads 3795, the correct response would be 4806.

    如果卡片上數字是 3795,正解就是 4806。

  • We'll then go to the next card and you will do the same followed by the next card.

    下一張卡片也是同樣步驟。

  • Ready? Go.

    預備好了?開始。

  • Few people can cope with more than four digits, but even harder is add three.

    很少人能應付四位數以上,更難的是將每一位加 3。

  • The interesting bit is that though your pupils would have dilated you often become effectively blind when you fully engage system two.

    有趣的是,雖然你的瞳孔會放大,但通常專注使用二號系統時,會有明顯的盲點。

  • Did you notice the colour of the text change?

    有注意到文字顏色有變化嗎?

  • Or how about the fact that the numbers completely changed when I put them off to the side?

    或是卡片移到旁邊時,數字變了?

  • Listen to the following puzzle.

    來聽聽這個謎題。

  • A bat and a ball cost one dollar and ten cents. The bat cost one dollar more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?

    球棒加上球為 1 美元 10 美分,球棒比球貴 1 美元,球多少錢?

  • Chances are your system one intuition was yelling "ten cents", but this appealing system one answer we know is wrong.

    你的一號系統直覺可能會回答 10 美分,但很明顯地這個答案是錯的。

  • In fact, the correct answer is five cents.

    事實上,正確答案是 5 美分。

  • Even if you worked out the correct answer, you likely thought of ten cents along the way.

    即使算出了正確答案,計算過程中你還是可能會閃過 10 美分的念頭。

  • System one is trying to work out an answer as quickly and seamlessly as possible which is extremely beneficial in everyday life.

    一號系統會試著用最快、最直覺的方式來找出答案,這在日常生活中極為有用。

  • If every activity required full mental effort, it would be exhausting.

    如果每個活動都需耗費所有心力,那你將會精疲力盡。

  • But knowing this allows us to understand that not all of our first impressions are correct.

    但這個原理讓我們了解到,並非所有第一印象都是可靠的。

  • How many animals of each kind did Moses take into the ark?

    摩西上方舟時,每種動物各帶了幾隻?

  • So, few people detect what is wrong with this question and that it has been dubbed the the Moses illusion.

    很少人能發現這個問題的錯誤,而這被戲稱為「摩西錯覺」

  • In fact, Moses took no animals, Noah did.

    事實上,摩西沒有帶任何動物,上方舟的是諾亞。

  • Again, our brain invests as little resources as necessary, so that things run quickly and smoothly.

    我們的腦袋會盡可能耗最少精力來快速、輕鬆的解決事情。

  • Because Moses is not abnormal in the biblical context, system one unconsciously detects an association between Moses and ark, and quickly accepts the question.

    摩西常出現在聖經故事中,所以一號系統並未察覺摩西和方舟之間的關係,於是不疑有他。

  • In a similar way, system one generates context without you knowing.

    同樣地,一號系統常在你不注意時,自動產生符合上下文的內容。

  • Reading each of the following may seem fairly simple, "ABC" "Ann approached the bank" and "12, 13, 14"

    念出以下的話似乎很簡單「ABC」「Ann 去銀行」「12、13、14」

  • But your brain actually interpreted these ambiguous statements without you ever knowing.

    然而大腦其實已趁你不注意時,自動詮釋了這些模稜兩可的句子。

  • You could have read it as "A 13 C" or "12 B 14", but your brain created the context unconsciously.

    你有可能會讀成「A、13、C」或「12、B、14」,但大腦會無意識產生符合上、下文的內容。

  • Also, you likely imagined a woman with money on her mind walking towards a building with tellers,

    看到這句話時,你可能會在腦中描繪一個想著錢的女人,走向銀行。

  • but if the sentence before this was "they were floating gently down the river" the entire scene would have changed because "bank" is no longer associated with "money".

    但如果,將前一句改為「它們在河中緩緩順流而下」那整個情境就完全改變了,此時你就不再認為 Bank 與金錢相關(註.:Bank 也有河畔的意思)

  • Without an explicit context, system one quickly generates one based on previous experience.

    如果沒有明確上下文,一號系統會根據先前經驗來產生合理內容。

  • In this case, you've likely visited more banks than rivers and so the context is resolved accordingly.

    以這個例子來說,你可能比較常去銀行,而不是河堤,所以上下文也就如此被理解。

  • This ties into a concept called "priming".

    這牽涉到「啟動效應」

  • For example, if I said "wash", how would you complete this word fragment?

    舉例來說,如果我說 WASH(洗),那你會如何填上旁邊空白的字母?

  • Most would see "soap", but had I just shown you the word "eat" you'd be more likely to see "soup".

    大部份會看成 SOAP(肥皂),但如果前面寫 EAT(吃喝),你可能就會看成 SOUP(湯)

  • In this way, both eat and wash prime your thoughts.

    這種情形下,無論「吃喝」或「洗」都會引導你的想法。

  • Though system two likes to think that it's in charge and knows what's going on, the truth is that priming effects have even been shown to affect and modify behavior.

    雖然二號系統認為它能掌控局勢、知曉當前狀況,但事實證實「啟動效應」會影響並變更人類行為。

  • These arise in system one and you have no conscious access to them.

    這些影響出現於一號系統,而你全然不知。

  • If you'd like to learn more about the thinking systems in your brain,

    如果想了解更多關於腦袋及思考系統,

  • check out the book "Thinking Fast and Slow" by Daniel Kahneman, which covers it in great detail.

    可以參閱 Daniel Kahneman 所著的「快思慢想」(Thinking Fast and Slow)本書詳細解釋了相關知識。

  • I'll put a link in the description which you can check out.

    底下說明欄有附上連結,快去看看吧!

  • Got a burning question you want answered?

    有迫不及待想解決的問題嗎?

  • Ask it in the comments, or on facebook and twitter, and subscribe for more weekly science videos.

    留言區提問,或上臉書、Twitter 留言,別忘了訂閱頻道,收看每週科學影片!

You may not realize it but your brain actually processes information in two very distinct ways.

你可能沒有發現,大腦處理資訊其實有兩種截然不同的方式。

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大腦的把戲:你的大腦是如何運作的呢?(Brain Tricks - This Is How Your Brain Works)

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