Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Take a look at this drawing.

    請大家看這張圖

  • Can you tell what it is?

    你知道這是什麼嗎?

  • I'm a molecular biologist by training,

    我是一個分子生物學家

  • and I've seen a lot of these kinds of drawings.

    我看過很多這種圖

  • They're usually referred to as a model figure,

    通常是分子模型圖

  • a drawing that shows how we think

    用來說明

  • a cellular or molecular process occurs.

    細胞或分子的分裂過程

  • This particular drawing is of a process

    這張圖是在說明

  • called clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    一個由網格蛋白介導的胞吞作用的過程

  • It's a process by which a molecule can get

    透過這個過程

  • from the outside of the cell to the inside

    一個分子可以從細胞外進入細胞內

  • by getting captured in a bubble or a vesicle

    它先被一個泡囊包覆

  • that then gets internalized by the cell.

    然後再被吞入細胞內

  • There's a problem with this drawing, though,

    但是 這張圖有一個問題

  • and it's mainly in what it doesn't show.

    而且從圖中看不出來

  • From lots of experiments,

    從許多實驗

  • from lots of different scientists,

    以及科學家的研究中

  • we know a lot about what these molecules look like,

    我們知道這些分子長什麼樣子

  • how they move around in the cell,

    知道它們如何在細胞內移動

  • and that this is all taking place

    而且這都發生在

  • in an incredibly dynamic environment.

    令人難以置信的動態環境中

  • So in collaboration with a clathrin expert Tomas Kirchhausen,

    因此 我們和網格蛋白專家 Tomas Kirchhausen合作

  • we decided to create a new kind of model figure

    要創造一種新的分子模型圖

  • that showed all of that.

    來說明一切

  • So we start outside of the cell.

    我們從細胞外開始

  • Now we're looking inside.

    現在我們來看細胞內

  • Clathrin are these three-legged molecules

    這些三隻腳的分子是網格蛋白

  • that can self-assemble into soccer-ball-like shapes.

    它們可以自我組成像足球的形狀

  • Through connections with a membrane,

    透過與細胞膜的連結

  • clathrin is able to deform the membrane

    網格蛋白會使連結膜變形

  • and form this sort of a cup

    形成這種杯子狀

  • that forms this sort of a bubble, or a vesicle,

    然後形成這種小泡

  • that's now capturing some of the proteins

    並開始吞入

  • that were outside of the cell.

    原本在細胞外的蛋白質

  • Proteins are coming in now that basically pinch off this vesicle,

    被吞入的蛋白質

  • making it separate from the rest of the membrane,

    將小泡與膜分離

  • and now clathrin is basically done with its job,

    此時網格蛋白的任務基本上已完成

  • and so proteins are coming in now

    蛋白質已進入細胞內

  • we've covered them yellow and orange

    我們用黃色和橘色表示

  • that are responsible for taking apart this clathrin cage.

    它們負責將網格蛋白分解

  • And so all of these proteins can get basically recycled

    基本上所有這些蛋白質

  • and used all over again.

    可以回收再利用

  • These processes are too small to be seen directly,

    這些過程太小以致於無法直接觀察

  • even with the best microscopes,

    即使用最好的顯微鏡也看不到

  • so animations like this provide a really powerful way

    因此 這樣的動畫提供了一個好方法

  • of visualizing a hypothesis.

    使科學假設可視化

  • Here's another illustration,

    這裡還有一張圖

  • and this is a drawing of how a researcher might think

    這張圖說明了研究人員

  • that the HIV virus gets into and out of cells.

    是如何想像HIV病毒進出細胞內外的

  • And again, this is a vast oversimplification

    但這是個過於簡單的說明

  • and doesn't begin to show

    並沒有表達出

  • what we actually know about these processes.

    我們實際上對這些過程的了解

  • You might be surprised to know

    你可能覺得訝異

  • that these simple drawings are the only way

    這些簡單的圖竟是

  • that most biologists visualize their molecular hypotheses.

    大部分生物學家 畫出分子假設的唯一方法

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • Because creating movies of processes

    因為 依照我們認為的實際過程

  • as we think they actually occur is really hard.

    來設計這些移動是非常困難的

  • I spent months in Hollywood learning 3D animation software,

    我花了幾個月 在好萊塢學習3D動畫軟體

  • and I spend months on each animation,

    每個動畫又各花費了我一段時間

  • and that's just time that most researchers can't afford.

    而大部分研究人員 並沒有時間去學習

  • The payoffs can be huge, though.

    不過 這個報酬是可觀的

  • Molecular animations are unparalleled

    分子動畫無與倫比

  • in their ability to convey a great deal of information

    它可以向大眾傳達豐富的資訊

  • to broad audiences with extreme accuracy.

    並且準確無誤

  • And I'm working on a new project now

    我正在進行一個新的計畫

  • called "The Science of HIV"

    叫做"HIV的科學"

  • where I'll be animating the entire life cycle

    我會以動畫盡可能準確地呈現出

  • of the HIV virus as accurately as possible

    HIV病毒的完整生命循環

  • and all in molecular detail.

    以及詳細的分子資訊

  • The animation will feature data

    這個動畫將呈現出

  • from thousands of researchers collected over decades,

    眾多研究人員 數十年來蒐集到的資料

  • data on what this virus looks like,

    包括病毒長什麼樣子

  • how it's able to infect cells in our body,

    它如何感染我們體內的細胞

  • and how therapeutics are helping to combat infection.

    以及醫學治療如何幫助我們對付感染

  • Over the years, I found that animations

    多年來 我發現

  • aren't just useful for communicating an idea,

    動畫不僅可協助溝通

  • but they're also really useful

    更有助於

  • for exploring a hypothesis.

    探討假設

  • Biologists for the most part are still using a paper and pencil

    生物學家大多仍在使用紙筆

  • to visualize the processes they study,

    畫出他們所研究的過程

  • and with the data we have now, that's just not good enough anymore.

    但以我們現在擁有的資料來說 這種方式不再足夠

  • The process of creating an animation

    設計動畫的過程

  • can act as a catalyst that allows researchers

    可以促進研究人員

  • to crystalize and refine their own ideas.

    將自己的想法具體化 並進一步精煉

  • One researcher I worked with

    有一名我合作過的研究人員

  • who works on the molecular mechanisms

    她的研究是

  • of neurodegenerative diseases

    神經退化性疾病的分子機制

  • came up with experiments that were related

    她想出一些實驗

  • directly to the animation that she and I worked on together,

    跟我們共同創作的動畫相關

  • and in this way, animation can feed back into the research process.

    這使得動畫可以回饋在研究過程上

  • I believe that animation can change biology.

    我相信動畫可以改變生物學

  • It can change the way that we communicate with one another,

    它可以改變我們的溝通方式

  • how we explore our data

    研究數據的方式

  • and how we teach our students.

    以及教育學生的方式

  • But for that change to happen,

    但是要讓這樣的改變發生

  • we need more researchers creating animations,

    我們需要更多的研究人員去設計動畫

  • and toward that end, I brought together a team

    因此 我發起組成了一個團隊

  • of biologists, animators and programmers

    包括生物學家 動畫人員以及程式人員

  • to create a new, free, open-source software

    設計一個新的 免費的 開放原始碼的軟體

  • we call it Molecular Flipbook

    我們稱為"分子的Flipbook"

  • that's created just for biologists

    專門讓生物學家使用

  • just to create molecular animations.

    用於設計分子動畫

  • From our testing, we've found that it only takes 15 minutes

    從測試中 我們發現只需要15分鐘

  • for a biologist who has never touched animation software before

    就可以使從未接觸過動畫軟體的生物學家

  • to create her first molecular animation

    設計出她的第一個分子動畫

  • of her own hypothesis.

    來說明她的研究假設

  • We're also building an online database

    我們也在建置線上資料庫

  • where anyone can view, download and contribute

    任何人都可以瀏覽 下載

  • their own animations.

    以及分享他們自己的動畫

  • We're really excited to announce

    我們很興奮地要告訴大家

  • that the beta version of the molecular animation

    這個分子動畫軟體工具包的試用版

  • software toolkit will be available for download today.

    在今天就可以下載使用

  • We are really excited to see what biologists will create with it

    我們很期待生物學家的創作

  • and what new insights they're able to gain

    以及他們可以獲得什麼樣的新啟發

  • from finally being able to animate

    而這個啟發來自於

  • their own model figures.

    得以將自己的分子模型以動畫來呈現

  • Thank you.

    謝謝

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Take a look at this drawing.

請大家看這張圖

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED 動畫 分子 細胞 生物學家 網格

【TED】Janet Iwasa:動畫如何幫助科學家測試一個假設(Janet Iwasa:動畫如何幫助科學家測試一個假設)。 (【TED】Janet Iwasa: How animations can help scientists test a hypothesis (Janet Iwasa: How animations can help scientists test a hypothesis))

  • 899 58
    CUChou 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字