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  • (Zombie sounds) Doctor 1: So, how did it get to be this way?

    (殭屍聲) 博士 1:它到底為什麼會這樣子呢?

  • Doctor 2: Well, it's my professional opinion that the large gaping bite mark on its shoulder might have something to do with it.

    博士 2:根據我專業的判斷: 這應該和它肩膀上那個被咬到的傷口有關。

  • D1: Thanks. I mean, what causes its behavioral abnormalities?

    博士 1:真是謝謝啊! 我是說什麼造成它的行為異常呢?

  • D2: Well, we know all behaviors are rooted in the brain,

    博士 2:嗯,我們都知道行為由大腦控制,

  • so I'd expect that something's gone terribly wrong probably in there.

    所以我猜測它應該是腦袋壞了。

  • D1: Thanks again, Doctor Obvious.

    博士1:謝謝你指出 這個顯而易見的事實。

  • Let me be more specific.

    讓我說得更精確些吧!

  • What changes in the brain would have to occur in order to cause this kind of behavior?

    到怎麼樣的腦部病變 會造成這種行為的改變?

  • D2: Hmm. Well, let's see.

    博士2:嗯…噢…讓我們看看……

  • The first thing I notice is how it moves.

    首先我注意到它的行動方式。

  • Stiff legged, with long, lumbering steps, very slow and awkward.

    僵硬的腳、延長而沈重的步伐, 非常的緩慢和怪異。

  • Almost like what you'd see in Parkinson's disease.

    這就像你會在帕金森氏症上所看到的病徵。 (帕金森氏症:一種因為製造多巴胺腦細胞壞死所造成的神經退化性疾病,好發於50歲以上的人)

  • Maybe something's wrong with his basal ganglia?

    或許是它的基底核出了問題?

  • Those are a collection of deep brain regions that regulate movement,

    基底核位於大腦深處, 藉由釋放一種叫多巴胺的

  • through a neurochemical called dopamine.

    神經傳導物質來控制行動。 (譯注:神經傳導物質用於神經元間的訊號傳導)

  • Although most people think of dopamine as the "happy" chemical of the brain,

    雖然多巴胺常被想像成腦中的「快樂因子」, (譯注:因為多巴胺也負責傳遞愉快、興奮等情緒的訊息)

  • the dopamine-containing neurons in the basal ganglia die off in Parkinson's disease,

    但在帕金森氏症中,基底核內負責釋放多巴胺的神經元壞死 (多巴胺在腦中作為神經傳導物質,也是腎上腺素的前驅物)

  • that's what causes it.

    造成行為的異常。

  • Makes it more and more difficult to initiate actions.

    這讓他要開始行動時更加困難。

  • D1: What?

    博士 1:你說啥?

  • Look again at how it moves. Stiff legs, long stance,

    你再仔細看看他的行動方式: 僵硬的腳、筆直的站姿,

  • These aren't Parkinsonian movements, Parkinson's patients take short, shuffling steps,

    這和帕金森氏症病患的行動方式不符: 帕金森氏病患步程短且會拖著腳走。

  • and the posture's all wrong.

    而且這站姿也完全不符。

  • This looks to me like what happens when the cerebellum is damaged.

    我覺得這看起來像是小腦損傷所造成的狀況。

  • The cerebellum's a little cauliflower-shaped area in the back of your head, but don't let its size fool you.

    小腦就是在你後腦勺內 一小塊像是花椰菜的區域,

  • That little guy contains almost half of the neurons in the entire brain.

    但別被外表所矇騙, 大半腦中的神經元都集中在這小小的區域。

  • Patients who suffer degeneration from this region,

    有些在這部份退化的病患 (運動失調症:肌肉失調和不規則顫動)

  • something called spino-cerebellar ataxia,

    —─或稱為脊髓小腦運動失調症—─

  • show a lack of coordination that results in stiff legs, wide stance, and a lumbering walk.

    會失去平衡感而造成僵直腿部、 寬鬆站姿和拖腳行走的狀況。

  • My money's on the cerebellum.

    我打賭是小腦有問題。

  • D2: Touché. OK. So we've nailed its motor problems.

    博士 2:得分。好,我們已經知道它行為上問題。

  • Now what about that whole groaning, lack of talking thing?

    那怎麼解釋它不斷的呻吟和無法言語呢?

  • D1: Hmm. You know, it sounds kind of like expressive aphasia, or Broca's aphasia,

    博士 1:嗯,你知道嗎,這聽起來像是表達型失語症, 或又稱為布洛克失語症,

  • which makes producing words difficult.

    這種病造成運用文字表達的困難。 (表達型失語症是因大腦損傷導說、寫能力受損。)

  • This is caused by damage to the inferior frontal gyrus,

    這可能和額葉額下回受損有關, (譯注:額葉額下回即布洛克區,該區負責語言表達)

  • or possibly the anterior insula,

    或者也有可能是前腦島,

  • both regions behind your temple on the left side of your head.

    這兩個區域就在左半邊腦部、太陽穴的下方。

  • D2: I think you're only half right. Zombies definitely can't communicate, that's for sure.

    博士 2:我覺得你只答對了一半。 殭屍確實沒辦法清楚表達。

  • But they don't seem to do a good job of understanding things either.

    但是它們對於理解事物的能力也很差。 (譯注:這是回應博士 1 對於殭屍患有布洛克失語症的假設,布洛克失語症病人仍保有理解語言的能力。)

  • Watch this. Hey, Walker! Your father smelt of elderberries!

    看我的!嘿!你爸臭死了!

  • (Laughs) See? No reaction.

    (大笑)看吧!沒有反應。

  • Either it's not a Monty Python fan, or it can't understand me.

    它要不是蒙蒂蟒蛇的粉絲,就是它聽不懂我說的話。 (譯注:博士 2 喊話原文出自蒙蒂蟒蛇演出的聖杯傳奇)

  • I'd say this is like spot-on fluent Wernicke's aphasia,

    我認為這應該是魏尼克失語症, (其症患者會講出流利卻無意義的文字,並有聽、讀障礙)

  • damage to an area at the junction of two of the brain's lobes, temporal and parietal,

    在大腦頂葉和聶葉兩葉的連接處、

  • typically on the left side of the brain, is the culprit.

    尤其是在大腦左側的傷害就是病因。

  • This area is physically connected to Broca's area, that you mentioned,

    這部份也藉由一大束 被稱為神經纖維束的神經纖維

  • by a massive bundle of neurofibers called the arcuate fasciculus.

    連接到你提及的布洛克區。

  • I hypothesize that this massive bundle of connections is completely wiped out in a zombie.

    我假設這一大叢連接束在殭屍中完全損壞了。

  • It would be like taking out the superhighway between two cities.

    這神經纖維束就像兩城市間的高速公路。

  • One city that manufactures a product,

    其中一座城市負責生產產品,

  • and the other that ships it out to the rest of the world.

    而另一座城市負責出口到世界各地。

  • Without that highway, the product distribution just shuts down.

    如果沒有高速公路,產品就不能出口。

  • D1: So, basically it's a moot point to reason with a zombie,

    博士 1:所以這就是假設造成殭屍的原因,

  • since they can't understand you, let alone talk back.

    既然它們沒辦法聽懂你說的話,更別提反駁了。

  • D2: (Laughs) I mean, you could try, man, but I'm going to stay on this side of the glass.

    博士 2:(大笑)我是說你試著進去和它說說看啊, 不過我想我待在這裡比較安全。

(Zombie sounds) Doctor 1: So, how did it get to be this way?

(殭屍聲) 博士 1:它到底為什麼會這樣子呢?

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 博士 多巴胺 譯注 殭屍 神經

【TED-Ed】診斷殭屍:原來他們的腦袋和身體是這樣運作 (Diagnosing a zombie: Brain and body - Tim Verstynen & Bradley Voytek)

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    Zenn 發佈於 2013 年 04 月 08 日
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