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  • One of the great things about science

    科學的偉大之處在於

  • is that when scientists make a discovery,

    是,當科學家們有了發現。

  • it's not always in a prescribed manner,

    它'並不總是以規定的方式。

  • as in, only in a laboratory under strict settings,

    如同,只有在嚴格的環境下,在實驗室裡。

  • with white lab coats and all sorts of neat science gizmos

    穿著白大褂,帶著各種整潔的科學小玩意。

  • that go, "Beep!"

    那去,"嗶!&quot。

  • In reality,

    在現實中。

  • the events and people involved in some of the major scientific discoveries

    一些重大科學發現所涉及的事件和人物。

  • are as weird and varied as they get.

    是怪異的,多樣的,因為他們得到。

  • My case in point:

    我的案例中。

  • The Weird History of the Cell Theory.

    細胞理論的詭異歷史。

  • There are three parts to the cell theory.

    細胞理論有三個部分。

  • One: All organisms are composed of one or more cells.

    一:所有的生物體都是由一個或多個細胞組成。

  • Two: The cell is the basic unit of structure and organization in organisms.

    二:細胞是生物體內結構和組織的基本組織、部門。

  • And three: All cells come from preexisting cells.

    第三,所有的細胞都來自於已有的細胞。所有的細胞都來自於已有的細胞

  • To be honest, this all sounds incredibly boring

    說實話,這一切聽起來非常無聊

  • until you dig a little deeper into how the world of microscopic organisms

    直到你深入瞭解微觀生物的世界是如何的

  • and this theory came to be.

    而這一理論也就應運而生了。

  • It all started in the early 1600s,

    這一切都始於16世紀初。

  • in the Netherlands, where a spectacle maker

    在荷蘭,一個眼鏡製造商在那裡。

  • name Zacharias Jansen is said to have come up with the first compound microscope,

    名為Zacharias Jansen的人據說提出了第一臺複合顯微鏡。

  • along with the first telescope.

    隨著第一臺望遠鏡。

  • Both claims are often disputed,

    這兩種說法常常引起爭議。

  • as apparently he wasn't the only bored guy with a ton of glass lenses to play with at the time.

    因為顯然他不是唯一一個無聊的傢伙,當時有一大堆玻璃鏡片可以玩。

  • Despite this,

    儘管如此。

  • the microscope soon became a hot item

    顯微鏡很快就成了熱賣品

  • that every naturalist or scientist at the time wanted to play with,

    是當時每個自然學家或科學家都想玩的。

  • making it much like the iPad of its day.

    使其很像當年的iPad。

  • One such person

    其中一個人

  • was a fellow Dutchman by the name of Anton van Leeuwenhoek,

    是一位名叫安東-範-呂文浩克的荷蘭同胞。

  • who heard about these microscope doohickies,

    誰聽說過這些顯微鏡的杜撰。

  • and instead of going out and buying one,

    而不是出去買一個。

  • he decided to make his own.

    他決定自己做。

  • And it was a strange little contraption indeed,

    而且這確實是個奇怪的小裝置。

  • as it looked more like a tiny paddle the size of a sunglass lens.

    因為它看起來更像一個太陽鏡鏡片大小的小槳。

  • If he had stuck two together, it probably would have made a wicked set of sunglasses ...

    如果他把兩幅畫粘在一起,可能會做成一副邪惡的太陽鏡......。

  • that you couldn't see much out of.

    你不能看到太多的。

  • Any-who, once Leeuwenhoek had his microscope ready,

    無論如何,一旦獅子角準備好了他的顯微鏡。

  • he went to town, looking at anything and everything he could with them,

    他去了城裡,看了任何能和他們在一起的東西。

  • including the gunk on his teeth.

    包括他牙齒上的膠質。

  • Yes, you heard right.

    是的,你沒聽錯。

  • He actually discovered bacteria by looking at dental scrapings,

    其實他是通過觀察牙齒刮片發現細菌的。

  • which, when you keep in mind that people didn't brush their teeth much,

    其中,當你記住,人們沒有'刷牙多。

  • if at all, back then,

    如果有的話,當時。

  • he must have had a lovely bunch of bacteria to look at.

    他一定有一群可愛的細菌在看。

  • When he wrote about his discovery,

    當他寫到自己的發現時。

  • he didn't call them bacteria, as we know them today.

    他沒有叫他們細菌,因為我們今天知道他們。

  • But he called them animalcules,

    但他稱他們為 "畜牲"。

  • because they looked like little animals to him.

    因為在他看來,他們就像小動物一樣。

  • While Leeuwenhoek was staring at his teeth gunk,

    當李文浩克盯著自己的牙膠時。

  • he was also sending letters to a scientific colleague in England,

    他還在給英國的一位科學同事寫信。

  • by the name of Robert Hooke.

    名叫羅伯特-胡克的人。

  • Hooke was a guy who really loved all aspects of science,

    胡克是一個真正熱愛科學各方面的人。

  • so he dabbled in a little bit of everything, including physics, chemistry and biology.

    所以他什麼都涉獵一點,包括物理、化學和生物。

  • Thus it is Hooke who we can thank for the term "the cell,"

    是以,我們可以感謝的是胡克,他提出了"細胞&quot這個術語。

  • as he was looking at a piece of cork under his microscope,

    因為他正在顯微鏡下觀察一塊軟木。

  • and the little chambers he saw reminded him of cells,

    他看到的那些小房間讓他想起了牢房。

  • or the rooms monks slept in in their monasteries.

    或僧侶們在寺院裡睡覺的房間。

  • Think college dorm rooms, but without the TV's, computers and really annoying roommates.

    想想大學宿舍,但沒有電視'的,電腦和真正惱人的室友。

  • Hooke was something of an under-appreciated scientist of his day,

    胡克是當時一個不被重視的科學家。

  • something he brought upon himself,

    是他自找的。

  • as he made the mistake of locking horns with one of the most famous scientists ever,

    因為他犯了一個錯誤 與最著名的科學家之一鎖定角。

  • Sir Isaac Newton.

    艾薩克-牛頓爵士

  • Remember when I said Hooke dabbled in many different fields?

    記得我說過胡克涉足很多不同的領域嗎?

  • Well, after Newton published a groundbreaking book

    在牛頓出版了一本開創性的書之後

  • on how planets move due to gravity,

    關於行星因引力而移動的問題。

  • Hooke made the claim that Newton

    胡克提出牛頓的說法

  • had been inspired by Hooke's work in physics.

    曾受到胡克'的物理學工作的啟發。

  • Newton, to say the least, did not like that,

    牛頓,至少可以說是不喜歡這樣。

  • which sparked a tense relationship between the two that lasted even after Hooke died,

    這引發了兩人之間緊張的關係,甚至在胡克死後還在持續。

  • as quite a bit of Hooke's research,

    作為相當多的胡克'的研究。

  • as well as his only portrait, was "misplaced," due to Newton.

    以及他唯一的肖像,被"放錯了位置,"由於牛頓。

  • Much of it was rediscovered, thankfully, after Newton's time,

    其中大部分被重新發現,幸好,在牛頓之後'的時代。

  • but not his portrait, as sadly no one knows what Robert Hooke looked like.

    但不是他的畫像,因為很遺憾,沒有人知道羅伯特-胡克長什麼樣。

  • Fast-forward to the 1800s,

    快進到19世紀。

  • where two German scientists discovered something that today we might find rather obvious,

    在那裡,兩位德國科學家發現了一些今天我們可能覺得很明顯的東西。

  • but helped tie together what we now know as the cell theory.

    但卻幫助把我們現在所知道的細胞理論聯繫在一起。

  • The first scientist was Matthias Schleiden,

    第一位科學家是馬蒂亞斯-施萊登。

  • a botanist who liked to study plants under a microscope.

    一位喜歡在顯微鏡下研究植物的植物學家。

  • From his years of studying different plant species,

    從他多年來對不同植物種類的研究。

  • it finally dawned on him that every single plant he had looked at

    他終於明白,他看過的每一株植物

  • were all made of cells.

    都是由細胞組成的。

  • At the same time, on the other end of Germany,

    同時,在德國的另一端。

  • was Theodor Schwann,

    其中西奧多-施萬。

  • a scientist who not only studied slides of animal cells under the microscope,

    的科學家,他不僅在顯微鏡下研究動物細胞的玻片。

  • and got a special type of nerve cell named after him,

    並得到了一種特殊類型的神經細胞,以他的名字命名。

  • but also invented rebreathers for firefighters

    但也發明了消防員用的呼吸器。

  • and had a kickin' pair of sideburns.

    並有一雙踢人的'鬢角。

  • After studying animal cells for a while,

    在研究了一段時間的動物細胞後。

  • he too came to the conclusion that all animals were made of cells.

    他也得出了所有動物都是由細胞組成的結論。

  • Immediately, he reached out via snail mail,

    他立即通過蝸牛郵件聯繫上了。

  • as Twitter had yet to be invented,

    因為當時Twitter還沒有發明。

  • to other scientists working in the same field,

    向在同一領域工作的其他科學家介紹。

  • met with Schleiden, who got back to him, and the two started working on the beginnings of the cell theory.

    與施萊登見面,施萊登回了他,兩人開始研究細胞理論的開端。

  • A bone of contention arose between them

    他們之間出現了爭執

  • as for the last part of the cell theory,

    至於細胞理論的最後一部分。

  • that cells come from preexisting cells.

    細胞來自於已有的細胞。

  • Schleiden didn't exactly subscribe to that thought,

    施萊登並不完全認同這種想法。

  • as he swore cells came from free cell formation,

    因為他發誓細胞來自於自由細胞的形成。

  • where they just kind of spontaneously crystalized into existence.

    在那裡,他們只是一種自發的晶體化存在。

  • That's when another scientist, named Rudolph Virchow,

    這時,另一位科學家,名叫魯道夫-維爾喬夫。

  • stepped in with research showing that cells did come from other cells,

    踏入的研究表明,細胞確實來自於其他細胞。

  • research that was actually -- hmm, how to put it? -- borrowed without permission

    研究,實際上是 - 嗯,怎麼說呢?-- 未經允許的借來的

  • from a Jewish scientist by the name of Robert Remak,

    來自一位名叫羅伯特-雷馬克的猶太科學家。

  • which led to two more feuding scientists.

    這就導致了兩個科學家之間又有了爭執。

  • Thus, from teeth gunk to torquing off Newton,

    是以,從牙膠到扭斷牛頓。

  • crystallization to Schwann cells,

    結晶到Schwann細胞。

  • the cell theory came to be an important part of biology today.

    細胞理論成為今天生物學的重要組成部分。

  • Some things we know about science today may seem boring,

    我們今天所知道的一些關於科學的事情可能看起來很無聊。

  • but how we came to know them is incredibly fascinating.

    但我們是如何認識他們的,卻是令人難以置信的迷人。

  • So if something bores you,

    所以如果有什麼事情讓你覺得無聊。

  • dig deeper.

    深挖。

  • It's probably got a really weird story behind it somewhere.

    它可能有一個非常奇怪的故事背後的某個地方。

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 細胞 顯微鏡 科學家 牛頓 理論

【TED-Ed】 稀奇古怪的生物細胞理論發展史(The wacky history of cell theory - Lauren Royal-Woods)

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    Why Why 發佈於 2013 年 03 月 28 日
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