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  • Many elements of traditional Japanese culture, such as cuisine and martial arts, are well-known throughout the world.

    許多傳統的日本文化元素,像是美食和武術,在全世界都非常知名。

  • Kabuki, a form of classical theater performance, may not be as well understood in the West, but has evolved over 400 years to still maintain influence and popularity to this day.

    歌舞伎是日本經典的表演形式,西方文化或許較不了解,但它已經隨著時間演變超過 400 年了,而且在現今依然有它的影響力和人氣。

  • The word Kabuki is derived from the Japanese verb kabuku, meaning out of the ordinary or bizarre.

    歌舞伎這個詞源自於日文的動詞 kabuku (傾く),意指超越常規或是奇異的。

  • Its history began in early 17th century Kyoto, where a shrine maiden named Izumo No Okuni would use the city's dry Kamo Riverbed as a stage to perform unusual dances for passerby,

    它的歷史起源於十七世紀早期的京都,那裡有個名叫 Izumo No Okuni 的巫女,以上賀茂乾涸的河床做為舞台,為路人表演奇異的舞蹈,

  • who found her daring parodies of Buddhist prayers both entertaining and mesmerizing.

    路人發現她大膽模仿佛教徒祈求姿勢的舞步都覺得很有趣、很著迷。

  • Soon other troops began performing in the same style, and Kabuki made history as Japan's first dramatic performance form catering to the common people.

    很快地,其他人也開始用這種風格來表演,歌舞伎因此名留青史,成為了日本第一種迎合大眾口味的戲劇表演形式。

  • By relying on makeup, or keshou, and facial expressions instead of masks and focusing on historical events and everyday life rather than folk tales,

    依靠化妝和臉部表情,而不靠面具,並著重歷史事件和日常生活而不是民間傳說,

  • Kabuki set itself apart from the upper-class dance theater form known as Noh, and provided a unique commentary on society during the Edo period.

    歌舞伎本身的定位與上流社會知名的能劇那種戲劇舞蹈形式是不一樣的,並在江戶時代的社會提供一個獨特的詮釋。

  • At first, the dance was practiced only by females and commonly referred to as Onna-Kabuki.

    起先,這種舞蹈都只有女性演出,普遍被稱為遊女歌舞伎。

  • It soon evolved to an ensemble performance and became a regular attraction at tea houses, drawing audiences from all social classes.

    很快地這變成一種全體性的舞蹈,經常成為茶館裡的焦點,並吸引各個社會階層的觀眾。

  • At this point, Onna-Kabuki was often risque, as geishas performed not only to show off their singing and dancing abilities but also to advertise their bodies to potential clients.

    此時,遊女歌舞伎常被視為淫穢的,如茶館裡的藝妓一樣,除了展現她們歌唱和跳舞的技能,還會展現她們的身體吸引潛在的客人。

  • A ban by the conservative Tokugawa Shogunate in 1629 led to the emergence of Wakashu-Kabuki with young boys as actors.

    1626 年,保守派的德川幕府搬出禁令,因此由年輕美少男扮演的歌舞伎便出現了。

  • But when this was also banned for similar reasons, there was a transition to Yaro-Kabuki, performed by men,

    但當這也因同樣的理由被禁止時,便轉變成由前髮剃光的成年男性來演的歌舞伎。

  • necessitating elaborate costumes and makeup for those playing female roles, or onnagata.

    迫使那些扮演女性或女形角色的戲服和妝變得更複雜精緻。

  • Attempts by the government to control Kabuki didn't end with bans on the gender or age of performers.

    幕府控制、管理歌舞伎表演者的性別和年齡限制,且不僅如此而已。

  • The Tokugawa military group, or Bakufu, was fueled by Confucian ideals and often enacted sanctions on costume fabrics, stage weaponry, and the subject matter of the plot.

    德川的軍隊或幕府,因受儒家思想的影響,還經常規範戲服的布料、舞台上的道具武器以及配合主題的小道具。

  • At the same time, Kabuki became closely associated with and influenced by Bunraku, an elaborate form of puppet theater.

    同時,歌舞伎和精緻的木偶劇——人形劇的關聯和受到的影響也變得密切。

  • Due to these influences, the once spontaneous, one-act dance evolved into a structured, five-act play often based on the tenets of Confucian philosophy.

    由於這些影響,以往的獨角戲變成基於儒家哲學宗旨的結構化五人劇。

  • Before 1868, when the Tokugawa shogunate fell and Emperor Meiji was restored to power, Japan had practiced isolation from other countries, or Sakoku.

    在西元 1868 年前,當德川幕府衰敗,明治皇帝開始恢復權力,日本在國際間實行孤立主義,或稱為鎖國。

  • And thus, the development of Kabuki had mostly been shaped by domestic influences.

    也因此,歌舞伎的發展型態大部分都受國內風氣所影響。

  • But even before this period, European artists, such as Claude Monet had become interested in and inspired by Japanese art, such as woodblock prints, as well as live performance.

    但在這段時間之前,歐洲的藝術家,像是莫內便已經對歌舞伎所著迷,並且從像是木刻版畫或是現場實況表演的日本藝術中激發靈感,

  • After 1868, others such as Vincent van Gogh and composer Claude Debussy began to incorporate Kabuki influences in their work,

    西元 1868 年後,其他藝術家像梵谷,和作曲家德布西開始將日本歌舞伎的藝術影響結合進他們的作品,

  • while Kabuki itself underwent much change and experimentation to adapt to the new modern era.

    而日本歌舞伎本身則經歷了許多變化和考驗,以適應新的時代來臨。

  • Like other traditional art forms, Kabuki suffered in popularity in the wake of World War II.

    就如其他傳統藝術型態一樣,歌舞伎的人氣在二次世界大戰後甦醒。

  • But innovation by artists such as director Tetsuji Takechi led to a resurgence shortly after.

    但像是導演武智鉄二的創新藝術家也在不久後活躍起來。

  • Indeed, Kabuki was even considered a popular form of entertainment amongst American troops stationed in Japan, despite initial U.S. censorship of Japanese traditions.

    的確,儘管最初受到美國對日本傳統技藝的審查,歌舞伎甚至還被視為是駐日美軍中最受歡迎的娛樂形式。

  • Today, Kabuki still lives on as an integral part of Japan's rich cultural heritage, extending its influence beyond the stage to television, film, and anime.

    今天,歌舞伎仍以日本豐富的文化遺產的一部分存在著,影響力從幕後拓展到電視、電影,及動畫。

  • The art form pioneered by Okuni continues to delight audiences with the actors' elaborate makeup, extravagant and delicately embroidered costumes, and the unmistakable melodrama of the stories told on stage.

    Okuni 開創的藝術形式繼續透過演員們精緻的妝容、奢華而精緻的刺繡服裝、在舞台上無懈可擊的通俗劇表演吸引觀眾。

Many elements of traditional Japanese culture, such as cuisine and martial arts, are well-known throughout the world.

許多傳統的日本文化元素,像是美食和武術,在全世界都非常知名。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 日本 表演 舞台 舞蹈 形式

【TED-Ed】歌舞伎:用動畫帶你認識日本的傳統戲劇文化 (Kabuki: The people's dramatic art - Amanda Mattes)

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    阿多賓 發佈於 2020 年 12 月 19 日
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