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字幕列表 影片播放

  • Enough mutations can bypass these fail-safes,

    足夠的突變能穿越保護機制

  • driving these cells to divide recklessly.

    造成細胞毫無節制的分裂

  • That one rogue cell becomes two,

    一個細胞瘋狂地分裂成兩個、

  • then four,

    四個

  • then eight.

    八個

  • "How do you animate real materials,

    「你們如何用真實材料製作動畫效果

  • like brains and nerves and stuff like that?

    像大腦、神經那些東西?

  • How do you take something that doesn't move

    你們是怎麼讓

  • and then make it move?"

    不能動的東西動起來?」

  • "So, that's actually, we used a method

    「所以,實際上,我們用一種

  • called stop-motion animation,

    叫做定格動畫的方法

  • in which you are moving the objects

    這麼一來你可以在攝影機下

  • underneath the camera,

    移動拍攝對象

  • each frame, one at a time,

    每幀一次

  • and you take a picture

    為你所創造的物體

  • for each picture that you've created.

    拍攝一張照片

  • So, for this, we were watching a lot of videos

    所以為了這個,我們看了不少

  • on how cell division works,

    關於細胞如何分裂的影片

  • and from that, I created a line-drawn animation

    從那裡開始,我創造一組 線條繪製而成的動畫

  • that was my reference animation.

    作為參考動畫

  • And, using the software that we use for stop-motion,

    而且,定格動畫的軟體

  • I was actually able to look

    讓我真的能夠

  • at that reference material while shooting

    在拍攝的同時,看看參考的材料

  • so I could kind of arrange underneath the camera

    所以我可以在攝像頭下面放置它們

  • in order to match my animation

    以配合我的動畫

  • as I would follow along.

    我會跟著移動

  • And we actually shot all of this on a green screen,

    我們實際上是在 綠色螢幕上拍攝所有材料

  • and the purpose of using the green screen was,

    使用綠色螢幕的目的是

  • for example, in the scene where you see

    比如說吧,在你看到的場景中

  • many cells dividing at one time,

    許多細胞有一次分裂

  • for me to have actually have to animate each of those cells

    對我來說,要實際上 讓每一個細胞動起來

  • unanimously dividing at the same time

    並在同一時間分裂

  • would have been a lot of work

    工作量很大

  • that we wouldn't have had time for.

    我們沒有足夠的時間

  • So, the green screen allowed me to do

    所以,綠色螢幕可以讓我做

  • a couple of cell divisions

    幾個細胞分裂

  • that I could then duplicate

    然後我可以複製它

  • in order to show cell division:

    來呈現細胞分裂的樣子:

  • two, then four, then eight."

    兩個,四個,八個。」

  • "So, you only have to basically actually record it once

    「所以,你們基本上只需要錄一次

  • and then you can just duplicate it on the computer."

    然後就可以在電腦上重複它們了。」

  • "Exactly."

    「是的。」

  • "So, it sounds really painstaking.

    「聽起來還蠻辛苦的

  • How long did it take to, like, record one cell division?"

    這需要花多長時間來做呢? 比如,錄製一個細胞分裂要多久?」

  • "I think I did in a day, I did a couple of cell divisions.

    「我想我做了一天,我做了幾個細胞分裂

  • So, sort of a full work day,

    所以,大約需要一整天

  • so, probably a couple of hours for one.

    大概幾個小時可以做一個

  • I think, actually, the stuff that took longer was the text.

    其實,我覺得是文字 讓我耗費了更長的時間

  • We were animating the word, 'growth'.

    我們對「成長 (Growth)」這個字 做動畫處理

  • We were animating it getting smaller and taller and wider.

    我們對它進行動畫處理 把它處理得更小、更高,和更寬

  • And for this, I was literally adding one single seed at a time

    為了這個

  • in order to create that animation."

    我基本上是一次添加一個種子。」

  • "So, how did you animate the word cancer?"

    「那麼,你們如何以動畫 呈現『癌症』(Cancer) 這個字?」

  • "I actually started with the word cancer written

    「我事實上是開始於癌症這字的書寫

  • and moved backwards

    然後往後推

  • and was surgically removing one seed at a time,

    通過類似手術的方式 一次刪除一顆種子

  • and then we played that photage backwards

    接著,我們向後拼貼回去

  • to make it look like it was appearing.

    為了讓它看來像是 一種浮現出來的樣子

  • We use that trick a lot of times in stop-motion

    我們在定格鏡上用了這多這個技巧

  • because if you want things to really conform,

    因為如果你想讓材料真的符合要求

  • any time that you're having things come together

    任何時候,當你把所有事兜在一起

  • or fall apart,

    或分開來

  • it usually makes more sense

    最好要從

  • to start with that together frame

    共同的一幀上開始

  • and work from there,

    並且從那裡開始工作

  • and do the scatter from there,

    從那裡開始繪製

  • and then, just play that in reverse.

    然後,就反向播放它

  • It's a little too painstaking.

    這的確有點太麻煩

  • Stop-motion is painstaking,

    定格是困難的

  • it's a labor of love,

    雖然是出於對工作的喜愛

  • but you have to also be practical

    但當你有一個交稿時限時

  • when you have a deadline."

    你必須也要實際一些。」

  • "So, there's this technique that you guys use

    「有一種你們用的技術:

  • to make the cells look like they're alive

    如果要讓細胞看起來栩栩如生

  • so they're not just sitting there.

    你不會讓它們只是停在那裡

  • That's called shimmering.

    這個技法叫做『閃爍』效果

  • How does that work exactly?"

    那是怎麼做到的?」

  • "So, in animation, shimmering is usually when you are,

    「在動畫中,閃爍效果通常是

  • if you're doing drawn animation,

    如果你正在繪製動畫

  • you're drawing that same drawing multiple times

    你畫相同的圖案很多次

  • but with slight variations

    但它們之間存在細微的差別

  • so that way, you don't have a stagnant, still frame

    這樣,你就不會靜止不動,而是

  • under the camera.

    在相機的一幀裡

  • With the cells, using the seeds and the Nerds,

    至於細胞呢,用那些 種子和彩虹果粒糖 (Nerds)

  • we had the opportunity to really have a look,

    我們有機會得以看看

  • like they were kind of vibrating and pulsating in a way.

    它們晃動的狀況

  • And so, those are actually, depending on the cell,

    這些其實都取決於該細胞

  • three to five pictures.

    三至五幅照片

  • With the candy Nerds,

    而關於彩虹果粒糖

  • I would rearrange their position each time

    我每次會重新安排它們的位置

  • so there's actually removing all the colorful Nerds,

    所以那實際上是 移除了所有有顏色的糖

  • leaving the purple ones in the center

    只剩下圓心部份的紫色

  • and moving the colorful ones back in

    那些有顏色的被移回來

  • into a different position.

    到不同的位置

  • But with the seeds,

    但種子呢

  • when the seeds were shimmering,

    當種子閃爍時

  • for that, I would actually

    我就會

  • just very, very, very lightly, like,

    非常、 非常、 非常輕地

  • roll my hand over it very slightly

    如同輕微地把我的手轉過來

  • and then make sure none of them

    然後,確保它們

  • fell out of the constraints of the cell,

    沒有掉出細胞

  • fix the edges,

    固定邊框

  • and take that picture,

    拍下那張照片

  • and just slightly do that again.

    接著稍微再這麼做一次

  • So, it just slightly changes their position

    所以,只是略微改變它們的位置

  • or rustles them up a little bit

    或稍微搖動它們

  • so that would cycle over and over.

    那就可以反復旋轉

  • And those would play on what animators call threes.

    那些就是動畫製作者所說的「三」

  • And threes means that each picture

    三意指,每副照片

  • is on screen for three frames

    在螢幕上的三幀上

  • at twenty-four frames per second.

    每秒廿四幀

  • So, for the shimmers, you were seeing

    所以你看到的閃爍

  • eight different pictures each second of footage."

    有每秒八個不同的連續鏡頭。」

  • "How much of your sweat and tears

    「你在這些果粒糖上

  • are on these Nerds?"

    花了多少心血?」

  • "I think, actually, to be honest,

    「我想,說實話

  • the part that was the most perspirational

    最困難的部分是

  • of using the Nerds for animation

    為動畫使用這些果粒糖

  • was the place where we had to separate them into colors

    我們必須把它們的顏色分開

  • in order to use them to animate.

    為了要用它們進行動畫處理

  • Every time I would put them on the screen to animate,

    每次我會把它們放在螢幕上

  • on the tabletop to animate,

    在桌面上進行動畫處理

  • I would have to separate them out

    我會把它們分開

  • at the end of the day again.

    在一天結束後,然後再來一次

  • And that was the most frustrating part.

    而那就是最令人沮喪的部分了

  • And, honestly, up until, like, three weeks ago,

    並且,老實說,比如三個星期前

  • I dropped my purse on the ground

    我不小心把錢包掉在地上

  • and, like, lentils came out of my purse and onto the floor.

    這些糖就像小扁豆 從我的錢包掉全到了地板上

  • Like, there's, this video will stay with me forever."

    當時想,我會永遠記得這個影片。」

  • "In your bag."

    「在你包裡。」

  • "In my bag.

    「在我的包裡

  • It goes wherever I go."

    無論我走到哪裡,它就跟我到哪裡。」

Enough mutations can bypass these fail-safes,

足夠的突變能穿越保護機制

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 動畫 細胞 分裂 種子 螢幕

TED-Ed】製作一節TED-Ed課。動畫 (【TED-Ed】Making a TED-Ed Lesson: Animation)

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    陳劭杰 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字