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  • What mammal has the social life of an insect,

    哪種哺乳類有昆蟲的社交生活、

  • the cold-bloodedness of a reptile,

    爬蟲類的冷血、

  • and the metabolism of a plant?

    和植物的新陳代謝?

  • Bald and buck-toothed, naked mole rats may not be pretty,

    頂上無毛還暴牙的裸鼴鼠或許是不漂亮

  • but they're extraordinary.

    但他們實屬非凡

  • With a lifespan of 30 years,

    裸鼴鼠的平均壽命為 30 歲

  • their peculiar traits have evolved over millions of years

    他們的特質歷經了數百萬年的演化

  • to make them uniquely suited to survive harsh conditions,

    使得他們特別適合存活在嚴厲環境

  • especially long periods without oxygen.

    尤其是長期缺氧的環境

  • In the deserts of East Africa, naked mole rats feed on root vegetables.

    在東非沙漠,裸鼴鼠仰賴植物的根而活

  • They dig for the roots with teeth that can move independently, like chopsticks.

    他們靠著筷子般、可獨立移動的牙齒來挖掘根

  • But even with these special teeth,

    但就算有這些特殊的牙齒

  • a single naked mole rat doesn't stand a chance of finding enough food;

    單單一隻裸鼴鼠還是不可能找到足夠的食物

  • the roots are large and nutritious, but scattered far and wide.

    根又大又營養,但是散播得又廣又遠

  • A large workforce has a much better chance,

    一支工作團隊有較大的優勢

  • so naked mole rats live in colonies.

    所以裸鼴鼠群居

  • Similar to ants, bees, and termites, they build giant nests.

    類似螞蟻、蜜蜂和白蟻,他們也會建造巨大的巢穴

  • Housing up to 300 mole rats,

    這些巢穴可容納 300 隻裸鼴鼠

  • these colonies feature complex underground tunnel systems,

    其中有複雜的地下隧道系統、

  • nest chambers,

    休息室、

  • and community bathrooms.

    和社區廁所

  • Also like insects, naked mole rats have a rigid social structure.

    跟昆蟲一樣,裸鼴鼠有硬性的社會結構

  • The dominant female, the queen,

    主宰的雌性,皇后

  • and two to three males that she chooses,

    以及兩三名她選擇的雄性

  • are the only naked mole rats in the colony who have babies.

    是整個群體中唯獨能繁衍後代的

  • All the other naked mole rats,

    其他所有裸鼴鼠

  • male and female,

    雄性和雌性

  • are either soldiers, who defend the colony from possible invaders,

    不是負責防衛、抵禦潛在入侵者的士兵

  • or workers.

    就是工人

  • Teams of workers are dispatched to hunt for roots,

    一組一組的工人被分派去找根

  • and their harvest feeds the whole colony.

    他們的收穫餵養整個群體

  • Living in a colony helps naked mole rats find enough food,

    群居使得裸鼴鼠能夠找到足夠的食物

  • but when so many animals live in the same underground space,

    但是當那麼多的動物在同一個地下空間生活時

  • oxygen quickly runs out.

    氧氣很快就沒了

  • Mammals need a lot of oxygen;

    哺乳類需要很多氧氣

  • we use it to make the energy that fuels everything

    我們藉由氧氣製造足夠的能量來完成各類事務

  • from maintaining our body temperatures

    包括維持體溫、

  • to our heartbeats

    維持心跳、

  • to voluntary movements.

    和自主移動

  • Without oxygen, we quickly die.

    沒了氧氣,我們很快就會死亡

  • In fact, no other mammal could survive the oxygen depletion

    事實上,沒有其他哺乳類能夠在裸鼴鼠

  • experienced in a naked mole rat colony.

    如此缺氧的環境中存活

  • Naked mole rats can thrive in low oxygen

    裸鼴鼠之所以能夠在低氧中存活

  • in part because they've abandoned one of the body functions

    部分是因為他們捨棄了其中一項

  • that requires the most oxygen:

    會消耗大量氧氣的生理功能:

  • thermoregulation.

    體溫調節

  • Most mammals are warm-blooded,

    多數哺乳類是溫血動物

  • meaning they have to keep their body temperature consistent.

    意思是他們必須維持一定的體溫

  • Naked mole rats don't get enough oxygen to do this.

    裸鼴鼠並沒有足夠的氧氣能夠做到這件事

  • Instead, they're the only mammals

    他們反而是唯一一種

  • whose body temperature fluctuates with their environment,

    體溫會隨著環境變動的哺乳類

  • making them cold-blooded, like reptiles.

    使得他們就像爬蟲類一樣冷血

  • They also have a special type of hemoglobin,

    他們還有一種特殊的血色素

  • the molecule in the blood that transports oxygen.

    這是一種在血液中運送氧氣的分子

  • Their hemoglobin is much stickier for oxygen than ours

    他們的血色素比我們的都要善於攜帶氧氣

  • and can pick oxygen up even when it's scarce.

    能夠在甚至是氧氣稀少的情況下運送氧

  • In response to a real oxygen emergency,

    當遇到真正的氧氣危機時

  • naked mole rats enter a state of suspended animation.

    裸鼴鼠會進入一種靜止動作的狀態

  • They stop moving,

    他們暫停移動

  • slow their breathing,

    減緩呼吸

  • and dramatically lower their heart rate.

    並且巨幅降低心率

  • This greatly reduces the amount of energy, and therefore oxygen, they need.

    這麼做可以減少所需的能量,也就降低了所需的氧氣

  • At the same time, they begin to metabolize fructose, like a plant.

    與此同時,他們開始代謝果糖,就像植物一樣

  • Fructose is a sugar that can be used to make energy without burning oxygen.

    果糖是一種不需耗氧就能產生能量的糖類

  • Usually, mammals metabolize a different sugar called glucose

    哺乳動物通常代謝一種不同的糖類,稱作葡萄糖

  • that makes more energy than fructose,

    能夠產生比果糖更多的能量

  • but glucose only works when oxygen's available.

    但前提要是有足夠的氧氣

  • Human brain and heart cells have some cellular machinery to use fructose,

    人類腦部和心臟細胞有一些能夠利用果糖的細胞結構

  • but not nearly as much as naked mole rats.

    但並不如裸鼴鼠有的多

  • Naked mole rats are, in fact, the only mammals known to have this ability.

    事實上,裸鼴鼠是唯一一種已知有這種能耐的哺乳動物

  • While we can hope humans won't ever need

    縱然我們可想人類大概永遠不會需要

  • to exclusively live in underground tunnels,

    一輩子居住在地底隧道

  • there are many situations where we would benefit from needing less oxygen.

    還是有許多情況下,我們耗氧較少會有好處

  • During heart attacks and other medical emergencies,

    當心臟病發以及其他急診時

  • people often die or sustain debilitating organ damage from oxygen deprivation.

    人們常因著缺氧而死亡或是器官嚴重受損

  • Could we replicate the naked mole rat's use of the fructose pathway

    我們是否可以掌握裸鼴鼠利用果糖的技巧

  • for human health?

    將之應用到人類健康方面呢?

  • It took millions of years of evolution to bring the behavior of an insect,

    一隻小小的哺乳動物是經歷了百萬年的演化

  • the temperature regulation of a reptile,

    才有了昆蟲般的習性、

  • and the energy production of a plant

    爬蟲類般的體溫調節

  • together in one little mammal,

    以及植物般的能量製造手法

  • but maybe, with enough study,

    但或許只要研究得夠透徹

  • we can replicate just a few of their wild adaptations.

    我們也能複製一些他們的野外適應技能

What mammal has the social life of an insect,

哪種哺乳類有昆蟲的社交生活、

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 氧氣 果糖 哺乳類 體溫 能量

[TED-Ed] 全身無毛但值得我們學習的裸鼴鼠! (Are naked mole rats the strangest mammals? - Thomas Park)

  • 1998 257
    April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 06 月 08 日
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