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  • This episode of Scishow is brought to you by Blinkist.

    本集內容由 Blinkist 提供

  • If you're allergic to cats or dogs, life can be pretty tough.

    如果你對貓或狗過敏,那人生可能會很難過

  • Sometimes all you wanna do is snuggle up with a puppy, then suddenly you're sneezing and

    有時候,你明明只是想和小狗窩在一起,但你卻突然開始打噴嚏、

  • wheezing.

    感到呼吸困難

  • An allergic reaction comes from your immune system overreacting to things like pet dander,

    過敏是因為你的免疫系統對某些東西過度反應,例如寵物的皮屑、

  • the microscopic flakes of dead skin and hair they shed, or their saliva.

    從他們身上掉落的死皮碎屑、毛髮或是他們的口水

  • But pets can get allergies, too.

    但其實寵物也會過敏

  • And while it's rare, dogs and cats can even be allergic to each other, or to us.

    雖然不常見,不過狗和貓也有可能對彼此過敏,甚至也會對我們過敏

  • More specifically, to human dander.

    更準確地說,對人的皮屑過敏

  • No matter who's sneezing at whom, the basic science behind allergies in pets is the same

    不管是誰在對誰打噴嚏,寵物過敏的原理其實和人類是

  • as in people.

    一樣的

  • Basically, the immune system confuses a harmless allergen, like cat dander, for a dangerous

    基本上,免疫系統會把無害的過敏原,像是貓的皮屑,誤認成有害的入侵者

  • invader and attacks.

    並攻擊它們

  • It releases antibodies, which are proteins that detect and bind to the allergen, then

    免疫系統會產生抗體,這些蛋白質會找出並阻擋過敏原

  • sends a signal to other immune cells to release inflammatory molecules like histamine.

    接下來發送訊號給免疫細胞,讓免疫細胞釋放發炎物質,例如組織胺

  • Inflammation irritates the sensitive tissues that line the insides of your nose, respiratory

    發炎同時也會刺激鼻腔裡的敏感組織、呼吸系統

  • system, eyes, and skin.

    雙眼以及皮膚

  • And that makes you all sneezy and itchy and eye-watery.

    最後造成打噴嚏、發癢和流眼淚等症狀

  • Just like us, our pets can be allergic to a variety of things, like pollen, grasses,

    就像我們一樣,寵物也可能會對各種不同的東西過敏,例如花粉、草

  • mold, and food.

    黴菌和食物

  • One study from 2014 looked at about a hundred dogs that were having an allergic reaction

    一項 2014 年的研究觀察了一百隻過敏的狗對某些過敏物的反應

  • to something, and found that about half of them were sensitive to house dust and dust

    最後發現有大約一半的狗對家裡的灰塵以及塵螨很敏感

  • mites, little critters that eat dead skin.

    塵螨是一種吃死皮的動物

  • But that's not because dust is mostly made of human skin.

    但對灰塵敏感並不是因為灰塵大部分是由人的皮膚組成的

  • If you've heard that before, it's a common misconception.

    或許你曾經聽過這個說法,但這是個常見的迷思

  • House dust is mostly made of dirt that comes in through open doors or windows, or on the

    家裡的灰塵有很大一部分是從門外或是窗外帶進來的,除此之外

  • bottom of your shoes.

    也有部分是附著在鞋底被帶進來的

  • But you do shed some dead skin, and some experts think there are rare instances of pets that

    但人還是會掉一些死皮的,有些專家認為會對人類皮屑過敏的寵物

  • are specifically allergic to human dander.

    其實相當的稀少

  • When a dog is allergic to something, whether it's you or dust mites, they often develop

    要是狗對某樣東西過敏,不管是對你或是對塵螨,他們通常都會患上

  • a condition called atopic dermatitis, or itchy, red, swollen skin.

    異位性皮膚炎,或是會有皮膚發癢、紅腫等症狀

  • Cats can also get itchy skin or can lose patches of fur.

    貓也可能會皮膚發癢或是掉毛

  • Their allergies are also likely to cause inflammation in their respiratory tracts, which makes them

    貓的過敏也可能會造成他們的呼吸道發炎,導致貓咪

  • sneeze and cough.

    打噴嚏或是咳嗽

  • It's common enough that feline asthma affects about 1% of the cat population.

    通常大概會有百分之一的貓患上貓氣喘

  • Luckily, vets are great at diagnosing and treating allergies, so there's no need to

    幸好,獸醫師在診斷及治療過敏上很有一套,所以飼主不需要因此

  • say goodbye to your furry friend.

    送走家裡的毛小孩

  • To test for allergies, vets can do blood tests that measure the amount of antibodies in the

    要測試是否有過敏時,獸醫會採取血液檢查來測量血液裡的抗體數量

  • blood, or a skin test, which is more sensitive and has quicker results.

    或是採取皮膚測試,因為皮膚較敏感,而且可以更快得知檢查結果

  • For the skin test, the vet scrapes or injects a small amount of allergen on or in the skin

    進行皮膚測試時,獸醫會在寵物的皮膚抹上少量過敏原或是將過敏原注射到皮膚裡

  • to see if it causes a reaction.

    以觀察是否有出現過敏反應

  • If it does, they can treat the allergy with shots or oral medication.

    如果有的話,獸醫就會以注射或是口服治療的方式治療過敏

  • Just like in humans, these treatments expose animals to small amounts of allergen, slowly

    和人類一樣,治療過程中會讓動物接觸少量過敏原

  • increasing the concentration over time so their immune systems can build up a tolerance

    並漸漸增加過敏原的濃度,如此一來動物的免疫系統就會產生耐受性

  • and stop freaking out.

    讓動物不會再抓狂了

  • So if you notice your pet breaking out in a rash or sneezing after you cuddle them,

    如果你發現你抱家裡過寵物後,他們就開始起疹子或是打噴嚏

  • they may be allergic to youbut it's most likely some other allergen, like pollen

    有可能是因為他們對你過敏,不過更有可能是因為其他原因造成過敏的,像是花粉

  • or dust.

    或灰塵

  • Because even for our furry friends, allergies can be a littlerough.

    就算是對毛小孩來說,過敏也是會很不舒服的

  • If you have allergies that prevent you from cuddling up to a cute dog or cat, you might

    如果過敏讓你不能抱抱貓咪或是狗狗,你可能會

  • distract yourself instead by cuddling up to a good book.

    轉而去找本書來看

  • But what if you're short on time, or want to know if a book is really up your alley

    但如果你太忙了,又或者是你想先確定某本書是不是合你的胃口再開始看

  • before you dive in?

    那該怎麼辦?

  • Blinkist is a new app that lets you cram the world's bestselling nonfiction books into

    有個新的 app 叫 Blinkist,它可以幫你把世界上最暢銷的非小說類書籍存進你的腦袋

  • your brain in 15 minutes.

    而且只需要花 15 分鐘

  • It basically gives you a superpower by framing a book's key concepts so that you get the

    Blinkist 會把一本書的核心概念摘要出來給你

  • gist of all those books you just don't have time to read.

    讓你可以吸收那些你沒時間看的書的精華

  • Blinkist titles, or Blinks, are presented in both audio and text format, so you can

    Blinkist 也稱為 Blinks,提供聽力以及閱讀兩種模式

  • listen on your walk to work, or read them on the ride home, using apps for iOS and Android

    所以你可以在上班的路上聽,也可以在坐車回家的時候看,透過 iOS、Android 系統的 app

  • devices, or their website.

    又或是使用他們的網站

  • Over 2,200 books are already on Blinkist, and 40 new titles are added each month.

    目前有超過 2200 本書可供閱覽,Blinkist 每個月也會固定增加 40 本新書

  • I've been thinking about reading The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, and checking it out

    我正在考慮要不要看《海拉細胞的不死傳奇》,先上 Blinkist

  • on Blinkist first was a great way to vet the story.

    看看這本書或許能夠幫我決定要不要看它

  • Blinkist is offering an exclusive deal for SciShow viewers, so to support this channel

    Blinkist 有提供給 SciShow 的觀眾特別的優惠,只要支持我們的頻道

  • and receive 20% off a new subscription, click the link in the description.

    就可以享有 8 折訂閱優惠,詳情請點擊下方的連結

  • Anyone can try out Blinkist for free, but we think you'll find the full subscription

    任何人都能免費試用 Blinkist,但我們相信你們會發現訂閱 Blinkist

  • totally worth it.

    絕對是值得的

This episode of Scishow is brought to you by Blinkist.

本集內容由 Blinkist 提供

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 過敏原 寵物 皮膚 免疫 灰塵 死皮

寵物會對人過敏嗎?(Can Pets Be Allergic to People?)

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    Leo 發佈於 2017 年 12 月 31 日
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