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  • What do fans of atmospheric post-punk music

    獨特的後龐克搖滾族

  • have in common with ancient barbarians?

    與古老蠻族有何共通之處?

  • Not much.

    並不多

  • So why are both known as goths?

    但為何兩者都被稱為歌德族?

  • Is it a weird coincidence

    是不可思議的巧合

  • or a deeper connection stretching across the centuries?

    或其中有更深的淵源存在於幾個世紀

  • The story begins in Ancient Rome.

    一切要從古羅馬開始說起

  • As the Roman Empire expanded, it faced raids and invasions

    羅馬帝國擴張後,面臨外族入侵

  • from the semi-nomadic populations along its borders.

    受到邊境的半遊牧民族騷擾

  • Among the most powerful were a Germanic people known as Goths

    其中最兇悍的是日耳曼人,也就是哥德族

  • who were composed of two tribal groups,

    這一族是由兩個部落組成:

  • the Visigoths

    西歌德人

  • and Ostrogoths.

    以及東歌德人

  • While some of the Germanic tribes remained Rome's enemies,

    當時部分日耳曼民族仍與羅馬帝國對抗

  • the Empire incorporated others into the imperial army.

    但羅馬收編其他日耳曼族成為帝國軍隊

  • As the Roman Empire split in two,

    羅馬帝國分裂為東西兩國後,

  • these tribal armies played larger roles in its defense

    這些蠻族軍是抵禦外敵的重要角色

  • and internal power struggles.

    但也內鬥不斷

  • In the 5th century, a mercenary revolt lead by a soldier named Odoacer

    五世紀時,奧多亞塞發動傭兵戰爭

  • captured Rome and deposed the Western Emperor.

    奪取羅馬並罷黜西羅馬皇帝

  • Odoacer and his Ostrogoth successor Theoderic

    奧多亞塞和東歌德的繼承者狄奧多里克大帝

  • technically remained under the Eastern Emperor's authority

    實質上仍效忠東羅馬帝國政權

  • and maintained Roman traditions.

    保留羅馬文化

  • But the Western Empire would never be united again.

    而西羅馬帝國再也無法統一

  • Its dominions fragmented into kingdoms ruled by Goths

    分裂的領土由歌德族

  • and other Germanic tribes

    以及其他日耳曼族統治

  • who assimilated into local cultures,

    這些民族融合當地文化

  • though many of their names still mark the map.

    這些地區仍保留民族姓氏

  • This was the end of the Classical Period

    以上就是古典時代

  • and the beginning of what many call the Dark Ages.

    接著進入所謂的黑暗時代

  • Although Roman culture was never fully lost,

    即便羅馬文化從未徹底消失

  • its influence declined and new art styles arose

    文化影響減少,隨後新的藝術風格興起

  • focused on religious symbolism and allegory

    主要為宗教象徵和寓言故事

  • rather than proportion and realism.

    而非強調比例和現實主義

  • This shift extended to architecture

    藝術風氣改變影響建築

  • with the construction of the Abbey of Saint Denis in France in 1137.

    例如 1137 年位於法國的聖但尼聖殿

  • Pointed arches, flying buttresses, and large windows

    尖拱、飛扶壁以及大片玻璃

  • made the structure more skeletal and ornate.

    使建築物更絢麗又瘦骨嶙峋

  • That emphasized its open, luminous interior

    室內強調寬敞開放且明亮

  • rather than the sturdy walls and columns of Classical buildings.

    有別以往傳統建築的堅厚牆壁以及圓柱風格

  • Over the next few centuries,

    接著持續幾個世紀

  • this became a model for Cathedrals throughout Europe.

    此建築風格成為歐洲教堂的楷模

  • But fashions change.

    時過境遷

  • With the Italian Renaissance's renewed admiration for Ancient Greece and Rome,

    義大利文藝復興崇尚古希臘、古羅馬的建築特色

  • the more recent style began to seem crude and inferior in comparison.

    相較下,當代建築風格更顯得低俗又毫無設計感

  • Writing in his 1550 book, "Lives of the Artists,"

    1550 年瓦薩里出版的傳記「藝苑名人傳」之中

  • Giorgio Vasari was the first to describe it as Gothic,

    首次使用歌德式稱呼此建築風格

  • a derogatory reference to the Barbarians

    貶損蠻族當初

  • thought to have destroyed Classical civilization.

    摧毀古典文明的歷史

  • The name stuck, and soon came to describe the Medieval period overall,

    此臭名遠播,隨即用來稱呼整個中世紀

  • with its associations of darkness, superstition, and simplicity.

    比喻中世紀的黑暗、迷信、愚昧

  • But time marched on, as did what was considered fashionable.

    隨時代轉變,歌德式風格成為藝術流行

  • In the 1700s, a period called the Enlightenment came about,

    西元 1700 年,進入啟蒙時代

  • which valued scientific reason above all else.

    注重科學理性

  • Reacting against that, Romantic authors like Goethe and Byron

    有別於浪漫主義作家歌德和拜倫

  • sought idealized visions of a past of natural landscapes

    用理想化的視角描寫自然景色

  • and mysterious spiritual forces.

    以及神祕的靈魂力量

  • Here, the word Gothic was repurposed again

    這時,「歌德」這詞被重新定義

  • to describe a literary genre that emerged as a darker strain of Romanticism.

    用來形容浪漫主義文學的黑色格調

  • The term was first applied by Horace Walpole

    這詞首次出現在霍勒斯.渥波爾

  • to his own 1764 novel, "The Castle of Otranto"

    1764 年出版的小說「奧特蘭托堡」

  • as a reference to the plot and general atmosphere.

    描寫劇情以及一般情境

  • Many of the novel's elements became genre staples

    許多小說元素成為主流

  • inspiring classics and the countless movies they spawned.

    激勵出很多經典文學以及無數的電影作品

  • The gothic label belonged to literature and film until the 1970s

    直到 1970 年代,歌德式標籤一直跟著文學以及電影界

  • when a new musical scene emerged.

    隨後就應用在音樂領域上

  • Taking cues from artists like The Doors and The Velvet Underground,

    例如:門戶樂團、地下絲絨樂團

  • British post-punk groups,

    英國後龐克搖滾族

  • like Joy Division,

    例如歡樂分隊

  • Bauhaus,

    包豪斯樂團

  • and The Cure,

    治療樂團

  • combined gloomy lyrics and punk dissonance

    融合抑鬱的歌詞以及龐克曲風

  • with imagery inspired by the Victorian era,

    使用維多利亞時期的寫作風格

  • classic horror,

    經典恐怖元素

  • and androgynous glam fashion.

    雌雄同體的穿著打扮

  • By the early 1980s, similar bands were consistently described

    1980 年代早期,相似的樂團持續出現

  • as Gothic rock by the music press,

    皆以歌德搖滾為音樂風格

  • and the style's popularity brought it out of dimly lit clubs

    歌德音樂受到歡迎,把昏暗的地下搖滾

  • to major labels and MTV.

    搖身一變成為主流音樂還上音樂頻道

  • And today, despite occasional negative media attention and stereotypes,

    現今,即便偶爾仍有負面媒體評論以及刻板印象

  • Gothic music and fashion continue as a strong underground phenomenon.

    歌德式音樂和打扮已成為地下文化

  • They've also branched into sub-genres,

    甚至被歸類為次文化

  • such as cybergoth,

    例如賽博歌德

  • gothabilly,

    鄉村歌德

  • gothic metal,

    歌德金屬

  • and even steampunk.

    還有蒸氣龐克

  • The history of the word gothic is embedded

    「歌德」這詞歷史非常悠久

  • in thousands of years worth of countercultural movements,

    歷經上千年的反主流文化運動

  • from invading outsiders becoming kings

    從一開始外族入侵,自立為王

  • to towering spires replacing solid columns

    變成高聳尖塔建築取代實心圓柱

  • to artists finding beauty in darkness.

    再到作家尋求黑暗美學

  • Each step has seen a revolution of sorts

    每個過程都經過一場革命

  • and a tendency for civilization to reach into its past to reshape its present.

    也是文明取源過往,重塑現代的表徵

What do fans of atmospheric post-punk music

獨特的後龐克搖滾族

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 羅馬 風格 帝國 建築 樂團

【TED-Ed】歌德民族簡史 (A brief history of goths - Dan Adams)

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    Jenny 發佈於 2017 年 11 月 17 日
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