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  • As far as we know,

    據我們了解

  • Medieval England was never invaded by ice zombies,

    中世紀的英格蘭從未被冰殭屍侵略過

  • or terrorized by dragons,

    或是有恐龍的蹤跡

  • but it was shaken by a power struggle between two noble families

    但它卻被兩個貴族世家間的權力鬥爭所動搖

  • spanning generations

    它持續了世世代代

  • and involving a massive cast of characters

    而且涉及了一堆人物

  • with complex motives and shifting loyalties.

    以及複雜的動機與忠誠的轉移

  • If that sounds familiar,

    如果聽起來很熟悉

  • it's because the historical conflicts known as the Wars of the Roses

    這是因為許多電視劇中爭奪權力的遊戲

  • served as the basis for much of the drama in Game of Thrones.

    都是一個以玫瑰戰爭為名的歷史衝突為基礎

  • The real-life seeds of war were sewn by the death of King Edward III in 1377.

    現實生活中的戰爭的種子是由1377年國王愛德華三世的死開始。

  • Edward's oldest son had died before his father,

    愛德華的長子在他爸之前就死了

  • but his ten-year-old son, Richard II,

    但是他十歲的兒子,理查二世

  • succeeded to the throne ahead of Edward's three surviving sons.

    成功地在其他三個在世的兒子以前得到寶座

  • This skipping of an entire generation

    跳躍了整整一代

  • left lingering claims to the throne among their various offspring,

    導致三個兒子的的後代一直纏繞著王位繼承的問題

  • particularly the Lancasters, descended from Edward's third son,

    特別是愛德華的第三個兒子的後裔,蘭開斯特一族

  • and the Yorks, descended from his fourth son.

    和四兒子後代的約克一族爭論最激烈

  • The name of the ensuing wars

    而隨後的戰爭的名稱

  • comes from the symbols associated with the two families,

    與兩個家庭的家徽有關

  • the white rose of York and the red rose of Lancaster.

    叫做白玫瑰的紐約與紅玫瑰的蘭卡斯特

  • The Lancasters first gained the throne

    1399年,亨利四世罷免理查二世

  • when Richard II was deposed by his cousin Henry IV in 1399.

    蘭開斯特首先獲得王座

  • Despite sporadic unrest,

    儘管有些零星的騷亂

  • their reign remained secure until 1422,

    他們的王朝依然安全,直到1422年

  • when Henry V's death in a military campaign

    當亨利五世在軍事行動中去世

  • left an infant Henry VI as king.

    留下一個嬰兒亨利六世為王。

  • Weak-willed and dominated by advisors,

    亨利意志軟弱,同時受到臣子們的蠱惑

  • Henry was eventually convinced to marry Margaret of Anjou to gain French support.

    亨利六世最終被說服和安茹的瑪格麗特結婚,換取法國的支持

  • Margaret was beautiful, ambitious,

    瑪格麗特既美麗,也有野心

  • and ruthless in persecuting any threat to her power,

    他冷酷地對待任何威脅到他的權力的人

  • and she distrusted Richard of York, most of all.

    其中他最不信任的是約克一族的理查

  • York had been the King's close advisor and loyal General,

    約克一族世世代代是國王的近臣和忠誠的將軍

  • but was increasingly sidelined by the Queen,

    但王后漸漸提拔約克的支持者

  • who promoted her favorite supporters, like the Earls of Suffolk and Somerset.

    如薩福克伯爵和森密實伯爵,架空了約克一族

  • York's criticism of their inept handling of the war against France

    約克一族對於他們在法國戰役中的無能做出批評

  • led to his exclusion from court and transfer to Ireland.

    這導致他被法院驅逐並流放到愛爾蘭。

  • Meanwhile, mounting military failures,

    同時,戰場上接二連三的失敗

  • and corrupt rule by Margaret and her allies

    和瑪格麗特跟他的盟友腐敗的統治

  • caused widespread discontent,

    引起了廣泛的不滿

  • and in the midst of this chaos,

    在這種混亂中

  • Richard of York returned with an army to arrest Somerset and reform the court.

    理查.約克帶著軍隊返回並逮捕密森實和重組法院

  • Initially unsuccessful, he soon got his chance

    起初不成功,但他很快就得到了他的機會

  • when he was appointed Protector of the Realm

    在亨利六世精神崩潰的時候

  • after Henry suffered a mental breakdown.

    他被任命為護國將軍

  • However, less than a year later,

    然而,一年之內

  • Henry suddendly recovered

    亨利六世突然恢復了

  • and the Queen convinced him to reverse York's reforms.

    皇后說服他推倒約克的改革

  • York fled and raised an army once more.

    約克逃跑後,再度起兵

  • Though he was unable to directly seize the throne,

    雖然他無法直接篡位

  • he managed to be reinstated as Protector

    但他成功地變回護國將軍

  • and have himself and his heirs designated to succeed Henry.

    並有自己和他的指定繼承人接替亨利。

  • But instead of a crown,

    可惜的是

  • York's head acquired a pike

    理查.約克沒能成功戴上王冠

  • after he was killed in battle with the Queen's loyalists.

    而是在跟皇后的支持者對戰時被一矛刺死

  • His young son took up the claim and was crowned Edward IV.

    他的小兒子得到索賠並加冕為愛德華四世

  • Edward enjoyed great military success against the Lancasters.

    愛德華享受著贏了蘭開斯特的勝利

  • Henry was captured,

    亨利則被俘獲

  • while Margaret fled into exile

    而瑪格麗特則逃走了

  • with their reportedly cruel son, Edward of Westminster.

    帶著他們殘暴為名的兒子──威敏斯特的愛德華

  • But the newly crowned King made a tragic political mistake

    但是,新加冕的國王做了一個悲劇性的政治錯誤

  • by backing out of his arranged marriage with a French Princess

    他沒有信守承諾,跟法國公主結婚

  • to secretly marry the widow of a minor Noble.

    但卻偷偷娶未成年人的貴族寡婦

  • This alienated his most powerful ally, the Earl of Warwick.

    這疏遠了他最強大的盟友,沃里克伯爵。

  • Warwick allied with the Lancasters,

    改跟蘭開斯特一族結盟

  • turned Edward's jealous younger brother, George, against him,

    這也激起了愛德華弟弟喬治的忌妒心,去反對他

  • and even briefly managed to restore Henry as King,

    他們甚至成功地重新擁立亨利六世為王

  • but it didn't last.

    可惜這並沒有持續太久

  • Edward recaptured the throne,

    愛德華奪回了王位

  • the Lancaster Prince was killed in battle,

    蘭開斯特的王子戰死沙場

  • and Henry himself died in captivity not long after.

    在被俘獲不久後,亨利就死了

  • The rest of Edward IV's reign was peaceful,

    愛德華四世的統治一直安然無事

  • but upon his death in 1483, the bloodshed resumed.

    直到1483年,他的逝世使腥風血雨再次颳起

  • Though his twelve-year-old son was due to succeed him,

    雖然,他12歲的兒子繼承了他的王位

  • Edward's younger brother Richard III declared his nephews illegitimate

    但是他的弟弟,愛德華三世聲稱姪子並沒有繼承權

  • due to their father's secret marriage.

    只因為他是父親的秘密婚姻下的結果

  • He assumed the regency himself and threw the boys in prison.

    他成了攝政王,然後囚禁姪子們

  • Though no one knows what ultimately became of them,

    儘管沒人清楚他們的結果

  • after a while, the Princes disappeared

    但在王子們消失後

  • and Richard's power seemed secure.

    理查德的王位看起來沒有任何威脅

  • But his downfall would come only two years later

    可惜,兩年之後

  • from across the narrow sea of the English Channel.

    他在英倫海峽迎來了他的沒落

  • Henry Tudor was a direct descendant of the first Duke of Lancaster,

    亨利.都峰是蘭卡斯特公爵的直系子孫

  • raised in exile after his father's death in a previous rebellion.

    載她父親死於叛亂之後,一直在流放之地長大

  • With Richard III's power grab causing a split in the York faction,

    理查三世奪取權力的關係,導致約克一族開始分裂

  • Henry won support for his royal claim.

    亨利贏得了別人的支持,擁護他為王

  • Raising an army in France, he crossed the Channel in 1485

    在法國準播一支軍隊以後,1485年亨利橫渡英倫海峽

  • and quickly defeated Richard's forces.

    並且迅速地擊退了理查三世的軍隊

  • And by marrying Elizabeth of York, elder sister of the disappeared Princes,

    他後來迎娶了消失的王子們的姊姊──約克的伊莉莎白

  • the newly crowned Henry VII joined the two roses,

    新上任的亨利七世聯合兩個家族

  • finally ending nearly a century of war.

    結束了持續接近一個世紀的戰爭

  • We often think of historical wars as decisive conflicts

    我們經常認為,歷史上的戰爭都是黑白分明

  • with clearly defined winners and losers.

    有著絕對的勝者和敗者

  • But the Wars of the Roses, like the fiction they inspired,

    但在玫瑰戰爭中,正如那本被他們啟發的小說一樣

  • show us that victories can be uncertain,

    告訴了我們,勝利不一定是肯定

  • alliances unstable,

    聯盟不一定是穩固的

  • and even the power of Kings as fleeting as the seasons.

    甚至是國王的權力也可以像是更迭般一樣飄忽

As far as we know,

據我們了解

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 愛德華 亨利 理查 兒子 戰爭

【TED-Ed】玫瑰戰爭:真實歷史的權力遊戲 (The wars that inspired Game of Thrones - Alex Gendler)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2015 年 05 月 22 日
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