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  • As far as we know, medieval England was never invaded by ice zombies, or terrorized by dragons,

    據我們了解,中世紀的英格蘭從未被冰殭屍侵略過,或是有恐龍的蹤跡,

  • but it was shaken by a power struggle between two noble families spanning generations and involving a massive cast of characters with complex motives and shifting loyalties.

    但它卻被兩個貴族世家間的權力鬥爭所動搖,世世代代持續著,而且涉及了一堆人物以及其複雜的動機與忠誠的轉移。

  • If that sounds familiar, it's because the historical conflicts known as the Wars of the Roses served as the basis for much of the drama in Game of Thrones.

    如果聽起來很熟悉的話,是因為《權力遊戲》中的許多情節都是一個以「玫瑰戰爭」為名的歷史衝突為基礎 。

  • The real-life seeds of war were sewn by the death of King Edward III in 1377.

    現實生活中的戰爭種子是始於1377年國王愛德華三世的逝世。

  • Edward's oldest son had died before his father, but his ten-year-old son, Richard II, succeeded to the throne ahead of Edward's three surviving sons.

    愛德華的長子在他父親離世前就死了,但是他十歲的兒子,理查二世,成功地比其他三個在世的兒子還先得到寶座。

  • This skipping of an entire generation left lingering claims to the throne among their various offspring, particularly the Lancasters, descended from Edward's third son, and the Yorks, descended from his fourth son.

    跳過整整一代的繼位導致三個兒子的後代一直對於王位繼承的問題不罷休,特別是愛德華的第三個兒子的後裔,蘭開斯特一族,和四兒子後代,約克一族最為激烈。

  • The name of the ensuing wars comes from the symbols associated with the two families, the white rose of York and the red rose of Lancaster.

    而隨後的戰爭的名稱與這兩個家庭的家徽有關,白玫瑰的約克與紅玫瑰的蘭開斯特。

  • The Lancasters first gained the throne when Richard II was deposed by his cousin Henry IV in 1399.

    1399年,亨利四世罷免理查二世,蘭開斯特首先獲得王座 。

  • Despite sporadic unrest, their reign remained secure until 1422, when Henry V's death in a military campaign left an infant Henry VI as king.

    儘管還有些零星的騷亂,但他們的王朝依然安穩地掌權,直到1422年當亨利五世在軍事行動中去世,留下一個嬰兒亨利六世為王。

  • Weak-willed and dominated by advisors, Henry was eventually convinced to marry Margaret of Anjou to gain French support.

    亨利意志軟弱,同時受到臣子們的蠱惑,最終被說服和安茹的瑪格麗特結婚,換取法國的支持。

  • Margaret was beautiful, ambitious, and ruthless in persecuting any threat to her power, and she distrusted Richard of York, most of all.

    瑪格麗特美麗有野心,對任何威脅到她的權力的人她毫不手下留情,其中他最不信任的是約克一族的理查 。

  • York had been the King's close advisor and loyal General, but was increasingly sidelined by the Queen, who promoted her favorite supporters, like the Earls of Suffolk and Somerset.

    約克一直以來都是國王的近臣和忠誠的將軍,但王后漸漸提拔她所青睞的支持者,如薩福克伯爵和森密實伯爵,架空了約克。

  • York's criticism of their inept handling of the war against France led to his exclusion from court and transfer to Ireland.

    約克批評他們在法國戰役中的無能表現,導致他被法院驅逐並流放到愛爾蘭。

  • Meanwhile, mounting military failures, and corrupt rule by Margaret and her allies caused widespread discontent,

    同時,戰場上接二連三的失敗,加上瑪格麗特與其盟友腐敗的統治引起了廣泛的不滿。

  • and in the midst of this chaos, Richard of York returned with an army to arrest Somerset and reform the court.

    在混亂中,理查.約克帶著軍隊歸來,並逮捕密森實和重組法院。

  • Initially unsuccessful, he soon got his chance when he was appointed Protector of the Realm after Henry suffered a mental breakdown.

    起初不成功,但在亨利六世精神崩潰的時候,他很快就得到了機會,被任命為護國將軍。

  • However, less than a year later, Henry suddenly recovered and the Queen convinced him to reverse York's reforms.

    然而,一年之內亨利六世突然恢復了,而皇后說服他推倒約克的改革。

  • York fled and raised an army once more.

    約克逃跑後,再度起兵

  • Though he was unable to directly seize the throne, he managed to be reinstated as Protector and have himself and his heirs designated to succeed Henry.

    雖然他無法直接篡位,但他成功地變回護國將軍 ,並讓自己和他的指定繼承人接替亨利。

  • But instead of a crown, York's head acquired a pike after he was killed in battle with the Queen's loyalists.

    可惜的是,理查.約克沒能成功戴上王冠,而是在跟皇后的支持者對戰時被一矛刺死。

  • His young son took up the claim and was crowned Edward IV.

    他的小兒子得到補償,並加冕為愛德華四世。

  • Edward enjoyed great military success against the Lancasters.

    愛德華享受著戰勝蘭開斯特勝利的喜悅。

  • Henry was captured, while Margaret fled into exile with their reportedly cruel son, Edward of Westminster.

    亨利被俘獲,而瑪格麗特則帶著他們以殘暴為名的兒子──威敏斯特的愛德華,逃走了。

  • But the newly crowned King made a tragic political mistake by backing out of his arranged marriage with a French Princess to secretly marry the widow of a minor Noble.

    但是,新加冕的國王做了一個悲劇性的政治錯誤,他沒有信守承諾跟法國公主結婚,卻偷偷將一位無足輕重的貴族寡婦娶進門。

  • This alienated his most powerful ally, the Earl of Warwick.

    這疏遠了他最強大的盟友,沃里克伯爵。

  • Warwick allied with the Lancasters, turned Edward's jealous younger brother, George, against him, and even briefly managed to restore Henry as King, but it didn't last.

    沃里克改跟蘭開斯特一族結盟,這也激起了愛德華的弟弟,喬治,的忌妒心去反對他,他們甚至成功地重新擁立亨利六世為王,可惜這並沒有持續太久 。

  • Edward recaptured the throne, the Lancaster Prince was killed in battle, and Henry himself died in captivity not long after.

    愛德華奪回了王位,蘭開斯特的王子戰死沙場,亨利在被俘獲不久後就死了

  • The rest of Edward IV's reign was peaceful, but upon his death in 1483, the bloodshed resumed.

    愛德華四世的統治一直安然無事,直到1483年,他的逝世使腥風血雨再次颳起。

  • Though his twelve-year-old son was due to succeed him, Edward's younger brother Richard III declared his nephews illegitimate due to their father's secret marriage.

    雖然他12歲的兒子繼承了他的王位,但是他的弟弟,愛德華三世,聲稱姪子並沒有繼承權,只因為他是父親的秘密婚姻下的結果。

  • He assumed the regency himself and threw the boys in prison.

    他成了攝政王,然後囚禁他的姪子們。

  • Though no one knows what ultimately became of them, after a while, the princes disappeared and Richard's power seemed secure.

    儘管沒人清楚他們的結果,但在王子們消失後,理查德的王位看起來沒有再也沒有任何威脅了。

  • But his downfall would come only two years later from across the narrow sea of the English Channel.

    可惜,兩年之後他在英倫海峽迎來了他的沒落。

  • Henry Tudor was a direct descendant of the first Duke of Lancaster, raised in exile after his father's death in a previous rebellion.

    亨利.都峰是蘭卡斯特公爵的直系子孫,在她父親死於叛亂之後,一直在流放之地長大。

  • With Richard III's power grab causing a split in the York faction, Henry won support for his royal claim.

    理查三世奪取權力的關係,導致約克一族開始分裂,亨利贏得了別人的支持來擁護他為王。

  • Raising an army in France, he crossed the Channel in 1485 and quickly defeated Richard's forces.

    在法國召集了一支軍隊以後,1485年亨利橫渡英倫海峽並且迅速地擊退了理查三世的軍隊。

  • And by marrying Elizabeth of York, elder sister of the disappeared princes, the newly crowned Henry VII joined the two roses, finally ending nearly a century of war.

    他後來迎娶了消失的王子們的姊姊──約克的伊莉莎白,新上任的亨利七世聯合兩個家族,結束了持續接近一個世紀的戰爭。

  • We often think of historical wars as decisive conflicts with clearly defined winners and losers.

    我們經常認為,歷史上的戰爭都是黑白分明的,勝者為王,敗者為寇。

  • But the Wars of the Roses, like the fiction they inspired, show us that victories can be uncertain, alliances unstable, and even the power of Kings as fleeting as the seasons.

    但在玫瑰戰爭中,正如那本被他們啟發的小說一樣,告訴了我們,勝利不一定是肯定的、聯盟不一定是穩固的,甚至是國王的權力也可以像是季節更迭般一樣飄忽。

As far as we know, medieval England was never invaded by ice zombies, or terrorized by dragons,

據我們了解,中世紀的英格蘭從未被冰殭屍侵略過,或是有恐龍的蹤跡,

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 愛德華 理查 亨利 兒子 戰爭

【TED-Ed】玫瑰戰爭:真實歷史的權力遊戲 (The wars that inspired Game of Thrones - Alex Gendler)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2022 年 09 月 15 日
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