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  • I would like to introduce you

    容我向你介紹

  • to one of the most amazing scientists

    這世界上

  • who have ever lived.

    最令人讚嘆的科學家之一

  • So famous, that more places on Earth

    他的名聲響亮,以致於世界各地

  • have been named after him than any human being.

    以他的名字為紀念的地名多於任何人

  • So famous, that President Thomas Jefferson

    美國前總統湯瑪斯.傑弗遜

  • said he was the most important scientist he ever met.

    曾說他是他見過最有名望的科學家

  • And Simon Bolivar called him the true discoverer of South America.

    西蒙.玻利瓦格稱他為真正發現南美洲的人 (譯註:南美獨立革命先驅)

  • On the 100th anniversary of his birth,

    他百年冥誕時

  • every story on the front page of The New York Times

    紐約時報頭版上

  • was written about him.

    每一則都是關於他的報導

  • Who is this scientist

    這位科學家到底是誰?

  • and what did he do that was so extraordinary?

    他為什麼如此令人讚賞?

  • His name is Alexander Von Humboldt.

    他的名字是亞歷山大.凡.洪堡德 (Alexander Van Humboldt)

  • Never heard of him?

    沒聽過他名字?

  • Most people haven't.

    大部分的人都沒聽過

  • His name has been lost in history,

    他的名字已不幸遭歷史吞噬

  • but here is what he did.

    以下是他的所作所為

  • Alexander Von Humboldt started as a practicing geologist,

    洪堡德一開始是位地質學家

  • but when an inheritance allowed him the freedom to travel,

    當他獲得遺產能夠到處旅行時

  • he began an incredible, five-year scientific journey

    他踏上一個長達五年的科學之旅

  • through South America,

    探險南美大陸、

  • Mexico,

    墨西哥、

  • and Cuba.

    以及古巴

  • From 1799 to 1804,

    自 1799 至 1804 年

  • Von Humboldt and his botanist partner, Aime Bonpland,

    洪堡德和他的夥伴,植物學家埃梅.邦普蘭

  • traveled through the jungles of Venezuela,

    踏遍委內瑞拉的叢林

  • made detailed drawings of Inca ruins

    在祕魯的山區中

  • while exploring the mountains of Peru,

    詳細地畫圖紀錄古印加遺跡

  • and traversed the breadth of Mexico and Cuba.

    並橫越墨西哥及古巴

  • He explored the length of the Orinoco River in Venezuela.

    他探索委內瑞拉的俄里諾柯河全程

  • This 1700 mile portion of the trip

    這段長達 1700 英里的冒險

  • was filled with danger, disease, and fantastic new discoveries.

    充滿著危機、疾病和令人驚奇的新發現

  • For example, Von Humboldt was the first explorer

    例如,洪堡德是第一位冒險家

  • to witness the preparation of the curare plant for poison arrows.

    目睹原住民利用箭毒馬鞍子準備毒箭

  • He recognized the importance of the cinchona tree,

    他發現金雞納樹的重要性

  • whose bark contains quinine,

    其樹皮含有奎寧

  • which is a malaria cure,

    能夠治療瘧疾

  • and discovered the ocean current,

    他還發現限制秘魯沿岸雨量的洋流

  • which limits rainfall on the coast of Peru,

    他還發現限制秘魯沿岸雨量的洋流

  • later named the Humboldt Current.

    之後被命名為洪堡德洋流

  • He discovered and described many new species of plants and animals,

    他發現並描述許多新物種

  • including the electric eel.

    像是電鰻

  • In Ecuador, he climbed the one of the highest volcanoes, Chimborazo,

    在厄瓜多爾,他攀登最高的火山之一 欽伯拉索山

  • so that he could record air pressure,

    以測量大氣壓力

  • something no one had ever done at this altitude.

    當時從未有人在如此高海拔測量氣壓

  • The entire journey covered over 24,000 miles,

    他整趟旅程長達二萬四千英里

  • the same distance as the circumference of the Earth.

    等同於繞地球一圈的距離

  • Along the way, he took measurements

    途中,他測量並記錄

  • about the shape of the land,

    地形的變化

  • its temperature,

    溫度

  • the air pressure,

    氣壓

  • and the strength of magnetic fields.

    和地球磁場強度

  • By connecting places of identical temperatures,

    他將擁有相同溫度的地點在地圖上連線

  • he created contour maps with lines of similar temperatures,

    創造了世界地一幅有等溫曲線的地圖

  • which he called "isotherms".

    他將之命名為 " 等溫線 "

  • Because Humboldt invented these maps,

    多虧洪堡發明這種地圖

  • scientists began to see patterns

    科學家開始發現

  • in the life

    生物的分佈模式

  • and the types of life

    世界上生命及各種生物

  • present in certain places,

    都出現在特定的區域

  • and he became a pioneer

    洪堡德成為

  • in the visual presentation of scientific data.

    將科學數據視覺表現的先驅

  • These discoveries and measurements were critical

    他所測量的數據和發明

  • to what made him such an important scientist.

    證明為何他是如此重要的科學家

  • Until Humboldt, scientists who described new plants and animals

    在洪堡德之前的時代,發現新物種的科學家們

  • did not clearly see the crucial connection

    並無法了解各式生物

  • between living things

    以及其所居地帶

  • and the places in which they lived,

    也就是棲地

  • called habitats.

    之間的重要關連性

  • They did not appreciate the role of the environment

    他們並不重視環境 對於生物多樣性的影響

  • on the diversity of life.

    他們並不重視環境 對於生物多樣性的影響

  • Humboldt discovered and understood the importance

    洪堡德發現並且了解

  • of these connections.

    這些連結的重要性

  • Because of this,

    因此

  • he is considered the founder of biogeography.

    他被視為生物地裡學之父

  • He also developed a theory called the "Unity of Nature,"

    他更提出名為 " 自然的統一性 " 的理論

  • which shows the interconnectedness of all nature.

    描述自然界萬物的環環相扣

  • This knowledge plays a vital role

    這個理論大大影響

  • in the preservation and protection of our habitat.

    現今保育及棲地保護工作

  • His book, Cosmos, describes this theory

    他所著的《宇宙》敘述這個理論

  • and is still in print today.

    如今仍舊出版中

  • As celebrated a scientist as he was,

    他雖然是有名的科學家

  • Von Humboldt was also generous,

    洪堡德仍非常慷慨大方

  • thus serving another role in the world.

    於扮演其他角色

  • He was the mentor and teacher to younger scientists.

    他指導了許多年輕科學家

  • In fact, just recently it was discovered

    最近更有人發現

  • the crucial role that Humboldt played in the work

    洪堡德的思想大大影響

  • of his most famous pen-pal,

    他最有名的筆友:

  • Charles Darwin.

    查理斯.達爾文

  • A young Darwin read Humboldt extensively

    達爾文年輕時時常閱讀洪堡德的著作

  • and wrote in his diary while on the Beagle,

    他曾在小獵犬號上於日記中寫道

  • "I am at present fit only to read Humboldt.

    " 我現在只能研讀洪堡德

  • He, like another sun, illuminates everything I behold."

    他如太陽一般照亮我所見 "

  • Today, although Humboldt is known and revered

    現今,洪堡德仍被

  • by a small community of scientists,

    小小的科學社群所景仰

  • he is almost totally forgotten by many of us.

    但卻已被多數大眾所遺忘

  • Alexander Von Humboldt's influence is apparent

    洪堡德的影響

  • everywhere and in every scientific discipline.

    顯明於所有的科學領域

  • He is, perhaps, the most important forgotten man of science.

    他也許是被遺忘的科學家中最重要的

  • But he doesn't have to be,

    但他並不需仍舊如此

  • because if you remember him,

    因為如果你記得他

  • perhaps his influence will be celebrated.

    也許他的影響就會被慶祝

I would like to introduce you

容我向你介紹

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 科學家 發現 生物 洋流 影響

【TED-Ed】亞歷山大-馮-洪堡是誰?- George Mehler (【TED-Ed】Who is Alexander von Humboldt? - George Mehler)

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    wikiHuang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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