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  • This is a song sung by a brown thrasher.

    這是褐彎嘴嘲鶇的歌聲

  • But that's just one of the thousand or more that it knows,

    但這只是牠會唱的千種歌聲中的其中一種

  • and it's not the only avian virtuoso.

    而牠也並非唯一的鳥類歌唱家

  • A wood thrush can sing two pitches at once.

    黃褐棕鶇一次能唱出兩種不同音高

  • A mockingbird can match the sounds around it, including car alarms.

    小嘲鶇能模仿牠周遭的聲音,包括汽車警報聲

  • And the Australian superb lyrebird

    而澳洲華麗琴鳥

  • has an incredible, elaborate song and dance ritual.

    則擁有難以置信的精緻歌聲和舞蹈儀式

  • These are just a few of the 4,000 species of songbirds.

    上述只是 4000 種鳴禽中的其中幾種

  • Most birds produce short, simple calls,

    大部分的鳥類能發出簡單的短鳴聲

  • but songbirds also have a repertoire of complex vocal patterns

    但鳴禽除此之外還具有發出複雜聲音的能力

  • that help them attract mates,

    這能幫助他們吸引伴侶

  • defend territory,

    保護地盤

  • and strengthen their social bonds.

    以及加強他們的社交連結

  • Each songbird species has its own distinct song patterns,

    每種鳴禽都有他們獨特的歌唱模式

  • some with characteristic regional dialects.

    有些歌唱模式帶有地域性方言的特色

  • Experienced listeners can even distinguish individual birds by their unique songs.

    經驗豐富的聽者甚至能依照牠們獨特的歌聲,辨認出牠們是哪一種鳥類

  • So how do birds learn these songs in the first place?

    那麼鳥類一開始是如何學習這些歌聲的呢?

  • How do they know to mimic the songs of their own species?

    牠們怎麼知道要模仿牠們種族的歌聲?

  • Are they born knowing how to sing?

    難道牠們天生就會唱歌嗎?

  • A lot of what scientists know about bird song comes from studying zebra finches.

    許多科學家所知關於鳥類歌唱的知識,都是來自對斑胸草雀的研究

  • A baby male zebra finch typically learns to sing from its father or other males,

    雄性斑胸草雀寶寶通常從爸爸或其他公鳥身上學習唱歌

  • starting while it's still a fledgling in the nest.

    牠從還是巢中雛鳥的年紀,就開始學習這項技能了

  • First comes a sensory learning phase,

    一開始是感官學習階段

  • when the baby finch hears the songs sung around it and commits them to memory.

    斑胸草雀寶寶會聽周遭的歌聲,並把這些聲音記起來

  • The bird starts to vocalize during the motor learning phase,

    在動作學習階段,斑胸草雀寶寶會試著發聲

  • practicing until it can match the song it memorized.

    並不斷練習,直到牠的發聲和記憶中的聲音相符

  • As the bird learns, hearing the tutor's song over and over again

    對鳥兒的學習而言,不斷的聆聽指導者的歌聲是有用的—

  • is helpfulup to a point.

    但有個限度

  • If he hears it too many times, the imitation degrades

    如果牠聽太多次,模仿能力反而會降低—

  • and the source matters.

    學習對象的樣子也會影響模仿能力

  • If the song is played through a loudspeaker,

    如果歌聲是從揚聲器裡傳出

  • he can't pick it up as easily.

    牠就無法輕易地學習

  • But hide the same loudspeaker inside a toy painted to look like a zebra finch,

    但如果把揚聲器藏在一個斑胸草雀造型的玩具裡

  • and his learning improves.

    牠的學習能力就會上升

  • What if the baby never hears another zebra finch's song?

    如果斑胸草雀寶寶從來沒聽過任何斑胸草雀的歌聲會怎麼樣?

  • Interestingly enough, it'll sing anyway.

    有趣的是,牠無論如何還是會唱歌

  • Isolated finches still produce what are called innate or isolate songs.

    與群體孤立的斑胸草雀仍會唱歌,我們稱此為本能歌聲或孤立歌聲

  • A specific tune might be taught,

    特殊的歌唱旋律是被教導的

  • but the instinct to sing seems to be hardwired into a songbird's brain.

    但本能歌聲似乎與生俱來就在鳴禽的大腦裡

  • Innate songs sound different from theculturedsongs

    在一開始,本能歌聲聽起來和從其他鳴禽那裡

  • learned from other finchesat first.

    學來的「社會化」歌聲不同

  • If isolated zebra finches start a new colony,

    但若與群體孤立的斑胸草雀發展出一個新群體

  • the young birds pick up the isolate song from their parents.

    幼鳥將會從父母那學習本能歌聲

  • But the song changes from generation to generation.

    但這個歌聲在每一代都會改變

  • And after a few iterations,

    在數次的迭代後

  • the melody actually starts to resemble

    牠們唱出來的旋律就會像

  • the cultured songs sung by zebra finches in the wild.

    野生斑胸草雀所唱的社會化歌聲一樣

  • Something about the learning process must be hardwired, too,

    看來,在斑胸草雀學習歌聲的過程中,有些機制是與生俱來的

  • drawing the birds towards the same song patterns again and again.

    它會不斷的讓鳥兒漸漸朝著相同的歌唱樣式發展

  • This means that basic information about the zebra finch song

    這說明了斑胸草雀歌聲的基本訊息

  • must be stored somewhere in its genome,

    可能被儲存在他們基因組內的某處

  • imprinted there by millions of years of evolution.

    在數百萬年的演化中銘刻於基因

  • At first, this might seem odd,

    這一開始聽來可能有點奇怪

  • as we usually think of genetic code as a source of biochemical or physical traits,

    畢竟我們通常認為,基因密碼應該是生化或身體特徵的源頭

  • not something like a behavior or action.

    而和習性,行為等特性無關

  • But the two aren't fundamentally different;

    但其實這兩者在本質上並無不同

  • we can connect genomes to behavior through brain circuitry.

    我們能從大腦迴路來連結基因組和習性的關聯

  • The connection is noisy and quite complex.

    這個連結十分複雜,也有許多嘈雜的訊號在上面流動

  • It doesn't simply map single genes to single behaviors, but it exists.

    而且它不是以「一個基因對應到一個行為」這樣的方式做連結,但這個連結確實存在

  • Genomes contain codes for proteins that guide brain development,

    基因組中含有能支配大腦發展的蛋白質密碼

  • such as molecules that guide the pathways of developing axons,

    像是引導軸突路徑的發展分子

  • shaping distinct circuits.

    能塑造獨特的腦迴路

  • Birds' brains have so-calledsong circuits

    鳥兒的大腦有所謂的「歌唱迴路」

  • that are active when the birds sing.

    在牠們唱歌時,這個迴路會活躍起來

  • These circuits also respond to the song of a bird's own species

    比起其他種族鳥類的歌聲,這類迴路對鳥兒本身種族的歌聲

  • more strongly than to other species' songs.

    有更強烈的反應

  • So the theory is that a bird's genes guide development of brain circuits

    因此這個理論說明了:鳥類的基因會引導他們腦中

  • that relate to singing and the ability to learn songs.

    有關唱歌和學習歌聲的迴路發展

  • Then, exposure to songs shapes those neural circuits

    再來,暴露在歌聲中能形塑牠們的神經迴路

  • to produce the songs that are typical to that species.

    並產生牠們種族典型的歌聲

  • Genetically encoded or innate behaviors aren't unique to songbirds.

    基因編碼或先天行為並不特別發生在鳴禽身上

  • They're widespread in the animal kingdom.

    這些機制也廣泛的散佈在動物世界中

  • Spectacular examples include

    比較引人注目的例子有

  • the long-distance migrations of monarch butterflies and salmon.

    會長距離遷徙的帝王斑蝶和鮭魚

  • So what does this mean for humans?

    那麼這些現象對人類的意義是什麼呢?

  • Are we also born with innate information written into our genomes

    我們是否也具有天生銘刻在我們基因組內的訊息

  • that helps shape our neural circuits,

    能幫助形塑我們的神經迴路

  • and ultimately results in something we know?

    並在最後導致我們已知的事物呢?

  • Could there be some knowledge

    是否可能有那樣一些知識

  • that is unique and intrinsic to humans as a species?

    對人類這個種族來說是獨特和天生的呢?

This is a song sung by a brown thrasher.

這是褐彎嘴嘲鶇的歌聲

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 歌聲 鳥類 學習 基因組 鳥兒

【TED-Ed】鳥類究竟如何學會歌唱?(How do birds learn to sing? - Partha P. Mitra) (TED-Ed How do birds learn to sing? - Partha P. Mitra)

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    IS LIU 發佈於 2018 年 04 月 06 日
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