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  • Humans know the surprising prick of a needle,

    人類知道突然被針刺到的刺痛感

  • the searing pain of a stubbed toe,

    踢到腳趾頭的劇痛感

  • and the throbbing of a toothache.

    還有牙痛的抽痛感

  • We can identify many types of pain and have multiple ways of treating it.

    我們可以辨認出許多種類的疼痛,也有很多的處理方式

  • But what about other species?

    但是其他種生物呢?

  • How do the animals all around us experience pain?

    我們周遭的動物是怎麼感受到疼痛的?

  • It's important that we find out.

    找出答案對我們來說很重要

  • We keep animals as pets,

    我們把動物當成寵物

  • they enrich our environment,

    牠們豐富了我們的環境

  • we farm many species for food,

    我們為了食物而畜養很多種生物

  • and we use them in experiments to advance science and human health.

    我們也拿牠們作實驗,以增進科技與人類健康

  • Animals are clearly important to us,

    動物顯然對我們很重要

  • so it's equally important that we avoid causing them unnecessary pain.

    因此,讓牠們免受不必要的疼痛也同樣很重要

  • For animals that are similar to us, like mammals,

    哺乳類等跟我們很相似的動物

  • it's often obvious when they're hurting.

    牠們受傷時常常顯而易見

  • But there's a lot that isn't obvious,

    但很多時候卻不這麼明顯

  • like whether pain relievers that work on us also help them.

    像是對我們有用的止痛藥,是否也能幫助牠們?

  • And the more different an animal is from us,

    動物與我們愈不相同

  • the harder it is to understand their experience.

    就愈難了解牠們的感受

  • How do you tell whether a shrimp is in pain?

    你怎麼知道蝦子有沒有疼痛?

  • A snake?

    蛇?

  • A snail?

    蝸牛?

  • In vertebrates, including humans,

    脊椎動物,包含人類在內

  • pain can be split into two distinct processes.

    感受疼痛可分為兩種不同的過程

  • In first, nerves and the skin sense something harmful

    在第一種過程,神經與皮膚感知到受傷了

  • and communicate that information to the spinal cord.

    接著傳遞受傷的訊息到脊椎神經

  • There, motor neurons activate movements

    脊椎神經中的運動神經元會使器官活動

  • that make us rapidly jerk away from the threat.

    讓我們能迅速遠離威脅

  • This is the physical recognition of harm called nociception,

    這種對傷害的身體認知就稱為痛覺

  • and nearly all animals,

    幾乎所有動物

  • even those with very simple nervous systems,

    即便是那些神經系統非常簡單的動物

  • experience it.

    都會感受到痛覺

  • Without this ability, animals would be unable to avoid harm

    若沒有了這項能力,動物就不能避開傷害

  • and their survival would be threatened.

    生存就會因此受威脅

  • The second part is the conscious recognition of harm.

    第二種過程是對於傷害的意識認知

  • In humans, this occurs when the sensory neurons in our skin

    以人類來說,這發生於皮膚內的認知神經

  • make a second round of connections via the spinal cord to the brain.

    進行第二次聯繫,透過脊椎神經傳到大腦

  • There, millions of neurons in multiple regions create the sensations of pain.

    大腦中不同區域的神經元產生疼痛的感覺

  • For us, this is a very complex experience associated with emotions like fear,

    對我們來說,這是非常複雜的感覺,與恐懼

  • panic,

    驚慌

  • and stress,

    緊張的情緒有關

  • which we can communicate to others.

    而我們可以傳達這些情緒給其他人

  • But it's harder to know exactly how animals experience

    但是我們難以知道動物如何感覺

  • this part of the process

    這個過程

  • because most them can't show us what they feel.

    因為牠們大部分都無法表露出牠們感受到什麼

  • However, we get clues from observing how animals behave.

    然而,我們可以從觀察動物的行為中獲得線索

  • Wild, hurt animals are known to nurse their wounds,

    野生、受傷的動物會照料傷口

  • make noises to show their distress,

    製造噪音來表示焦慮

  • and become reclusive.

    甚至把自己藏匿起來

  • In the lab, scientists have discovered that animals like chickens and rats

    科學家在實驗室裡發現,像是雞、老鼠等動物

  • will self-administer pain-reducing drugs if they're hurting.

    如果受傷了會自己服用減緩疼痛的藥物

  • Animals also avoid situations where they've been hurt before,

    動物也會避開曾經受傷過的情況

  • which suggests awareness of threats.

    這意味著他們有危險意識

  • We've reached the point that research has made us so sure

    研究已經讓我們非常肯定

  • that vertebrates recognize pain

    脊椎動物認知得到疼痛

  • that it's illegal in many countries to needlessly harm these animals.

    因此,無謂地傷害動物在許多國家是非法的

  • But what about other types of animals like invertebrates?

    那麼像是無脊椎動物等其他種類的生物呢?

  • These animals aren't legally protected,

    這些動物沒有受法律保護

  • partly because their behaviors are harder to read.

    部份原因是因為牠們的行為更難以解讀

  • We can make good guesses about some of them,

    我們可以猜出哪些是無脊椎動物

  • like oysters,

    像是牡蠣

  • worms,

  • and jellyfish.

    還有水母

  • These are examples of animals that either lack a brain

    這些例子中的動物不是缺少大腦

  • or have a very simple one.

    就是大腦構造非常簡單

  • So an oyster may recoil when squirted with lemon juice, for instance,

    因此,比方說,牡蠣會因為痛覺

  • because of nociception.

    被噴到檸檬汁時會畏縮

  • But with such a simple nervous system,

    但是牠們的神經系統因為太過簡單

  • it's unlikely to experience the conscious part of pain.

    所以不可能感受到疼痛的意識認知過程

  • Other invertebrate animals are more complicated, though,

    不過其他的無脊椎動物較為複雜

  • like the octopus,

    例如章魚

  • which has a sophisticated brain

    有著複雜的大腦

  • and is thought to be one of the most intelligent invertebrate animals.

    被認為是無脊椎動物中最聰明的動物之一

  • Yet, in many countries, people continue the practice of eating live octopus.

    不過,許多國家的人們還是有生吃章魚的習慣

  • We also boil live crawfish, shrimp, and crabs

    即便我們不知道牠們有沒有感覺

  • even though we don't really know how they're affected either.

    我們也還是會烹煮活生生的小龍蝦、蝦子,以及螃蟹

  • This poses an ethical problem

    這就產生了道德上的問題

  • because we may be causing these animals unnecessary suffering.

    因為我們可能讓這些動物受到不必要的折磨

  • Scientific experimentation, though controversial, gives us some clues.

    科學實驗雖然有爭議,卻能給我們一些線索

  • Tests on hermit crabs show that they'll leave an undesirable shell

    對寄居蟹的實驗顯示,牠們遭到電擊時

  • if they're zapped with electricity

    會離開不好的殼

  • but stay if it's a good shell.

    但如果是好的殼就會留在殼內

  • And octopi that may originally curl up an injured arm to protect it

    章魚原本會將受傷的手臂彎曲以保護手臂

  • will risk using it to catch prey.

    卻會冒險用那隻手臂來獵捕獵物

  • That suggests that these animals make value judgements around sensory input

    這表示這些動物會在感受到感覺時衡量、判斷

  • instead of just reacting reflexively to harm.

    而非只是反射性地對傷害作出反應

  • Meanwhile, crabs have been known to repeatedly rub a spot on their bodies

    同樣地,螃蟹在遭到電擊時

  • where they've received an electric shock.

    會反覆的摩擦被電擊的身體部位

  • And even sea slugs flinch

    甚至連海參

  • when they know they're about to receive a noxious stimulus.

    在知道自己要中毒時會退縮

  • That means they have some memory of physical sensations.

    這意味著牠們有身體感覺的記憶

  • We still have a lot to learn about animal pain.

    動物疼痛的知識我們還有很多可以學習

  • As our knowledge grows,

    隨著知識增長

  • it may one day allow us to live in a world where we don't cause pain needlessly.

    也許有一天,世界上就不會再有不必要的疼痛

Humans know the surprising prick of a needle,

人類知道突然被針刺到的刺痛感

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 動物 受傷 神經 認知 痛覺

【TED-ED】動物是怎麼感覺到「痛」的呢? (How do animals experience pain? - Robyn J. Crook)

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    沙渺 發佈於 2017 年 01 月 18 日
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