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  • The distinct forms of speech heard around Bremen, Germany, and Interlaken, Switzerland are considered regional dialects of the German language.

    在德國布萊梅和瑞士因特拉肯所聽到的不同語言被認為是德語的地方方言。

  • And yet, when someone from Bremen is visiting the Swiss Alps, the conversations they hear between locals will likely be incomprehensible to them.

    而且當有布萊梅的人去爬瑞士阿爾卑斯山時,對他們來說當地人的對話可能會是難理解的。

  • Similarly, outside of China, Mandarin and Cantonese are often referred to as Chinese dialects.

    同樣地,中國以外的地方,國語跟廣東話很常被歸類為中國的方言。

  • But they're even more dissimilar than Spanish and Italian.

    但他們甚至比西班牙文和義大利文有更多不同之處。

  • On the other hand, speakers of Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish, which are recognized as three distinct languages, can usually communicate in their native tongues with little difficulty.

    另一方面來說,對講丹麥語、挪威語和瑞士語的人來說,儘管這三個語言被認為是不同的,但是他們反而可以毫不費力地用母語溝通。

  • And Turkish language soap operas, broadcast without dubbing or subtitles, are some of the most popular shows in Azeri-speaking Azerbaijan.

    土耳其的肥皂劇、廣播沒有配音或字幕,卻是講亞賽語的亞塞拜然共和國裡受歡迎的節目。

  • So, when is a form of speech considered a dialect versus a language?

    所以什麼時候會劃分為方言跟語言?

  • It seems reasonable that the degree of mutual intelligibility would determine whether two ways of speaking are classified as separate languages or as dialects of the same language.

    相互理解的程度可以決定兩種語言是否歸類於不同的語言或同個語言的方言,這似乎是合理的。

  • But as we've seen, there are many occasions where this is not the case.

    但就如同我們所見,很多情況下並非如此。

  • Perhaps surprisingly, the distinction between a language and a dialect usually has nothing to do with pronunciation, vocabulary, or any other linguistic features.

    驚人的是,語言和方言的區別通常和發音、單字或其他語言學特徵上並沒有什麼關係。

  • However, it's not coincidental, either.

    然而這也不是巧合。

  • It's a matter of politics.

    這跟政治有關。

  • The basis for what's officially deemed a language was shaped by the emergence of European nation states beginning around the 1500s.

    一個官方承認語言的準則大概是由16世紀初歐洲形成的民族國家所朔造出來的。

  • In order to establish and maintain centralized governments, clear territorial boundaries, and state-sponsored education systems, many nation states promoted a standardized language.

    為了建立和維持中央集權的政府、劃清土地界線、國家贊助的教育系統,許多民族國家推動了一個標準化的語言。

  • Which form of speech was chosen to be the standard language was usually based on what people spoke in the capital.

    通常是根據城市裡的人怎麼說話作為選擇哪種語言的標準。

  • And while other forms of speech persisted, they were often treated as inferior.

    雖然其他種語言仍然存在,但他們通常被視為是次等的。

  • This tradition extended across the globe with European colonization and into modern times.

    這種傳統思想隨著歐洲殖民延伸到全球,甚至到現代都還有。

  • Italy, for example, has at least 15 of what might be called regional dialects.

    舉例來說,義大利可能至少有15種所謂的地方方言。

  • One of them, the Florentine dialect, became known as Standard Italian when the country politically unified in 1861.

    其中一種是佛羅倫斯方言,在1861年義大利政府統一時,成為標準的義大利語。

  • It was selected because legendary authors like Dante and Machiavelli used it in their original works, and it came to represent an image of Italian national identity that some found particularly desirable.

    因為著名的作者像是但丁和馬基維利在他們的原作中使用,佛羅倫斯方言才會受選為義大利語。它代表義大利人國家認同的形象,有些人覺得特別有魅力。

  • Later on, in his attempt to establish a unified, fascist state, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini saw language standardization as an important objective.

    後來義大利獨裁者貝尼托·墨索里尼企圖建立一個統一的法西斯國家,他把語言標準化視為重要的目標。

  • His government promoted standard Italian while prohibiting other forms of speech from the public sphere, framing them as backward and unsophisticated.

    他的政府提倡標準義大利語,並禁止在公共區域用其他語言,制定出那些是落後跟愚笨的語言。

  • In everything from job applications to court testimonies, standard languages act as gatekeepers around the world.

    全球的標準語言就像守門員一樣,從工作履歷到法院證詞都是。

  • For instance, one 1999 study showed that landlords responded to apartment inquiries based on what form of speech their prospective tenants used.

    例如一項1999年的研究指出房東會根據潛在租客使用的語言來回應公寓的諮詢。

  • When callers spoke African-American Vernacular English, or AAVE, landlords were more likely to reject their inquiries.

    當來電者說的是非洲裔美國人白話英語或美國黑人英語,房東會比較有可能拒絕他們的諮詢。

  • When they spoke so-called Standard American English, which is often associated with whiteness, landlords responded more positively.

    當來電者使用所謂的美式英語時,通常會讓人聯想到白人,房東就會越積極地回答。

  • Both of these forms of speech are considered English dialects.

    兩種語言都被認為是英語方言。

  • In the United States, some people have cast AAVE as an incorrect or simplified version of mainstream US English.

    在美國,某些人把非洲裔美國人白話英語歸類成一個不正確或簡化版的主流美式英語。

  • But AAVE follows consistent grammatical rules every bit as sophisticated as other forms of English.

    但非洲裔美國人白話英語跟其他形式的英語一樣符合複雜的文法規則。

  • Linguists tend to avoid the term "dialect" altogether.

    語言學家會傾向避免使用「方言」這整個字。

  • Instead, many opt to call different forms of speech "varieties".

    取而代之地,有許多人稱不同的語言為「多元化」。

  • This way, languages are seen as groups of varieties.

    如此一來,語言就能被視為多元化的族群。

  • So the English language is made up of varieties including Standard British and American English, AAVE, Nigerian English, Malaysian English, and many others.

    英語是由標準英式英語、美式英語、非洲裔美國人白話英語、奈及利亞英語、馬來西亞英語和許多其他種語言的多元化組成。

  • Each has its own unique history and characteristic pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammatical structures.

    每種語言都有它獨特的歷史、發音特色、單字和文法結構。

  • But the dividing line between varieties is murky.

    但這些多元化語言的界線是模糊的。

  • Human language, in all its cross-pollinating, ever-evolving glory, naturally resists the impulse to sort it into neat buckets.

    人類語言的美妙之處就在於相互交融、自我進化,自然拒絕將其標準化並整齊排列。

  • Oftentimes, forms of speech exist on a kind of linguistic continuum, where they overlap with others, and the differences between them are gradual, not clear-cut.

    很多時候語言存在某種語言連續體,它們會重疊在一起,在它們之間的差別是平緩的、切割不清的。

  • And that's the confounding beauty of the dynamic, diverse, and dazzling universe of human communication.

    這就是人類溝通世界中充滿活力、多元化的、令人驚嘆的困惑之美。

The distinct forms of speech heard around Bremen, Germany, and Interlaken, Switzerland are considered regional dialects of the German language.

在德國布萊梅和瑞士因特拉肯所聽到的不同語言被認為是德語的地方方言。

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是什麼讓語言變成語言...而不是方言?What makes a language... a language?

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    nao 發佈於 2022 年 02 月 17 日
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