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  • I am an architect.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

  • And this picture shows the city that I come from,

    我是一名建築師。

  • Beijing, China.

    這張圖上的城市是我的故鄉,

  • And old Beijing is like a very beautiful garden,

    中國,北京。

  • you can see a lot of nature.

    老北京就像是個非常美麗的花園,

  • When I was a kid,

    你可以看到很多自然風光。

  • I learned to swim in this lake

    在我小時候,

  • and I climbed mountains every day after school.

    我在這個湖裏學會了游泳,

  • But after getting older,

    每天放學之後,我都會去爬山。

  • we built more and more modern buildings.

    但,長大後,

  • And they all look the same.

    我們建造了越來越多的現代大樓。

  • They all look like matchboxes.

    它們看起來都一樣,

  • Why are modern buildings and cities full of these boxy shapes?

    它們看起來都像是火柴盒。

  • In this photo, you actually see two cities.

    為什麼現代建築和城市

  • The one on the left is New York,

    都滿是這種盒子型狀?

  • and the one on the right is Tianjin, a Chinese city

    在這張照片中, 你其實可以看到兩個城市。

  • that's being constructed.

    左邊的是紐約,

  • And they have very similar skylines.

    右邊的是天津,

  • Maybe they also follow the same principle.

    一個正在建設中的中國城市。

  • You know, competing for density,

    它們在天空映襯下的 空中輪廓線很相似。

  • competing for more space,

    也許它們也遵從同樣的建築原則。

  • competing for efficiency.

    你們知道的,爭取密度、 爭奪更多空間、

  • Therefore, modern architecture

    競爭效益。

  • becomes a symbol of capital and power.

    因此,現代建築

  • Chinese cities are building a lot,

    變成了資本和權力的象徵。

  • they're also, you know,

    中國的城市在不斷建造中,

  • not only competing for this space and height,

    它們也都一樣,

  • they're also learning a lot from North American urban strategies

    不僅是在空間和高度上競爭,

  • [and] also repeat a lot from city to city.

    也從北美的都市戰略學了很多,

  • So here, we call it 1,000 cities with one face.

    且城市和城市間有許多重覆。

  • So as an architect in China,

    在這裡,我們稱之為 「千城一面」。

  • I have to ask myself, what can I do about it?

    身為中國的建築師,

  • One day, I was walking on a street,

    我得自問,對此,我能做什麼?

  • I saw people selling fish.

    有一天,我在街上走路,

  • And they put the fish in this cubic fish tank.

    我看到有人在賣魚。

  • So I was asking the same question,

    他們把魚放在立方形的魚缸中。

  • why a cubic space for fish?

    我也問了同樣的問題,

  • Do they like cubic space?

    為什麼連魚的空間都是立方形?

  • (Laughter)

    魚喜歡立方形的空間嗎?

  • Obviously not.

    (笑聲)

  • So maybe the cubic space, cubic architecture,

    顯然不是。

  • is cheaper, is easier to make.

    所以,也許建造立方形空間、

  • So, I did this small research,

    立方形建築,比較便宜且容易。

  • I put a camera and I tried to observe how fish behave

    所以我做了一點研究,

  • in this cubic space.

    我架設了一台攝影機,

  • And then I found they probably weren't happy.

    試圖觀察魚在這個 立方形空間中的行為,

  • The cubic space wasn't the perfect home for them,

    接著,我發現, 牠們可能並不快樂。

  • so I decided to design a new fish tank for them.

    立方形空間對牠們而言 並非最理想的家,

  • I think it should be more organic,

    所以我決定要為牠們設計新的缸。

  • it should be a more fluid space inside.

    我認為缸應該要更有機,

  • More complex interiors.

    內部的空間應該要更流線型。

  • I think they should feel happier living in this space,

    更複雜的內部設計。

  • but I wouldn't know because they don't talk to me.

    我認為魚兒住在這個空間中會更快樂,

  • (Laughter)

    但我不會知道, 因為牠們不會跟我說。

  • But one year after,

    (笑聲)

  • we got this opportunity to design this real building for humans.

    但,一年後,

  • This is actually a pair of towers

    我們得到一個機會,

  • that we built in Mississauga, a city outside Toronto.

    為人們設計這棟真正的大樓。

  • And people call this Marilyn Monroe Towers --

    它其實是一對雙塔,

  • (Laughter)

    建造地點為多倫多外的 一個城市,叫做密西沙加。

  • because of its curvature.

    大家稱它為「夢露大廈」——

  • And the idea was to build a tower,

    (笑聲)

  • high-rise, residential tower, but not a box.

    原因是它的曲度。

  • It's more inspired by nature,

    想法是,要建造一座塔,

  • with the sunshine and wind dynamics.

    高樓層、可居住的高塔, 而非一個盒子。

  • After we finished designing the first tower,

    它的靈感更多來自於大自然, 有太陽光以及風的流動。

  • they told us, you know,

    在我們設計完第一座塔之後,

  • "You don't have to design the second one,

    他們告訴我們:

  • you just repeat the same design,

    「你們不用設計第二座塔了, 把同樣的設計拿來用就好,

  • and we pay you twice."

    我們付你們兩倍的錢。」

  • But I said, "You cannot have two Marilyn Monroes standing there."

    但,我說:「不能有兩個 瑪莉蓮夢露站在那裡。」

  • And nature never repeats itself,

    大自然本身都不會有所重覆,

  • so now we have two buildings that can dance together.

    所以,現在我們有兩棟大樓,

  • So I have this question for myself.

    它們可以共舞。

  • You know, why, in the modern city,

    我問我自己一個問題。

  • we often think architecture is a machine, is a box?

    為什麼,在現代城市裡,

  • So here, I want to see how people looked at nature in the past.

    我們通常都認為建築 是一個機器、一個盒子?

  • By looking into this Chinese traditional painting,

    所以,我想要了解在過去 大家是怎麼看待大自然的。

  • I found that they often mixed

    研究這張中國傳統畫作,

  • the nature and the artificial, man-made, in a very dramatic way,

    我發現他們通常會用 非常戲劇性的方式,

  • so they create this emotional scenery.

    將大自然和人工的 人造物融合在一起,

  • So in the modern city, my question is:

    所以他們會創造出 這種充滿情緒的景色。

  • Is there a way that we don't separate buildings and nature,

    在現代城市中,我的問題是:

  • but combine them?

    我們有沒有辦法可以不要 把建物和大自然分開,

  • So there's another project that we built in China.

    而是將兩者結合?

  • It's a quite large residential complex.

    這是我們在中國 建造的另一個計畫。

  • And it's located in a very beautiful nature setting.

    這是一棟很大的住宅綜合大樓。

  • To be honest, the first time when I visited the site,

    它位於非常美麗的自然環境中。

  • it was too beautiful.

    老實說,當我初次 造訪這個地方時,

  • And I almost decided to reject the project

    它實在太美了。

  • because you feel as a criminal to do anything there.

    我幾乎決定要拒絕接下這個計畫,

  • I don't want to become a criminal.

    因為在那裡動手腳 感覺就好像是犯罪一樣。

  • But my second thought was,

    我不想要成為罪犯。

  • if I didn't do it,

    但我的第二個想法是,

  • they would just put, you know, standard urban towers there, anyway.

    如果我不做,

  • And that would be a pity.

    他們無論如何還是會放一座 標準型的都市塔型建築在那裡。

  • So I decided I had to give it a try.

    那就很可惜了。

  • So the way we did that was

    所以我決定一試。

  • we took the contour lines from the existing mountains,

    我們採用的方法是,

  • and we took those lines and then translated them into a building.

    我們用既有山岳的外輪廓線,

  • So those towers are actually taking the shapes

    我們把那些輪廓線轉換成為建物。

  • and geometries from the nature.

    所以,那些塔的外形和幾何 其實正是來自大自然。

  • So each building has a different shape,

    所以每座建物有不同的形狀、

  • a different size, different height.

    不同的大小、不同的高度。

  • And they become the extension of the nature

    它們變成了一種延伸,

  • [where] they're situated.

    將它們所處的大自然再延伸出去。

  • And you know,

    要知道,

  • people think we use computer sometimes

    人們會認為我們有時會 用電腦來設計這種建築,

  • to design this kind of architecture,

    但我其實用了很大量的手繪,

  • but I actually use a lot of hand sketch,

    因為我喜歡手繪才有的隨機性。

  • because I like the randomness in the hand sketch.

    手繪能傳遞一些情緒,

  • And they can carry sort of emotions

    是電腦圖紙無法表達的。

  • that cannot be made by computers.

    建築、人類,和大自然

  • Architecture and humans and nature can coexist together

    能夠共存,

  • and are having a good relationship in this photo.

    在這張照片中, 它們有很好的關係。

  • Actually this guy in the photo is one of the architects on our team.

    事實上,照片中的這個傢伙 是我們團隊裡的一名建築師。

  • I think he's been enjoying the beautiful nature scenery,

    我想他當時

  • and feeling relieved that he is not part of the criminals --

    很享受美麗的自然風景,

  • (Laughter)

    且覺得很放鬆,因為, 他沒有成爲破壞美景的罪犯——

  • in the end.

    (笑聲)

  • Back to the city,

    還好不是。

  • in Beijing, we were asked to design these urban towers.

    再說城市,

  • And I made this model.

    在北京,有人找我們 去設計這樣的都市高塔。

  • It's an architecture model,

    我做了這個模型。

  • looks like a minimountain and minivalleys.

    它是個建築模型,

  • I put this model on my table, and I watered it every day.

    看起來像是迷你山岳和迷你山谷。

  • And years later, we completed this building.

    我把這個模型放在 我的桌上,每天為它澆水。

  • And you can see how my hand sketch

    數年後,我們完成了這棟大樓。

  • is being translated into the real building.

    各位可以看到我的手繪圖

  • And they look quite similar.

    是如何被轉換成真實的建物。

  • It looks like a black mountain.

    它們看起來十分相似。

  • And this is how this building is situated in the city.

    它看起來像是一座黑山。

  • It's on the edge of this beautiful park.

    這是這座建物處在城市裡的樣子。

  • It's different, very different from the surrounding buildings,

    它位在一座美麗的公園旁邊。

  • because other buildings are trying to build a wall around the nature.

    它和周圍的大樓 不一樣,很不一樣,

  • But what we're trying to do here

    因為其他的大樓試圖 在大自然周邊建起圍牆。

  • is to make the building itself as a part of nature,

    但我們在這裡想要做的是

  • so we can extend the nature from the park into the city.

    讓大樓本身成為大自然的一部分,

  • So that was the idea.

    所以我們把大自然 從公園延伸到了城市中。

  • A Chinese art critic drew this painting.

    那就是我們的想法。

  • He put our building in this painting.

    一位中國的藝評家畫了這幅畫。

  • Can you see there's a black, tiny mountain?

    他把我們的大樓放在這幅畫中。

  • That looks very fit into this painting.

    各位能看見上面有一座小黑山嗎?

  • However, in this reality,

    它在這幅畫中看起來非常和諧。

  • our design was being challenged

    然而,在這個現實中,

  • that it looks so different from the surroundings.

    我們的設計在那時是會被質疑,

  • And they asked me to modify my design,

    因為它看起來和周圍格格不入。

  • either color or shape,

    他們要求我修改我的設計,

  • to make the building fit the context better.

    不論顏色或形狀,

  • So my question was,

    要讓這棟大樓顯得不那麽突兀。

  • why it fits this traditional, you know, natural context,

    所以,我的問題是,

  • better than the reality?

    為什麼此設計會比較契合

  • Maybe there's something wrong with the reality.

    傳統的大自然環境,

  • Something wrong with the context.

    卻沒那麼融入現實?

  • In the very northern part of China,

    也許是現實出了問題。

  • we also built this opera house.

    是周圍環境出了問題。

  • It's an opera house next to the river,

    在中國非常北邊的地方,

  • in the wetland park.

    我們也建造了這間歌劇院。

  • So we decided to make this building part of the surrounding landscape

    這間歌劇院在河邊,

  • and merge into the horizon.

    位在濕地公園內。

  • The building literally looks like a snow mountain.

    我們決定要讓這間劇院 成為周圍地景的一部分,

  • And people can walk on the building.

    與地平線融為一體。

  • During the day or when there's no opera,

    這棟建築真的看起來像座雪山。

  • people come here, they can enjoy the views,

    人可以在建築上行走。

  • and they can continue their journey from the park

    白天時,或沒有歌劇表演時,

  • onto the building.

    大家會來這裡,享受風景,

  • When they reach the rooftop,

    他們的旅程可以從公園 一路延續到這間建築。

  • there's an amphitheater that's framing the sky,

    當他們到了屋頂上,

  • where they can sing to the sky.

    那裡有個圓形露天劇場 可以觀賞天空,

  • Inside the opera,

    他們可以對著天空唱歌。

  • we have this lobby with a lot of natural light,

    在歌劇院内,

  • and they can also enjoy this semi-indoor-outdoor space,

    這個大廳有很多自然採光,

  • and they can see the beautiful view around them.

    訪客也可以享受這個 半室內半室外的空間,

  • I've been building several mountains,

    他們可以觀賞周圍的美景。

  • and here I'm trying to show you

    我已經建造了好幾座山,

  • one building that I think looks like a cloud.

    我現在要給各位看的

  • It's the Lucas Museum of Narrative Arts

    是我認為很像雲朵的建物。

  • that's being constructed in the city of Los Angeles.

    這是盧卡斯敘事藝術博物館,

  • It's a museum created by George Lucas,

    它座落在洛杉磯。

  • the creator of the "Star Wars" movies.

    喬治盧卡斯創立了這間博物館,

  • Why a building that looks like a cloud?

    《星際大戰》系列電影 正是出自他之手。

  • Because I think, I imagine, the cloud is mysterious.

    為什麼要用看起來像雲朵的建築?

  • It's nature.

    因為,在我的想像中,

  • It's surreal when this natural element landed in the city.

    雲朵是神秘的。

  • And it makes you feel curious about it,

    雲朵是大自然。

  • and you want to explore it.

    當這種大自然元素降落在城市中時, 感覺會非常超現實。

  • So that's how the building landed on earth.

    它會讓你對它感到好奇,

  • By lifting this museum,

    你會想一探究竟。

  • making it float above the ground,

    所以,這間建築就這麼 降落在地球上了。

  • we can free up a lot of landscape and space underneath the building.

    把這間博物館抬起來, 讓它浮在地面上,

  • And then we can, at the same time,

    我們就能釋放出這座建物 底下的許多地景和空間。

  • create this roof garden above the building

    同時,我們也能在建築上方 創造這座屋頂花園,

  • where you can visit and enjoy the view.

    你可以進入花園,享受景色。

  • This museum will be completed in the year 2022,

    這間博物館會在 2022 年完工,

  • and you're all invited when it's completed.

    完成時,歡迎大家來參訪。

  • So after building all these mountains and clouds,

    在建造了所有這些 山岳和雲朵之後,

  • now we're building these volcanoes

    我們現在回到中國建造這些火山。

  • back in China.

    它其實是一座巨大的運動公園,

  • This is actually a huge sports park

    裡面有四間體育館,

  • with four stadiums in it,

    其中一間是足球體育館,

  • with one football stadium [with] 40,000 seats in there.

    內有四萬個座位。

  • So it's a very large project.

    這是一個非常大的計畫。

  • And you see from this photo,

    從這張照片可以看到,

  • you can hardly tell where there's building and where there's landscape.

    很難分辨得出建物和地景。

  • So the building becomes a landscape.

    建物本身變成了地景。

  • Even becomes a land art,

    甚至變成了地上的藝術,

  • where people can walk around the building,

    民眾可以繞行建物,

  • they can climb this building

    可以爬上建物,

  • as they're wandering in this volcano park.

    他們在這座火山公園中漫遊。

  • And this rendering shows one of the spaces in those volcanoes.

    這張圖中的空間則是 在那些火山的內部。

  • This is actually a swimming pool

    這其實是一座游泳池,

  • with natural light coming from above.

    上方有自然採光。

  • So, what we're trying to create

    我們在嘗試創造出一個環境,

  • actually is an environment that blurs the boundary

    在這裡,建築和大自然之間的界線

  • in between architecture and nature.

    是難分辨出來的。

  • So architecture is no longer a functional machine for living.

    建築已經不再是 生活用的功能性機器。

  • It also reflects the nature around us.

    它也能反映出我們周圍的大自然。

  • It also reflects our soul and spirit.

    它也能反映出我們的靈魂和精神。

  • So, as an architect, I don't think

    身為建築師,我不認為

  • in the future we should repeat those soulless matchboxes anymore.

    在未來我們應該要繼續重覆 做出那些沒有靈魂的火柴盒。

  • I think what I'm looking for is the opportunity

    我想,我在尋找的是一個機會,

  • to create a future

    來創造一個人類與大自然

  • with harmony in between humans and nature.

    能和諧共存的未來。

  • Thank you very much.

    非常謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

I am an architect.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 大自然 建物 建築 大樓 城市

【TED】馬巖松:城市建築的靈感來自於山、雲和火山 (城市建築的靈感來自於山、雲和火山|馬巖松) (【TED】Ma Yansong: Urban architecture inspired by mountains, clouds and volcanoes (Urban architecture inspired by mountains, clouds and volcanoes | Ma Yansong))

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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