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  • Sometimes when I'm on a long plane flight,

    有時候,在搭長程航班的時候

  • I gaze out at all those mountains and deserts

    我會一邊看著外面的山和沙漠

  • and try to get my head around how vast our Earth is.

    一邊讚嘆地球是如此浩瀚無邊

  • And then I remember that there's an object we see every day

    接著就想到

  • that would literally fit one million Earths inside it.

    其實我們每天都會看到 能裝下一百萬顆地球的龐然大物

  • The sun seems impossibly big,

    太陽夠大了吧!

  • but in the great scheme of things, it's a pinprick,

    但若宏觀而論, 太陽就如針頭般渺小

  • one of about 400 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy,

    在銀河系約四千億顆恆星中, 它也只是其中一員

  • which you can see on a clear night as a pale, white mist stretched across the sky.

    銀河就是在無雲的夜晚裡可以看到的 橫跨天空的一條淡淡的白色霧般的光帶

  • And it gets worse.

    更誇張的是

  • There are maybe 100 billion galaxies detectable by our telescopes,

    用當今望遠鏡所觀測到的銀河系 已高達一千億個

  • so if each star was the size of a single grain of sand,

    如果把恆星視為一粒細沙

  • just the Milky Way has enough stars to fill

    那麼我們所在的銀河系裡 所有恆星放在一起

  • a 30 foot by 30 foot stretch of beach three feet deep with sand.

    就是一個長寬各三十呎 深三呎的沙坑 (一呎=30公分)

  • And the entire Earth doesn't have enough beaches

    而地球上 所有沙灘的沙粒集合起來

  • to represent the stars in the overall universe.

    還夠不上整個宇宙裡的恆星的數量呢!

  • Such a beach would continue for literally hundreds of millions of miles.

    大概要有個綿延幾億哩的沙灘才比得上 (一哩=1.6公里,地球週長約四萬公里)

  • Holy Stephen Hawking, that is a lot of stars.

    哇咧 史蒂芬 霍金 哩! 恆星有這麼多啊! (史蒂芬 霍金 是著名的物理學家)

  • But he and other physicists now believe in

    霍金跟其他的物理學家開始相信

  • a reality that is unimaginably bigger still.

    真相, 可能更大, 超乎想像的大

  • First of all, the 100 billion galaxies within range of our telescopes

    首先, 我們的望遠鏡能觀察到的一千億個銀河系

  • are probably a minuscule fraction of the total.

    可能只是整體的一小塊而已

  • Space itself is expanding

    空間是一直在膨脹擴張的

  • at an accelerating pace. The vast majority of the galaxies

    而且膨脹的速度一直在增加, 絕大部分的銀河系

  • are separating from us so fast

    都是快速的遠離我們

  • that light from them may never reach us.

    快到它們的光線根本到不了我們這裡

  • Still, our physical reality here on Earth

    但是,在地球上的物理現象

  • is intimately connected to those distant, invisible galaxies.

    仍與這些看不到的遙遠的銀河系們緊密關連

  • We can think of them as part of our universe.

    我們可以把這些銀河系當作我們的宇宙的一部份

  • They make up a single, giant edifice,

    整體屬於一個巨大的架構

  • obeying the same physical laws and all made from the same types of atoms, electrons,

    遵循相同的物理定律,由相同型態的原子,電子

  • protons, quarks, neutrinos that make up you and me.

    正子,夸克,中微子 (這些是基本粒子) 組成你跟我,還有整個宇宙

  • However, recent theories in physics,

    但是最近發展的一些物理學理論

  • including one called string theory,

    其中一種叫做 "弦理論"

  • are now telling us there could be countless other universes,

    推論說可能有無窮多的宇宙存在著

  • built on different types of particles,

    而且每個宇宙是由不同的基本粒子組成的

  • with different properties, obeying different laws.

    具有不同的特性,遵循不同的運作規律

  • Most of these universes could never support life,

    這些宇宙大部分無法演化出生命型態

  • and might flash in and out of existence in a nanosecond,

    也許可能只存在一微秒 (十億分之一秒) 然後就消失

  • but nonetheless, combined

    但是不管怎麼短暫,這些宇宙

  • they make up a vast multiverse of possible universes.

    都是多元宇宙的各種可能性之一

  • in up to 11 dimensions, featuring wonders beyond our wildest imagination.

    有高達 11 個空間維度, 有著超出我們所能想像之外的奇妙性質

  • And the leading version of string theory

    而目前弦理論的最先進的版本

  • predicts a multiverse made of up to 10 to the 500 universes.

    預測說一個多元宇宙是由 10 的 500 次方個單一宇宙組成的

  • That's a one followed by 500 zeroes,

    這個數字是 1 後面跟著 500 個 0

  • a number so vast that if every atom in our observable universe

    這個數字有多大? 如果我們把所觀察到的 單一宇宙裡面的每一個原子

  • had its own universe

    都算自成一個單一宇宙

  • and all of the atoms in all of those universes

    然後再把這些 原子的宇宙裡的每個原子

  • each had their own universe,

    再算各自成一個單一宇宙

  • and you repeated that for two more cycles,

    再這樣重複兩層來算

  • you'd still be at a tiny fraction of the total --

    所得的單一宇宙的數量 仍然只是這個大數字的一小部份

  • namely, one trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillionth.

    只有 一 兆 兆 兆 兆 兆 兆 兆 兆 兆 兆 兆 兆 兆 兆 兆 分之一而已!(1兆=1萬億)

  • But even that number is minuscule compared to

    而這麼大的數字,跟 無窮大 比起來,

  • another number: infinity.

    仍舊是微不足道的

  • Some physicists think the space-time continuum

    有些物理學家認為,所謂的 時空連續體

  • is literally infinite, and that it contains an infinite number

    基本上就是無窮的, 裡面包含了無數個 所謂的 "口袋宇宙"

  • of so-called pocket universes with varying properties.

    各自有不同的特性與物理定律

  • How's your brain doing?

    你的腦袋還跟的上 (能理解) 嗎?

  • But quantum theory adds a whole new wrinkle.

    再來個新的, 量子理論

  • I mean, the theory's been proven true beyond all doubt,

    這個理論已經毫無疑問的被證明其正確性

  • but interpreting it is baffling.

    但是如何解讀卻仍摸不著頭緒

  • And some physicists think you can only un-baffle it

    有些物理學家認為,唯一的解讀方式,

  • if you imagine that huge numbers of parallel universes

    是從 很大數量的平行單一宇宙

  • are being spawned every moment,

    在每個時間點被衍生出來

  • and many of these universes would actually be very like the world we're in,

    而這些單一宇宙中 多數與我們現存的世界非常類似

  • would include multiple copies of you.

    可能每個單一宇宙都有一個你

  • In one such universe, you'd graduate with honors and marry the person of your dreams.

    也許在其中的一個平行單一宇宙中 你以很好的成績畢業,並且與夢中情人結婚

  • In another, not so much.

    在另外一個平行單一宇宙中,可能沒這麼好命

  • There are still some scientists who would say, hogwash.

    也有一些科學家認為,這真是鬼話連篇!

  • The only meaningful answer to the question of how many universes there are is one,

    這些科學家認為,關於有多少個宇宙這個問題, 唯一合理的答案數字是 一個

  • only one universe.

    只有一個宇宙

  • And a few philosophers and mystics

    還有一些哲學家和神秘主義者

  • might argue that even our own universe is an illusion.

    甚至會說連我們所在的宇宙也只是個幻影

  • So, as you can see,

    所以囉,如你所見的

  • right now there is no agreement on this question,

    這個問題目前並沒有大家有共識的答案

  • not even close.

    還早得很哩!

  • All we know is, the answer is somewhere between zero and infinity.

    我們目前只知道,宇宙的數量的正確答案, 應該在 零 與 無窮大 之間

  • Well, I guess we know one other thing:

    另外我們可能還知道一件事情

  • This is a pretty cool time to be studying physics.

    就是,現在是研究物理學的一個最佳時機

  • We just might be undergoing

    因為,物理學正經歷著

  • the biggest paradigm shift in knowledge that humanity has ever seen.

    人類有史以來最重大的知識典範轉移

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(音樂)

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 宇宙 銀河系 恆星 無窮 物理學家

【TED-Ed】這世上到底有幾個宇宙呢? How many universes are there? - Chris Anderson

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 03 月 20 日
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