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    (音樂)

  • Meet our chemist, Harriet.

    這是我們的化學家 – 哈莉特

  • She has a chemical reaction that needs to occur more quickly.

    她需要加速一個化學反應

  • A chemist has some processes at her disposal

    化學家通常有一些可以採用的程序

  • that can help her speed up her reaction,

    來加速化學反應

  • and she knows of five ways.

    她知道五個方法

  • And to remember them she thinks back to her days

    為了記住這五個方法

  • as a high school student,

    她回想她中學時期

  • and the day she got a date for the dance.

    遇到舞伴的那天

  • Harriet was in high school, studying between classes.

    中學時的哈莉特有天 正利用下課時間讀書

  • She had lost track of time and was going to be late to class.

    讀著讀著忘了時間,趕不上下堂課

  • Unbeknownst to her, Harold, who was just around the corner, was running late too.

    她絕沒料到 快遲到的哈洛德也正巧在轉角處

  • They both sprinted to class,

    他們倆都奮力衝向教室

  • and as it happened, sprinted directly into one another.

    說時遲那時快,他們直接撞在一起

  • Now, this was no small collision.

    現在看來,那可不是個小小的碰撞

  • They ran squarely into one another in such a way that he knocked the books right out of her hand.

    這一撞,把哈莉特手上的書都撞掉了

  • "I'm sorry," he said. "Let me help you with your books."

    哈洛德:「對不起,讓我幫妳把書撿起來」

  • He kindly helped her re-collect her belongings,

    他和善地把她的東西撿起來

  • and politely offered to walk her to class.

    還很紳士地陪她走到教室

  • And you'll never guess who went together to the dance later that year.

    你絕對猜不到那年 誰和誰去參加舞會

  • Yup, those two.

    沒錯,就是這兩位

  • So, as we can see from this example,

    所以囉,由此可見

  • the key to getting a date for the dance

    找到舞伴的秘訣就是

  • is to collide with someone and knock the books out of their hands.

    和某人相撞而且還要把他們手中的書撞掉

  • Now, you're probably already aware that not all collisions lead to dates for the dance,

    現在你大概知道 不是隨便撞就可以撞出一個舞伴吧

  • thankfully.

    好加在

  • The collisions must have two important characteristics:

    這碰撞呢必須有兩大特性

  • One, correct orientation that allows books to be knocked from one's hands,

    第一:正確的角度,可以把書撞掉的角度

  • and two, enough energy to knock the books out.

    第二:足夠的力量,足夠把書撞掉的力量

  • Shortly after this incident,

    事發不久後

  • Harriet decided to tell me, her chemistry teacher, all about it.

    哈莉特決定把經過通通告訴她的化學老師 也就是我

  • I noticed some interesting parallels

    我發現這和化學反應有些有趣的共同點

  • between her story and chemical reaction rates,

    我發現這和化學反應有些有趣的共同點

  • which happened to be what she was studying in the hallway the day of the collision.

    這正是那天她撞上 哈洛德之前在走廊讀到的

  • Together we decided to set out on two missions.

    我們決定一起執行兩個任務

  • Harriet wanted to help all chemistry students

    哈莉特想幫助所有化學課的學生

  • and chemists remember how to speed up the rate of chemical reactions,

    還有化學家們記住加速化學反應的方法

  • and I, being the nice guy that I am, decided to make it my mission

    而我這樣的好人,我的任務是

  • to help create educational environments

    幫助建立一個學習環境

  • in which more book-dropping collisions can take place

    有更多碰撞掉書發生的學習環境

  • to increase future chemists' chances

    來增加未來化學家

  • of getting a date for the dance.

    得到舞伴的機會

  • In order to facilitate this improved dance/date-getting process,

    為了促進這個加強版的舞伴速配過程

  • I propose five changes to all schools

    我建議所有的學校要有五項改革

  • that parallel Harriet's five ways to increase chemical reaction rates.

    這和哈莉特加速化學反應的方法類似

  • First, I propose that we shrink the size of the hallways.

    第一:我建議走廊要變窄

  • This will make it more difficult to safely navigate the hallways,

    要安全地在走廊上遊蕩就更難了

  • and will cause more collisions than in larger hallways.

    這比起寬敞的走廊 會製造更多碰撞的機會

  • And by increasing the number of collisions, we increase the likelihood

    一旦碰撞次數增加

  • that some of those collisions will have the correct alignment

    其中一些有正確定位、有足夠能量的碰撞

  • and enough energy to create a date to the dance.

    會增加速配的機率

  • Now, chemically speaking, this is equivalent

    化學上的說法,等同於

  • to lowering the volume of a reaction vessel or a reaction mixture.

    減少反應容器或反應混和的體積

  • In doing so, the individual particles are closer together,

    這樣一來,粒子與粒子間更近了

  • and more collisions will occur.

    就更容易發生碰撞

  • More collisions means a greater likelihood that

    越多的碰撞

  • collisions with the appropriate energy and configuration will happen.

    就提高了具備適合能量 與配置的碰撞的可能性

  • Second, I propose increasing the overall population of the school.

    第二:我建議增加學校的人數

  • More students equals more collisions.

    學生人數與碰撞次數成正比

  • By increasing the number of particles available for collision,

    藉由增加碰撞的粒子數

  • we create an environment where more collisions can take place.

    製造一個容易發生碰撞的環境

  • Third, we must reduce the time allowed between classes.

    第三:我們必須縮短課與課間的時間

  • Heck, let's just cut it in half.

    哎呀,就減半好了!

  • In doing so, students will need to move more quickly to get from one class to the next.

    這麼一來,學生必須更迅速地趕下一堂課

  • This increase in velocity will help make sure collisions have the

    增加速度可以確保碰撞發生時

  • appropriate amount of energy necessary to ensure book-dropping.

    有足夠的能量把書撞掉

  • This is analogous to increasing the temperature

    這點和提高反應混和的溫度相似

  • of the reaction mixture.

    這點和提高反應混和的溫度相似

  • Higher temperature means particles are moving faster.

    溫度越高,粒子移動速度越快

  • Faster moving particles means more energy,

    粒子移動速度越快,就有越多的能量

  • and a greater likelihood of the reaction causing collision.

    發生碰撞的可能性也越高

  • Fourth, students must stop traveling in packs.

    第四:學生別再集體行動了

  • By traveling in packs, the students on the outside of the pack

    因為集體行動時,外圍的同學

  • insulate those in the middle from undergoing any collisions.

    會阻止中間的同學發生碰撞

  • By splitting up, each student has more area exposed

    分開走的話,每個同學暴露在外的面積變大

  • that is available for a collision from a passing student.

    和路過同學碰撞的機會也變多

  • When particles travel in packs,

    當粒子成群移動時

  • the surface area is very small, and only the outside particles can collide.

    總表面積變小,且只有外圍的粒子會發生碰撞

  • However, by breaking up the clumps into individual particles.

    然而,把粒子群個別拆散

  • The total surface area is increased,

    總面積就會增加

  • and each particle has an exposed surface that can react.

    每個粒子都有可以產生化學反應的接觸面

  • Fifth and finally, we hire a matchmaker.

    第五點也是最後一點:我們要雇個媒婆

  • Is this colliding and book-dropping too violent?

    又是相撞、又是掉書的,太暴力了嗎?

  • Is there an easier way to get a date that requires less initial energy?

    找約會對象有沒有 比較不費力、簡單一點的方法呢?

  • Then a matchmaker will help with this.

    那媒婆就派上用場了!

  • The matchmaker makes it easier for a couple to get together

    有媒婆從中撮和就更容易成雙成對了

  • by coordinating the match.

    有媒婆從中撮和就更容易成雙成對了

  • Our matchmaker is like a catalyst.

    媒婆就像催化劑

  • Chemical catalysts function by lowering the activation energy.

    化學催化劑的作用是減低活化能量

  • In other words, by lowering the energy required to start a reaction.

    換言之,就是減低 誘發化學反應所需的能量

  • They do this by bringing two particles together

    目的在於讓兩個粒子碰頭

  • and orienting them correctly in space so that the two can meet

    導引它們正確的方位、讓它們

  • at the correct configuration and allow a reaction to take place.

    在正確的結構配置下接觸並產生化學反應

  • So, to sum up:

    結論是:

  • If a future chemist wants a date for the dance,

    如果有化學家想找舞伴

  • he must collide with another person and knock the books out of their hands.

    他必須和另一人相撞並把他的書撞掉

  • And if a chemist wants to make a chemical reaction occur,

    如果化學家要製造化學反應

  • the particles must collide in the correct orientation

    粒子相撞的方位要正確

  • with an appropriate amount of energy.

    且要有適當的能量

  • And both of these processes can be accelerated using the five methods I've described.

    要加速以上兩個過程 我說的五個方法都適用

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 化學 反應 粒子 舞伴 化學家

【TED-Ed】加速化學反應的秘訣 (並獲得約會對象) How to speed up chemical reactions (and get a date) - Aaron Sams

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 03 月 20 日
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