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  • On October 4, 1957,

    西元1957年,十月四號

  • the world watched in awe and fear

    在驚訝與恐懼中,全球目睹了

  • as the Soviet Union launched Sputnik,

    蘇聯成功發射史普尼克號

  • the world's first man-made satellite,

    這是世界第一個發射到太空中的

  • into space.

    人造衛星

  • This little metal ball,

    這個小金屬球

  • smaller than two feet in diameter,

    直徑不到兩英呎

  • launched a space race

    標誌著美國與蘇聯之間的

  • between the U.S. and U.S.S.R.

    太空競賽的開始

  • that would last for eighteen years

    這場競賽一共延續18年之久

  • and change the world as we know it.

    並徹底改變了我們所熟知的這個世界

  • Sputnik was actually not the first piece

    史普尼克號不是第一個

  • of human technology to enter space.

    登上太空的人造科技

  • That superlative goes to the V-2 rocket

    早在那之前,V-2火箭

  • used by Germany in missile attacks

    被用於納粹德國展開的飛彈攻擊

  • against Allied cities as a last-ditch effort

    來最後對抗同盟軍城市

  • in the final years of World War II.

    這發生在第二次世界大戰的最後幾年

  • It wasn't very effective,

    但並不十分成功

  • but, at the end of the war,

    相反的,戰爭結束後

  • both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. had captured

    美國與蘇聯各接收了其相關技術

  • the technology and the scientists that had developed it

    與研究人員

  • and began using them for their own projects.

    並開始各自展開其研究計畫

  • And by August 1957,

    於是於西元1957年,八月

  • the Soviet's successfully tested

    蘇聯成功試射了

  • the first intercontinental ballistic missile, the R-7,

    史上第一枚洲際彈道飛彈 R-7

  • the same rocket that would be used

    並運用了相同的火箭技術

  • to launch Sputnik two months later.

    於兩個月後成功發射史普尼克號

  • So, the scary thing about Sputnik

    關於史普尼克號,最令人驚恐的

  • was not the orbiting ball itself,

    不在於人造衛星本身

  • but the fact that the same technology

    而是這項科技

  • could be used to launch a nuclear warhead at any city.

    也可用來發射核子彈頭攻擊任何城市

  • Not wanting to fall too far behind,

    美國希望能急起直追

  • President Eisenhower ordered the Navy

    艾森豪總統命令海軍

  • to speed up its own project

    加快腳步,完成計畫

  • and launch a satellite as soon as possible.

    並在最短時間內完成發射人造衛星的目標

  • So, on December 6, 1957,

    因此,於西元1957年,十二月六號

  • excited people across the nation

    全國人民興奮的

  • tuned in to watch the live broadcast

    觀看實況轉播

  • as the Vanguard TV3 satellite took off

    先鋒三號衛星緩緩起飛

  • and crashed to the ground two seconds later.

    但卻於兩秒後墜毀,掉落地面

  • The Vanguard failure was a huge embarassment

    先鋒三號發射失敗

  • for the United States.

    帶給美國很大的羞辱

  • Newspapers printed headlines like,

    報紙頭版標題紛紛

  • "Flopnik" and "Kaputnik."

    大肆嘲諷失敗的衛星發射

  • And a Soviet delegate at the U.N. mockingly suggested

    蘇聯駐聯合國大使甚至嘲諷似的

  • that the U.S. should receive foreign aid

    建議美國應該接受外援

  • for developing nations.

    來發展國家

  • Fortunately, the Army had been working

    值得稱幸的是,美國陸軍同時也在發展另一個計畫

  • on their own parallel project, The Explorer,

    探險家號

  • which was successfully launched in January 1958,

    並成功於西元1958年一月發射

  • but the U.S. had barely managed to catch up

    雖然美國幾乎要趕上蘇聯了

  • before they were surpassed again

    隨即又被拉開進度

  • as Yuri Gargarin became the first man in space

    那是在蘇聯太空人-尤里加加林 成為第一位登上太空的人類

  • in April 1961.

    時間是西元1961年四月

  • Almost a year passed

    約莫一年之後

  • and several more Soviet astronauts

    在許多蘇聯太空人

  • completed their missions

    都已登上太空,成功返航

  • before Project Mercury succeeded

    美國的水星計畫

  • in making John Glenn the first American

    才成功的於西元1962年二月

  • in orbit in February 1962.

    將太空人約翰•葛倫送上太空

  • By this time, President Kennedy had realized

    經由這次事件,美國總統甘迺迪明白一點

  • that simply catching up

    如果只是單純的追趕

  • to each Soviet advance a few months later

    蘇聯的成就,並在幾個月後達成

  • wasn't going to cut it.

    是不足以停熄這場太空軍備競賽

  • The U.S. had to do something first,

    美國必需在某些目標拔得頭籌

  • and in May 1961, a month after Gargarin's flight,

    因此,於西元1961年五月 就在俄國太空人加加林登上太空一個月後

  • he announced the goal

    他宣布了一個計畫

  • of putting a man on the moon

    要於1960年前

  • by the end of the 1960s.

    將人類送上月球

  • They succeeded in this through the Apollo program

    最後,在西元1969年,七月二十號

  • with Neil Armstrong taking his famous step

    隨著尼爾.阿姆斯壯踏出那有名的一步

  • on July 20, 1969.

    阿波羅計劃宣告成功

  • With both countries' next turning their attention

    接著,雙方都將目標轉向

  • to orbital space stations,

    發展太空站

  • there's no telling how much longer

    沒有人能預測

  • the space race could have gone on.

    太空競賽還會延續多久

  • But because of improving relations

    但由於雙方關係趨於和緩

  • negotiated by Soviet Premier Leonid Breshnev

    在蘇聯總理布里茲涅夫

  • and U.S. President Nixon,

    與美國總統尼克森持續溝通下

  • the U.S.S.R. and U.S. moved toward cooperation

    美蘇兩國由原本競爭關係

  • rather than competition.

    改為合作

  • The successful joint mission,

    成功的合作任務是

  • known as Apollo-Soyuz,

    衆所周知的阿波羅-聯合測試計劃

  • in which an American Apollo spacecraft

    美國阿波羅太空船

  • docked with a Soviet Soyuz craft

    與蘇聯聯合號太空船在太空中接合

  • and the two crews met,

    兩國太空人會面

  • shook hands,

    握手

  • and exchanged gifts,

    並交換禮物

  • marked the end of the space race in 1975.

    這項任務的成功,在1975年宣告終止了太空競賽

  • So, in the end, what was the point

    到頭來

  • of this whole space race?

    這整個太空競賽的重點是什麼?

  • Was it just a massive waste of time?

    難道只是單純的浪費時間?

  • Two major superpowers trying to outdo each other

    兩大強權試圖於某些指標性任務

  • by pursuing symbolic projects

    壓倒對方的過程

  • that were both dangerous and expensive,

    常常是昂貴且危險的

  • using resources that could have been

    難道,資源不能投入其他地方

  • better spent elsewhere?

    作更有效的運用?

  • Well, sure, sort of,

    在某方面來說,也許

  • but the biggest benefits of the space program

    但是,太空競賽所帶來最大收穫

  • had nothing to do with one country beating another.

    不在於一個國家打敗了另一個國家

  • During the space race,

    而是在於太空競賽期間

  • funding for research and education, in general,

    通常來說,所投入的教育研究

  • increased dramatically,

    都會急遽增加

  • leading to many advances

    這也帶來很多收穫

  • that may not have otherwise been made.

    是其他方面無法達到的

  • Many NASA technologies developed for space

    美國太空總署在太空競賽時所發展的科技

  • are now widely used in civilian life,

    現在正廣泛的運用於我們日常生活

  • from memory foam in mattresses

    從記憶床墊

  • to freeze-dried food,

    到冷凍食品

  • to LEDs in cancer treatment.

    甚至是有機發光二極體運用於癌症治療

  • And, of course, the satellites that we rely on

    更不用說,衛星被用來

  • for our GPS and mobile phone signals

    提供全球定位系統與手機通訊

  • would not have been there

    若不是有太空計劃

  • without the space program.

    這些科技不可能會產生

  • All of which goes to show

    種種證據顯示

  • that the rewards of scientific research and advancement

    投入科技研究與創新帶來的回饋

  • are often far more vast

    往往是相當龐大

  • than even the people pursuing them can imagine.

    甚至遠超過當初研究的人們所能預期

On October 4, 1957,

西元1957年,十月四號

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 太空 蘇聯 發射 美國 成功

【TED-Ed】誰贏了太空競賽?(Who won the space race? - Jeff Steers)

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    陳劭杰 發佈於 2013 年 09 月 28 日
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