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  • The Khan Academy is most known

    Khan 學院因

  • for its collection of videos,

    它豐富的影片資源而出名

  • so before I go any further,

    在我開始演講前

  • let me show you a little bit of a montage.

    先讓我們看一段剪輯影片

  • (Video) Salman Khan: So the hypotenuse is now going to be five.

    於是這個直角三角形的斜邊就成了5

  • This animal's fossils are only found in this area of South America --

    這種動物的化石只能在南美這個地區找到

  • a nice clean band here --

    一條很清楚的界限

  • and this part of Africa.

    還有非洲的這個區域

  • We can integrate over the surface,

    我們可以合併表面

  • and the notation usually is a capital sigma.

    通常用 Σ 來標記

  • National Assembly: They create the Committee of Public Safety,

    國民大會:他們創造了公共安全委員會

  • which sounds like a very nice committee.

    聽上去像是個不錯的委員會

  • Notice, this is an aldehyde,

    注意,這是乙醛

  • and it's an alcohol.

    是一種酒精

  • Start differentiating into effector and memory cells.

    開始分化為效應與記憶細胞

  • A galaxy. Hey, there's another galaxy.

    一個銀河。哇,那裡又有一個銀河

  • Oh look, there's another galaxy.

    看啊,那裡還有另外一個

  • And for dollars, is their 30 million,

    對美元來說,是三千萬

  • plus the 20 million dollars from the American manufacturer.

    加上從美國製造商來的兩千萬

  • If this does not blow your mind,

    如果這還不夠讓你瞠目結舌

  • then you have no emotion.

    你就是麻木不仁

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • SK: We now have on the order

    我們現在有

  • of 2,200 videos

    兩千兩百個影片

  • covering everything from basic arithmetic

    從基本的算術

  • all the way to vector calculus

    一直到向量微積分

  • and some of the stuff you saw there.

    還有一些你剛剛看到的科目

  • We have a million students a month using the site,

    一個月有百萬個學生使用我們的網站

  • watching on the order of 100 to 200,000 videos a day.

    一天有一百到二十萬個影片被觀看

  • But what we're going to talk about in this

    但我們今天所要談論的

  • is how we're going to the next level.

    是如何提升這項服務

  • But before I do that,

    在我這樣做以前

  • I want to talk a little bit about really just how I got started.

    我想先談談我究竟是如何開始的

  • And some of you all might know,

    你們其中的一些人或許知道

  • about five years ago I was an analyst at a hedge fund,

    五年前我是個避險基金分析師

  • and I was in Boston,

    我當時人在波士頓

  • and I was tutoring my cousins in New Orleans, remotely.

    給我在紐澳良的表弟上課

  • And I started putting the first YouTube videos up

    當我把第一支影片放上 YouTube

  • really just as a kind of nice-to-have,

    不過是把它當成一種不錯的

  • just a supplement for my cousins --

    輔助教材

  • something that might give them a refresher or something.

    讓他們耳目一新之類的

  • And as soon as I put those first YouTube videos up,

    當我把第一個 YouTube 影片放上去以後

  • something interesting happened --

    有趣的事發生了

  • actually a bunch of interesting things happened.

    事實上是許多有趣的事發生了

  • The first was the feedback from my cousins.

    第一是我表弟的反應

  • They told me

    他們說

  • that they preferred me on YouTube than in person.

    他們喜歡 YouTube 上的我更勝真人

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And once you get over the backhanded nature of that,

    而且一旦你忘記話中那諷刺的部份

  • there was actually something very profound there.

    你便能聽見一件非常重要的訊息

  • They were saying

    他們是說

  • that they preferred the automated version of their cousin

    他們喜歡自動化版本的表哥

  • to their cousin.

    勝於真正的表哥

  • At first, it's very unintuitive,

    剛開始會覺得很反常

  • but when you actually think about it from their point of view, it makes a ton of sense.

    但當你用他們的角度來想,事實上很合理

  • You have this situation

    狀況是

  • where now they can pause and repeat their cousin,

    他們可以把表哥暫停或重複

  • without feeling like they're wasting my time.

    而不用感覺浪費了我的時間

  • If they have to review something

    如果他們要復習

  • that they should have learned a couple of weeks ago,

    兩個禮拜前學的東西

  • or maybe a couple of years ago,

    甚至是幾年前學的東西

  • they don't have to be embarrassed and ask their cousin.

    他們不用不好意思地來問我

  • They can just watch those videos. If they're bored, they can go ahead.

    只要看這些影片就好。無聊了可以隨時關掉

  • They can watch it at their own time, at their own pace.

    可以在自己想要的時間,用自己想要的速度看

  • And probably the least appreciated aspect of this

    而最少人想到的是

  • is the notion that the very first time,

    在你第一次

  • the very first time

    第一次

  • that you're trying to get your brain around a new concept,

    在你的大腦嘗試理解一個新概念時

  • the very last thing you need

    你最不需要的事情就是

  • is another human being saying, "Do you understand this?"

    另外一個人在你旁邊說“到底懂了沒有?”

  • And that's what was happening with the interaction with my cousins before,

    但這就是我和我表弟互動時發生的

  • and now they can just do it

    現在他們可以

  • in the intimacy of their own room.

    在自己的房間看

  • The other thing that happened is --

    另外一件事就是

  • I put them on YouTube just --

    但我把影片放到 YouTube 上時

  • I saw no reason to make it private,

    我覺得沒必要隱藏

  • so I let other people watch it,

    大家都可以看

  • and then people started stumbling on it,

    有人發現這些影片

  • and I started getting some comments and some letters

    我開始收到留言和一些信件

  • and all sorts of feedback

    還有來自世界各地

  • from random people from around the world.

    很多不同的回應

  • And these are just a few.

    這些是其中一些

  • This is actually from one of the original calculus videos.

    這個回應是給最早的那些微積分影片的

  • And someone wrote just on YouTube --

    有人在 Youtube

  • it was a YouTube comment:

    上留言到

  • "First time I smiled doing a derivative."

    “這是我第一次算導數會微笑”

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And let's pause here.

    等等

  • This person did a derivative

    這個人在算導數

  • and then they smiled.

    然後他微笑了

  • And then in a response to that same comment -- this is on the thread.

    然後有人回應了這個微笑的人

  • You can go on YouTube and look at these comments --

    你可以上 YouTube 去看這些回應

  • someone else wrote: "Same thing here.

    另外一個人說“我也是”

  • I actually got a natural high and a good mood for the entire day.

    那天我整個人飄飄欲仙

  • Since I remember seeing

    以前我

  • all of this matrix text in class,

    在課堂上看見這些天書

  • and here I'm all like, 'I know kung fu.'"

    現在我好像學得了絕世功夫

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And we get a lot of feedback all along those lines.

    我們得到了很多這種回應

  • This clearly was helping people.

    很明顯地,這幫助了很多人

  • But then, as the viewership kept growing and kept growing,

    觀影人數越來越多

  • I started getting letters from people,

    我開始收到這些信件

  • and it was starting to become clear

    漸漸的你開始明白

  • that it was actually more than just a nice-to-have.

    這不只是輔助教材

  • This is just an excerpt

    這裡有一封信

  • from one of those letters.

    是這樣說的

  • "My 12 year-old son has autism

    “我12歲的自閉症兒子

  • and has had a terrible time with math.

    對數學一籌莫展

  • We have tried everything,

    我們試過所有方法

  • viewed everything, bought everything.

    看過所有書籍,買了所有教材

  • We stumbled on your video on decimals and it got through.

    我們發現了你的十進位影片,他看懂了

  • Then we went on to the dreaded fractions. Again, he got it.

    於是我們播可怕的分數影片,他又懂了

  • We could not believe it.

    我們不可置信

  • He is so excited."

    他超興奮的。”

  • And so you can imagine,

    你可以想像

  • here I was an analyst at a hedge fund.

    身為一位避險基金分析師

  • It was very strange for me to do something of social value.

    做一些有益社會的事對我來說非常陌生

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • But I was excited, so I kept going.

    但我很興奮,於是我繼續製作這些影片

  • And then a few other things started to dawn on me.

    一些其它事情開始發生了

  • That, not only would it help my cousins right now,

    這些影片不但能幫助我表弟

  • or these people who are sending letters,

    和這些寫信給我的人

  • but that this content will never go old,

    而且這些影片永遠不會變老

  • that it could help their kids

    它可以幫助他們的孩子

  • or their grandkids.

    或孫子

  • If Isaac Newton

    如果牛頓

  • had done YouTube videos on calculus,

    上傳一個微積分的 YouTube 影片

  • I wouldn't have to.

    就用不著我了

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Assuming he was good. We don't know.

    當然,那得要他很會教,我們無從得知

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The other thing that happened --

    就算發生了這些事

  • and even at this point, I said, "Okay, maybe it's a good supplement.

    就算到了那個時候,我仍想“好吧,或許它是不錯的輔助教材

  • It's good for motivated students.

    很能激勵學生

  • It's good for maybe home schoolers."

    給在家上課的學生也很有用”

  • But I didn't think it would be something

    但我從來沒想到

  • that would somehow penetrate the classroom.

    它竟然能打進課堂

  • But then I started getting letters from teachers.

    但我開始收到老師的信

  • And the teachers would write, saying,

    這些老師寫著

  • "We've used your videos to flip the classroom.

    “我們在課堂上播你的影片

  • You've given the lectures, so now what we do ... " --

    你已經解釋過了,那我們呢⋯⋯”

  • and this could happen in every classroom in America tomorrow --

    說真的,這件事可以明天就在美國每個學校發生

  • " ... what I do is I assign the lectures for homework,

    “⋯⋯ 我們只要把看影片變成他們的功課

  • and what used to be homework,

    然後把以前的回家作業

  • I now have the students doing in the classroom."

    變成在課堂上的習作”

  • And I want to pause here for --

    我想要在這裡打個岔 -

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • I want to pause here for a second,

    我想在這裡打個岔

  • because there's a couple of interesting things.

    因為這裡有幾項有趣的事

  • One, when those teachers are doing that,

    一,當這些老師開始這麼做的時候

  • there's the obvious benefit --

    比較明顯的好處是

  • the benefit that now their students

    現在這些學生

  • can enjoy the videos in the way that my cousins did.

    都可以像我的表弟一樣

  • They can pause, repeat at their own pace,

    用自己的節奏學習

  • at their own time.

    隨時暫停或復習

  • But the more interesting thing is --

    但更有趣的事是

  • and this is the unintuitive thing when you talk about technology in the classroom --

    當你把科技帶到課堂裡

  • by removing the one-size-fits-all lecture from the classroom

    便實現了因材施教的理想

  • and letting students have a self-paced lecture at home,

    學生們可以回家用自己的方式學習

  • and then when you go to the classroom, letting them do work,

    當他們到了課堂,開始做作業

  • having the teacher walk around,

    老師可以作為輔助

  • having the peers actually be able to interact with each other,

    甚至讓學生互相教導學習

  • these teachers have used technology

    這些老師用科技

  • to humanize the classroom.

    把教室變得更人性

  • They took a fundamentally dehumanizing experience --

    過去的課堂經驗是很去人性的

  • 30 kids with their fingers on their lips,

    30個孩子不許開口

  • not allowed to interact with each other.

    不許和彼此交談

  • A teacher, no matter how good,

    無論一個老師多優秀

  • has to give this one-size-fits-all lecture

    都得用一樣的方法

  • to 30 students --

    教30個不同的孩子

  • blank faces, slightly antagonistic --

    面無表情,還帶著些敵意

  • and now it's a human experience.

    現在人性多了

  • Now they're actually interacting with each other.

    現在他們總算可以交流了

  • So once the Khan Academy --

    於是有了 Khan 學院

  • I quit my job

    我辭掉工作

  • and we turned into a real organization --

    把學院變成一個真正的組織

  • we're a not-for-profit --

    我們是個非營利組織

  • the question is, how do we take this to the next level?

    問題是,下一步該怎麼走?

  • How do we take what those teachers are doing

    我們該如何幫助這些老師的做法

  • to their natural conclusion?

    讓它變得更好?

  • And so what I'm showing you over here,

    我現在所要展示的

  • these are actual exercises

    都是當時我為了我表弟

  • that I started writing for my cousins.

    所做的題目

  • The ones I started were much more primitive.

    當時的畫面比較原始

  • This is a more competent version of it.

    現在的比較好用

  • But the paradigm here is, we'll generate as many questions as you need

    這個範例所展現的是,我們讓你做許多題目

  • until you get that concept,

    直到你理解了這個概念

  • until you get 10 in a row.

    直到你連續答對十題

  • And the Khan Academy videos are there.

    如果你不知道怎麼做

  • You get hints, the actual steps for that problem,

    Khan 學院影片在這

  • if you don't know how to do it.

    有提示,還有解題的步驟

  • But the paradigm here, it seems like a very simple thing:

    這個範例看上去很簡單:

  • 10 in a row, you move on.

    十題,然後繼續

  • But it's fundamentally different than what's happening in classrooms right now.

    它和現在的教室有所不同

  • In a traditional classroom,

    在傳統的教室裡

  • you have a couple of homework,

    你有一些作業

  • homework, lecture, homework, lecture,

    作業、講課、作業、講課

  • and then you have a snapshot exam.

    然後你有個短短的考試

  • And that exam, whether you get a 70 percent, an 80 percent,

    無論你在考試裡拿了70分、80分

  • a 90 percent or a 95 percent,

    90或95分

  • the class moves on to the next topic.

    課堂都會繼續

  • And even that 95 percent student,

    但就算你拿了95分

  • what was the five percent they didn't know?

    他不知道的那5分怎麼辦

  • Maybe they didn't know what happens when you raise something to the zero power.

    或許他們不知道你把數提到零功率的時候會怎樣

  • And then you go build on that in the next concept.

    但你已經開始講解下個概念了

  • That's analogous to

    那就像是

  • imagine learning to ride a bicycle,

    想像你在學騎腳踏車

  • and maybe I give you a lecture ahead of time,

    我事先和你講解

  • and I give you that bicycle for two weeks.

    然後把腳踏車給你兩個禮拜

  • And then I come back after two weeks,

    兩個禮拜後我回來說

  • and I say, "Well, let's see. You're having trouble taking left turns.

    “我看看,你左轉有問題

  • You can't quite stop.

    不太停的下來

  • You're an 80 percent bicyclist."

    你是個80分的旗手”

  • So I put a big C stamp on your forehead

    然後我在你額頭上打個C印

  • and then I say, "Here's a unicycle."

    然後說“這是你的單輪車。”

  • But as ridiculous as that sounds,

    就算它聽上去很可笑

  • that's exactly what's happening

    這就是每天

  • in our classrooms right now.

    發生在我們教室裡的事

  • And the idea is you fast forward

    把情況往前快轉

  • and good students start failing algebra all of a sudden

    好學生突然當掉了代數

  • and start failing calculus all of a sudden,

    當掉微積分

  • despite being smart, despite having good teachers,

    就算他們聰明,又有好老師

  • and it's usually because they have these Swiss cheese gaps

    往往是來自那些打基礎時

  • that kept building throughout their foundation.

    造成的那些瑞士乳酪孔隙一樣的差距

  • So our model

    我們的模式是

  • is learn math the way you'd learn anything,

    用你學其它事物的方式學習數學

  • like the way you would learn a bicycle.

    就像你學騎腳踏車一樣

  • Stay on that bicycle. Fall off that bicycle.

    坐在腳踏車上,從腳踏車上跌下

  • Do it as long as necessary until you have mastery.

    直到你真正學會為止

  • The traditional model,

    傳統的模式

  • it penalizes you for experimentation and failure,

    懲罰學生的嘗試和失敗

  • but it does not expect mastery.

    它不期待你完全理解

  • We encourage you to experiment. We encourage you to failure.

    我們鼓勵你實驗,鼓勵你失敗

  • But we do expect mastery.

    但我們要你完全理解掌控

  • This is just another one of the modules.

    這是另外一個課題

  • This is trigonometry.

    這是三角習題

  • This is shifting and reflecting functions.

    這是移位和反射函數

  • And they all fit together.

    他們全都有關聯

  • We have about 90 of these right now.

    我們現在大概有90個這樣的課程

  • And you can go to the site right now. It's all free. Not trying to sell anything.

    你可以自己上網站看,全免費,沒有要賣甚麼

  • But the general idea is that they all fit into this knowledge map.

    重點是他們全都包含在這知識地圖裡

  • That top node right there, that's literally single digit addition.

    上面那個最高的結是個位數加法

  • It's like one plus one is equal to two.

    像一加一等於二

  • And the paradigm is, once you get 10 in a row on that,

    它的用法是,一旦你連續答對十題

  • it keeps forwarding you to more and more advanced modules.

    你就會進階到下一個課題

  • So if you keep further down the knowledge map,

    如果你這張知識地圖持續前進

  • we're getting into more advanced arithmetic.

    便會進入更進階的演算

  • Further down, you