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  • Black holes are one of the strangest things in existence.

    黑洞是一種非常奇怪的存在。

  • They don’t seem to make any sense at all; where do they come from?

    他們完全沒道理,他們從何而來?

  • And what happens if you fall into one?

    而當你落入黑洞又會發生什麼事?

  • Stars are incredibly massive collections of mostly hydrogen atoms that collapse from enormous gas clouds under their own gravity.

    恆星大部分是由多到不可思議的氫原子聚集,巨量的氣體雲被自己的引力所吸引而塌陷。

  • In their core, nuclear fusion crushes hydrogen atoms into helium, releasing a tremendous amount of energy.

    在它的核心內,核融合將氫原子組合成氦原子,釋放出極大量的能量。

  • This energy, in the form of radiation, pushes against gravity, maintaining a delicate balance between the two forces.

    這股能量以輻射作為存在,反抗著引力向外推,將兩股力間維持在一個微妙的平衡。

  • As long as there is fusion in the core, a star remains stable enough.

    只要核心持續核融合,恆星就能維持足夠的穩定度。

  • But for stars with way more mass than our own Sun, the heat and pressure at the core allow them to fuse heavier elements, until they reach iron.

    但對於那些比我們太陽質量大上許多的恆星,核心內的熱能和壓力可以使它們合成更重的元素, 直到它們合成鐵原子。

  • Unlike all the elements that went before, the fusion process that creates iron doesn’t generate any energy.

    不像先前提到的原子,產生出鐵原子的過程並不會產生任何的能量。

  • Iron builds up at the center of the star until it reaches a critical amount, and the balance between radiation and gravity is suddenly broken.

    鐵在恆星中央組成直到一定程度的量後,輻射能與重力之間的平衡就瓦解了。

  • The core collapses.

    核心開始崩塌。

  • Within a fraction of a second, the star implodes, moving at about a quarter of the speed of light, feeding even more mass into the core.

    在若干分之一秒內,恆星產生自爆,以 1/4 光速移動, 持續餵給核心更多的質量。

  • It’s at this very moment that all the heavier elements in the universe are created, as the star dies in a supernova explosion.

    宇宙中所有重元素都是在這特別的時刻被創造的,而後恆星死於這場超新星爆炸。

  • This produces either a neutron star or, if the star is massive enough, the entire mass of the core collapses into a black hole.

    最後可能會產生中子星,或者當恆星質量夠大時,整個核心崩塌的質量都落入黑洞。

  • If you looked at a black hole, what you’d really be seeing is the event horizon.

    如果你看著黑洞,你真正能看到的是它的事件視界。

  • Anything that crosses the event horizon needs to be travelling faster than the speed of light to escape.

    任何東西越過了事件視界,移動速度必須要比光速快才能逃脫。

  • In other words, it’s impossible.

    換句話說,這不可能。

  • So we just see a black sphere, reflecting nothing.

    所以我們只看到了一個不會反射任何東西的黑暗球面。

  • But if the event horizon is theblackpart, what is theholepart of the black hole?

    但如果事件視界是 "黑" 的部份,那什麼是黑洞中 "洞" 的部份呢?

  • The singularity.

    奇點。

  • Were not sure what it is exactly.

    我們不確定它究竟是怎樣。

  • A singularity may be infinitely dense, meaning all its mass is concentrated into a single point in space with no surface or volume.

    一個奇點可能有著無限大的密度,意味著所有物質集中-在一個沒有表面也沒有體積的點上。

  • Or something completely different.

    或者是個完全不同的狀況。

  • Right now, we just don’t know.

    目前,我們還不知道。

  • It’s like a dividing by zero error.

    這就像是個分母為零的分數。

  • By the way, black holes do not suck things up like a vacuum cleaner.

    順代一提,黑洞不像是吸塵器把東西吸走。

  • If we were to swap the Sun for an equally massive black hole, nothing much would change for Earth, except that we would freeze to death, of course.

    如果我們把太陽換成個同等質量的黑洞,對地球並沒有什麼影響, 當然,我們預計會被冷死。

  • What would happen to you if you fell into a black hole?

    當你落入黑洞時會發生什麼事?

  • The experience of time is different around black holes.

    在黑洞附近經過的時間和平常不太相同。

  • From the outside, you seem to slow down as you approach the event horizon, so time passes slower for you.

    從外面看來,當你接近事件視界時會變慢,所以你流經過的時間較緩慢。

  • At some point, you would appear to freeze in time, slowly turn red, and disappear.

    到達某點時,你看起來就如時間被動結了一般,顏色慢慢偏紅,然後消失。

  • While from your perspective, you can watch the rest of the universe in fast-forward, kind of like seeing into the future.

    當以你為觀測點時,你可以看到整個宇宙快速前進,類似於看到未來。

  • Right now, we don’t know what happens next, but we think it could be one of two things.

    現在,我們不清楚接下來會發生什麼事,但預測會發生以下兩種結果,

  • One: you die a quick death.

    一:你死得很痛快。

  • A black hole curves space so much that once you cross the event horizon there is only one possible direction.

    黑洞將時空大幅度地扭曲,一旦你跨過了事件視界,就只剩下唯一一個前進的方向。

  • You can take this literally: inside the event horizon, you can only go in one direction.

    從字面上看:在事件視界內,你只有一個方向可以走。

  • It’s like being in a really tight alley that closes behind you after each step.

    這就像是個小巷子,當你每走一步後面的路就消失。

  • The mass of a black hole is so concentrated, at some point, even tiny distances of a few centimeters would mean that gravity acts with millions of times more force on different parts of your body.

    黑洞的物質非常集中,從某個角度來看,即使是幾公分的微小差距, 也可能使你身體的不同部份承受著數百萬倍不同的重力。

  • Your cells get torn apart as your body stretches more and more, until youre a hot stream of plasma one atom wide.

    你的細胞在身體被拉扯時一塊一塊被撕開,直到你變成一個原子寬的流動電漿。

  • Two: you die a very quick death.

    二:你死得很快。

  • Very soon after you cross the event horizon, you would hit a fire wall and be terminated in an instant.

    在你越過了事件視界後,你很快地會撞上一道火牆,並在一瞬間被消滅。

  • Neither of these options are particularly pleasant.

    上述兩種情況都不怎麼舒服。

  • How soon you would die depends on the mass of the black hole.

    你會死多快取決於黑洞的質量。

  • A smaller black hole would kill you before you even entered its event horizon, while you probably could travel inside a supermassive black hole for quite a while.

    小一點的黑洞可能會在你尚未到達事件視界就殺掉你,超大質量的黑洞可能會讓你在事件視界內逛個一陣子。

  • As a rule of thumb, the further away from the singularity you are, the longer you live.

    從經驗來看,你離奇點越遠,你救活得越久。

  • Black holes come in different sizes.

    黑洞有著不同的尺寸。

  • There are stellar-mass black holes with a few times the mass of the Sun and the diameter of an asteroid.

    有的質量只比太陽大幾倍,直徑和小行星一樣。

  • And then there are the supermassive black holes, which are found at the heart of every galaxy and have been feeding for billions of years.

    有的則是超級巨大的黑洞,每個所知的銀河系中央都有一個, 而且已經被餵食了數十億年之久。

  • Currently, the largest supermassive black hole known is S5 0014+81, forty billion times the mass of our Sun.

    目前,已知的最大黑洞是 S5 0014+81,是太陽質量的 4 百億倍。

  • It is 236.7 billion kilometers in diameter, which is 47 times the distance from the Sun to Pluto.

    直徑長達 2367 百億公里,是太陽到冥王星距離的 47 倍。

  • As powerful as black holes are, they will eventually evaporate through a process called Hawking radiation.

    就算黑洞再怎麼強大,它們最終仍會經由一個叫做 "霍金輻射" 的過程而蒸發。

  • To understand how this works, we have to look at empty space.

    要了解它是怎麼運作的,我們必須說明一下宇宙的真空。

  • Empty space is not really empty, but filled with virtual particles popping into existence and annihilating each other again.

    真空中並不是真的空無一物,而是充滿了虛擬粒子,瞬間產生並瞬間消滅對方。

  • When this happens right on the edge of a black hole, one of the virtual particles will be drawn into the black hole, and the other will escape and become a real particle.

    當這狀況發生在黑洞邊緣時,其中一部分的虛擬粒子會落入黑洞, 另一部份將會逃離並變成真的粒子。

  • So the black hole is losing energy.

    所以黑洞正在失去能量。

  • This happens incredibly slowly at first, and gets faster as the black hole becomes smaller.

    這過程起初發生得很慢,當黑洞變得越小時則越來越快。

  • When it arrives at the mass of a large asteroid, it’s radiating at room temperature.

    當它質量簡少到如大型小行星一般時,它會發射出有著一般室溫的熱輻射。

  • When it has the mass of a mountain, it radiates at about the heat of our Sun.

    當它縮小到一個山脈的大小時,它會散發出同太陽一樣的溫度的熱輻射。

  • And in the last second of its life, the black hole radiates away with the energy of billions of nuclear bombs in a huge explosion.

    而在它生命的最後一秒,黑洞變成輻射蒸發掉了,其中會伴隨著數十億倍核彈爆炸的能量,

  • But this process is incredibly slow.

    但這過程非常地緩慢。

  • The biggest black holes we know might take up to a googol years to evaporate.

    目前已知最大的黑洞要花上 10^100(googol)年才會蒸發。

  • Nobody will be around to witness it.

    到時候將沒有人可以親眼見證。

  • The universe will have become uninhabitable long before then.

    遠在發生之前宇宙就會變得不適合居住。

  • This is not the end of our story; there are loads more interesting ideas about black holes.

    這還不是故事的結尾,還有更多有關黑洞好玩的事情。

  • Well explore them in part 2.

    我們將會在 part 2 探討它們。

  • A big thanks to Fraser Cain for help with this video.

    感謝 Fraser Cain 大大的強力贊助。

  • By the way, weve made some Kurzgesagt wallpapers in 4K for different screen sizes;

    我跟你說喔,我們做了一些 4K 的 Kurzgesagt 桌布喔!它可以用在不同尺寸的螢幕上呢!

  • you can get them on our Patreon page, which also helps us to make more videos.

    想要就去我們 Patreon 頁面拿啦,這會讓我們更想製作更多的影片

  • Like this December, the first month ever with three videos!

    像這個 12 月,是我們第一次在一個月內製作 3 部影片呢!

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

    Julian Lai 的爛翻譯

Black holes are one of the strangest things in existence.

黑洞是一種非常奇怪的存在。

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黑洞解釋--從誕生到死亡 (Black Holes Explained – From Birth to Death)

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