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  • A 13,000 mile dragon of earth and stone

    二萬一千公里長的土石龍

  • winds its way through the countryside of China

    綿延於中國鄉野之間

  • with a history almost as long and serpentine as the structure.

    它的歷史幾乎與 蜿蜒的結構一樣長遠

  • The Great Wall began as multiple walls of rammed earth

    長城一開始是好幾座夯土城牆

  • built by individual feudal states during the Chunqiu period

    在春秋時代由各個諸侯國修建

  • to protect against nomadic raiders north of China and each other.

    以抵禦賽北的遊牧民族 並互相防衛

  • When Emperor Qin Shi Huang unified the states in 221 BCE,

    秦始皇於西元前 221 年 一統天下後

  • the Tibetan Plateau and Pacific Ocean became natural barriers,

    青藏高原及太平洋 成為國家的天然屏障

  • but the mountains in the north remained vulnerable

    但北方的山嶺仍難防守

  • to Mongol, Turkish, and Xiongnu invasions.

    很容易受蒙古、土耳其 及匈奴的攻擊

  • To defend against them,

    為了抵禦胡人

  • the Emperor expanded the small walls built by his predecessors,

    秦始皇將前任君王 修築的小面城牆

  • connecting some and fortifying others.

    加固結構並連接起來

  • As the structures grew from Lintao in the west

    因為此建築物從西邊的臨洮

  • to Liaodong in the east,

    延伸至東邊的遼東

  • they collectively became known as The Long Wall.

    這些城牆被統稱為「長城」

  • To accomplish this task,

    為了完成這項任務

  • the Emperor enlisted soldiers and commoners,

    秦始皇徵募士兵及平民

  • not always voluntarily.

    但他們並非全部都出於自願

  • Of the hundreds of thousands of builders recorded during the Qin Dynasty,

    秦朝有案可考的數十萬工人中

  • many were forcibly conscripted peasants

    很多是被強迫徵召的農民

  • and others were criminals serving out sentences.

    其他則是服刑的犯人

  • Under the Han Dynasty, the wall grew longer still,

    漢朝時代,此牆愈建愈長

  • reaching 3700 miles,

    達到 5955 公里

  • and spanning from Dunhuang to the Bohai Sea.

    自敦煌橫跨至渤海

  • Forced labor continued under the Han Emperor Han-Wudi ,

    強迫勞動持續至漢武帝

  • and the walls reputation grew into a notorious place of suffering.

    長城變為惡名昭彰的苦難之地

  • Poems and legends of the time told of laborers buried

    當時的詩歌和傳說敘述著

  • in nearby mass graves,

    工人被埋入附近的萬人塚

  • or even within the wall itself.

    甚至是牆內的故事

  • And while no human remains have been found inside,

    雖然牆內並未發現人類遺骸

  • grave pits do indicate that many workers died

    墓穴的確顯示許多工人

  • from accidents, hunger and exhaustion.

    死於意外、飢餓及衰竭

  • The wall was formidable but not invincible.

    這座牆的確令人生畏 卻非天下無敵

  • Both Genghis and his son Khublai Khan managed to surmount the wall

    成吉思汗及其子忽必烈

  • during the Mongol invasion of the 13th Century.

    於 13 世紀蒙古入侵時 都曾攻克牆頂

  • After the Ming dynasty gained control in 1368,

    明朝於 1368 年掌權後

  • they began to refortify and further consolidate the wall

    開始再加強防禦工事 進一步鞏固牆身

  • using bricks and stones from local kilns.

    使用在地火窯製造的 磚頭與石塊

  • Averaging 23 feet high and 21 feet wide,

    平均 7 公尺高 6.5 公尺寬

  • the walls 5500 miles were punctuated by watchtowers.

    8851 公里的長城 間隔設置烽火台

  • When raiders were sighted,

    一旦看到侵略者

  • fire and smoke signals traveled between towers

    升起的烽火及狼煙 就在台間傳遞訊息

  • until reinforcements arrived.

    直到援兵抵達

  • Small openings along the wall let archers fire on invaders,

    牆面上還有小的開口 讓弓箭手射擊入侵者

  • while larger ones were used to drop stones and more.

    大的開口則拿來 丟擲石頭及其他東西

  • But even this new and improved wall was not enough.

    但是這面改良過的新牆還是不夠好

  • In 1644, northern Manchu clans overthrew the Ming

    1644 年北方的滿族 推翻明朝

  • to establish the Qing dynasty,

    建立清朝

  • incorporating Mongolia as well,

    也合併蒙古

  • Thus, for the second time,

    因此這是第二度

  • China was ruled by the very people the wall had tried to keep out.

    中國受原本想以牆抵禦的 外族統治

  • With the empire's borders now extending beyond the Great Wall,

    隨著帝國的疆界擴張到長城以外

  • the fortifications lost their purpose.

    築牆防禦失去了原本的目的

  • And without regular reinforcement, the wall fell into disrepair,

    沒有定期加固的長城 失修荒廢

  • rammed earth eroded,

    夯土受到侵蝕

  • while brick and stone were plundered for building materials.

    磚頭及石塊則被盜竊 當建築材料

  • But its job wasn't finished.

    但是它的工作還沒結束

  • During World War II,

    二次世界大戰時

  • China used sections for defense against Japanese invasion,

    中國用部分牆面抵禦日本攻擊

  • and some parts are still rumored to be used for military training.

    外界仍盛傳長城某些地方 現在還拿來做軍事訓練

  • But the Wall's main purpose today is cultural.

    但是今天 長城的主要目的是文化

  • As one of the largest man-made structures on Earth,

    長城為地球上大型人造結構之一

  • it was granted UNESCO World Heritage Status in 1987.

    1987 年聯合國教科文組織 將其列為世界文化遺產

  • Originally built to keep people out of China,

    原本修築以排拒外人進入中國

  • the Great Wall now welcomes millions of visitors each year.

    長城現在每年要歡迎 數百萬的旅客

  • In fact, the influx of tourists has caused the wall to deteriorate,

    事實上,湧入的遊客造成長城損壞

  • leading the Chinese government to launch preservation initiatives.

    致使中國政府啟動保護措施

  • It's also often acclaimed as the only man-made structure visible from space.

    它也常常被譽為 唯一可自太空看見的人造結構

  • Unfortunately, that's not at all true.

    可惜,這說法不對

  • In low Earth orbit, all sorts of structures,

    在低軌道上,各種建築物

  • like bridges, highways and airports are visible,

    如橋梁、高速公路 及機場都為可見

  • and the Great Wall is only barely discernible.

    長城僅為隱約可辨識

  • >From the moon, it doesn't stand a chance.

    從月球看 則一點都看不到

  • But regardless, it's the Earth we should be studying it from

    但無論如何,地球才是 我們應該好好研究長城的地方

  • because new sections are still discovered every few years,

    因為每隔幾年就會發現新的片段

  • branching off from the main body

    從主體向外伸展

  • and expanding this remarkable monument to human achievement.

    擴展這座非凡的歷史遺跡 成為人類偉大成就

A 13,000 mile dragon of earth and stone

二萬一千公里長的土石龍

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 長城 蒙古 城牆 結構 中國

【TED-Ed】長城為什麼那麼特別? (What makes the Great Wall of China so extraordinary - Megan Campisi and Pen-Pen Chen)

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    Ann 發佈於 2015 年 11 月 08 日
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