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  • Why do we see illusions?

    我們是怎麼產生錯覺的?

  • I'm going to tell you about some of my research

    我想談談我的研究,

  • where I provided evidence

    我為一些不一樣的假設

  • for a different kind of hypothesis

    提出證據。

  • than the one might be on the book

    這些假設可能和你們

  • on your coffee stand.

    在路邊找到的書裡說的不同。

  • Alright, so let's look at one of the illusions here.

    好,讓我們先來看其中一種錯覺。

  • And this is a stand-in for many, many kinds of illusions

    它是許多種錯覺的代表,

  • that are explained by this hypothesis.

    那些錯覺都可以用這假設解釋。

  • I'm just going to walk through it for this particular one.

    我只是想要用這一個 來談一下這個假設。

  • As usual in these things,

    就像平常一樣,

  • these two lines are in fact parallel,

    這兩條線實際上是平行的,

  • but you perceive them to bow outwards at their centers.

    但是你覺得它們中間有向外微彎。

  • At the center where those radial lines are,

    在你視覺中,那個輻射狀的中心,

  • it's wider in your visual field

    比上面和下面的部份

  • than the parts above and below.

    都還要寬。

  • And this is remarkable

    這很特別,

  • because it's a remarkably simple stimulus.

    因為它是特別簡單的圖形。

  • It's just a bunch of straight lines.

    它只是一束直線而已。

  • Why should one of the most complicated objects in the universe

    為什麼這宇宙中堪稱最複雜的器官

  • be unable to render this incredibly simple image?

    沒辦法處理這簡單到不行的影像?

  • When you want to answer questions like this,

    當你想要回答像這類的問題時,

  • you need to ask,

    你必須去問:

  • "Well, what might this mean to your brain?"

    「嗯,那這在我們腦中代表什麼呢?」

  • And what your brain is going to think this is

    而我們大腦對它的想法

  • is not some lines on a page,

    並不只是紙上的一堆線,

  • your brain has evolved to handle

    你的大腦已經進化到

  • the kinds of natural stimuli

    可以處理在現實生活中

  • that it encounters in real life.

    會遇到的各種視覺刺激。

  • So when does the brain encounter stimuli like this?

    所以什麼時候大腦 會遇到這種視覺刺激?

  • Well, it seems a little bit odd,

    嗯,好像有點怪,

  • but in fact, you've been encountering this stimulus all day long.

    但事實上, 你每天都會遇到這種視覺刺激。

  • Whenever you move,

    每當你移動的時候,

  • whenever you move forward in particular.

    尤其是每當你向前移動的時候。

  • When you move forward, you get optic flow,

    當你向前移動時, 你會感覺視覺的流動,

  • flowing outwards in an individual field

    在你的視覺影像中 向外流動,

  • like when the Enterprise goes into Warp.

    就像是企業號啟動了曲速引擎一樣。 (譯註:企業號是影集星際迷航記的一艘太空船。)

  • All of these objects flow outwards

    所有東西都向外流,

  • and they leave trails or blur lines on your retina.

    而它們在你的視網膜上 留下軌跡或是模糊的線。

  • They're activating mini-neurons all in a row.

    它們會啟動一整排的微小神經元。

  • So, this is a version of what happens in real life

    所以,這是現實會發生的一個版本

  • and this another version of what happens in real life all the time.

    而這也是常會發生的另一個版本。

  • In fact, cartoonists know about this.

    事實上,漫畫家知道這點。

  • They put these blur lines in their cartoons

    他們在他們的漫畫中加上模糊的線

  • and it means to your brain, motion.

    而這在你的有腦中代表 ── 運動。

  • Now it's not that in real life you see blur lines,

    我並不是想說 你在現實生活中

  • the point is that it's the stimulus at the back of your eye

    會看到模糊的線, 重點在於這個視覺刺激

  • that has these optic blurs in them

    會在你眼睛底層留下 模糊的圖像,

  • and that's what tells your brain that you're moving.

    而就是它告訴你 你正在移動。

  • When you move forward, your eyes fixate like cameras,

    當你向前走的時候, 你的眼睛會像相機一樣留下影像

  • like snap-shot cameras,

    像快照相機一樣,

  • it fixates,

    它會留下影像、

  • it fixates,

    留下影像、

  • little camera shots,

    一張張的小照片,

  • and each time it fixates,

    每一次它留下影像,

  • when you're moving forward,

    當你向前進時,

  • you get all this flowing outwards.

    你會看到全部都向外流。

  • So when you take a fixation,

    所以當你將底片定影的時候,

  • you end up with this weird optic blur stuff

    你會看到這奇怪的視覺模糊

  • and it tells you the direction you're moving.

    而它會告訴你 你移動的方向。

  • Alright, that's half the story.

    好,這是我要講的一部份。

  • That's what this stimulus means.

    這是這個視覺刺激 代表的意義。

  • It means that your brain thinks

    這表示你的大腦

  • when it's looking at the first image

    在你看到第一張圖像時

  • that you're actually on your way,

    會覺得你正在路上,

  • moving towards the center.

    正向中心點前進。

  • Still doesn't explain why you should perceive

    但這還是沒有解釋為什麼

  • these straight lines as bowed outwards.

    你會感覺那兩條線向外彎曲。

  • To understand the rest of the story,

    要了解剩下的故事,

  • you have to understand that our brains are slow.

    你必須知道我們的大腦運作緩慢。

  • What you would like is that when light hits your eye,

    你可能希望 光一接觸你的眼睛,

  • then, ping!

    隨即,砰!

  • Immediately you have a perception

    瞬間你就有整個世界

  • of what the world is like.

    的視覺影像。

  • But it doesn't work that way.

    但大腦並不是這樣的。

  • It takes about a tenth of a second

    它大約須要十分之一秒

  • for your perception to be created.

    來產生視覺。

  • And a tenth of a second doesn't sound very long,

    這十分之一秒聽起來並不太長,

  • but it's a long time in normal behaviors.

    但對一般的動作來說 它算是長的。

  • If you're moving just at one meter per second,

    如果你每秒動一公尺,

  • which is fairly slow,

    這算是很慢的,

  • then a tenth of second, you've moved ten centimeters.

    那麼十分之一秒你已經走了十公分了。

  • So if you didn't correct for this delay,

    所以如果你沒有修正這個延遲現象,

  • then anything that you perceived

    那麼每一樣你覺得

  • to be within ten centimeters of you,

    和你差十公分的物體,

  • then by the time you perceived it,

    在你看到的那一刻

  • you would have bumped into it or just passed it.

    你可能就已經撞到或錯過它了。

  • And of course, this is going to be much worse,

    而當然地,這可能會更糟,

  • it's going to be much worse

    像是這種情況下,

  • in a situation like this.

    可能會更糟。

  • Your perception is behind.

    你的視覺慢了。

  • What you want is that your perception should look like this.

    你期望看到的的應該是像這樣子。

  • You want your perceptions at any time, "t",

    你希望你在時間 t 看到的

  • to be of the world at time "t".

    應該是時間 t 的世界。

  • But the only way that your brain can do that

    除了在光打到你的視網膜上時

  • is that it has to instead of generating

    大腦就馬上產生影像,

  • a perception of the way that the world was

    這個方法外,

  • when light hit your retina,

    你的大腦唯一可以做的

  • it has to do something fancier.

    應該是更具想像力。

  • It can't passively respond and create a best guess,

    我們不應該只是 消極地反應並做出猜測,

  • it has to create a best guess about the next moment.

    應該是要對下一刻做出最合理的猜測。

  • What will the world look like in a tenth of a second?

    十分之一秒之後的世界會像是什麼樣子?

  • Build a perception of that

    必須建立這樣的視覺影像,

  • because by the time your perception

    因為當你的大腦建構好

  • of the near future occurs in your brain,

    這樣不遠的未來影像時,

  • the near future will have arrived

    那這不遠的未來 就已經到了

  • and you'll have a perception of the present,

    而你就變成有了 「現在」的影像,

  • which is what you want.

    這正是你想要的。

  • In my research, I provided a lot of evidence that,

    在我的研究中, 我為這想法提出證據,

  • and there's other research areas that have provided evidence,

    也有其它研究提出證據,

  • that the brain is filled with these sorts of mechanisms

    證明大腦擁有這類的機制

  • that try to compensate for its slowness.

    來彌補這樣的延遲。

  • And I've shown that huge swaths of illusions are explained by this,

    而我也證明了非常多的錯覺 都可以用這個來解釋,

  • this just being one example.

    這只是一個例子而已。

  • But let me finish it by saying

    但讓我說一下

  • how exactly does this explain this particular example?

    這個想法要如何解釋 現在這個例子。

  • So, the question really we have to ask is

    所以,我們真正想問的是

  • how do those two vertical lines in that first stimulus,

    第一張圖像中的兩條線,

  • how do they change in the next moment

    這兩條線下一刻會是什麼樣子?

  • were I moving towards the center

    假設在我正在往中心點移動,

  • that all those optical lines are suggesting that I'm moving,

    因為每條線都這麼跟我說,

  • what happens to them?

    這情況下它們會怎麼改變?

  • Well, let's just imagine.

    那,讓我們想像看看。

  • Imagine you've got a doorway.

    想像前方有一扇門。

  • You got a doorway,

    有一扇門,

  • and imagine it's a cathedral doorway

    想像那是教堂的大門,

  • just to make it more concrete,

    這樣會具體些,

  • it's going to be helpful in second.

    也會比較有用。

  • When you are very far away from it,

    當你離它還很遠時,

  • the sides are perfectly parallel.

    它的兩側是完全平行的。

  • But now imagine what happens when you get closer.

    但是想像當你靠近的時候。

  • When you get really,

    當你真的很靠近時,

  • it all flows outwards in your visual field,

    在你的視覺中 它會向外流動

  • flowing outwards,

    向外流,

  • but when you're really close,

    但因為你是真的很靠近,

  • imagine the sides of the doorway are here and here,

    想像門的兩側就在這裡和這裡,

  • but if you look up at this cathedral doorway

    但如果你看看教堂的大門

  • and you did your fingers like this,

    你會像這樣用手指來指它,

  • the sides of the doorways are going up

    門的兩側向上攀升

  • like railroad tracks in the sky.

    就像鐵路到達天際。

  • What started off as two parallel lines

    原本平行的兩條線

  • in fact bows outwards at eye-level

    實際上會在眼睛水平處 向外彎曲

  • and doesn't go outwards nearly as much above.

    而在上面的部份則 沒有那麼向外彎。

  • So in the next moment,

    所以在下一刻,

  • you have a shape that's more like this next picture.

    你會看到的形狀 更像這下一張。

  • It ends up in fact, the projective geometry,

    這實際上,就是投影幾何,

  • there's the way the things project

    有一種投影會讓

  • in fact change in this way in the next moment.

    影像在下一刻變成這樣。

  • So when you have a stimulus like this,

    當你遇到這樣的視覺刺激,

  • well, your brain has no problem,

    你的大腦不會有什麼問題,

  • there's just two vertical lines

    它們就只是兩條垂直的線,

  • and there's no cues

    因為沒有提示

  • that there's going to be a change in the next moment,

    告訴你下一刻會有改變,

  • so just render it as it is.

    所以只要正常地處理它就好。

  • But if you add cues,

    但如果加了些提示,

  • and this is just one of many kinds of cues

    這只許多會造成這類錯覺

  • that can lead to these kinds of illusions,

    的提示之一,

  • this very strong optic blur cue,

    這個非常強烈 視覺模糊的提示,

  • then you're going to perceive instead

    那你會感受到的

  • exactly how it will appear in the next moment.

    就剛好會是下一刻會顯現的樣子。

  • All of our perceptions are always trying to be about the present,

    我們所有的知覺, 都試著與現在相符,

  • but you have to perceive the future

    但你必須感覺未來

  • to in fact perceive the present.

    才能實際地感覺現在。

  • And these illusions are failed perceptions of the future

    而這些錯覺則是 對未來失敗的預測,

  • because they are just static images on a page,

    因為它們只是靜止的一張圖像,

  • they're not changing like in real life.

    他們並不像現實中會動。

  • And let me just end by showing one illusion here,

    讓我用這一個錯覺做結尾,

  • and if I could, I'll quickly show two.

    如果可以的話,看能不能講兩個。

  • This one's fun.

    這個很有趣。

  • If you just fixate at the middle, there,

    如果你注視中間,那裡,

  • and make stabbing motions with your head,

    然後前後移動你的頭,

  • looming towards it like this.

    像這樣靠近它。

  • Everybody do that.

    每個人都試試看。

  • Make short, stabbing motions.

    試幾下前後移動。

  • Because I've added blur to these optic flow lines,

    因為我有把這些視覺流線 變得模糊,

  • your brain says, "they're probably already moving,

    你的大腦會告訴你: 「它們可能已經在動了,

  • that's why they're blurry."

    所以才會變得模糊。」

  • When you do it, they should be bursting out

    當你這麼做的時候,它們就會

  • in your visual field faster than they should.

    在你的視覺中向外炸, 超過它們應該有的速度。

  • They shouldn't be moving that much.

    它們不應該移動那麼多。

  • And a final one I'll just leave in the background is this.

    而最後一張我會留下來當背景的 是這張。

  • Here are the cues of motion,

    這裡面有移動的線索,

  • the kinds of cues that you get on your retina

    當你看到物體在動的時候, 會看到

  • when things are moving.

    這類的線索。

  • You don't have to do anything here,

    你不用做什麼動作,

  • just look at it.

    只要看著它就好。

  • And many of you, raise your hand,

    可能有許多人,看到的請舉手,

  • if things are moving when they shouldn't be.

    明明它們不該動 可是你感覺到東西在移動。

  • It's weird, right?

    這很詭異,對吧?

  • But what you have now are the cues,

    但你現在有的只是提示,

  • that from your brain's point of view,

    這來自你大腦的觀點、

  • your eye,

    你的眼睛,

  • you have the stimulus on your eyes saying,

    會有視覺刺激告訴你的眼睛:

  • "Oh, these things are moving."

    「喔,這些東西在移動。」

  • Render a perception of what they'll do in the next moment.

    產生它們下一刻 可能的視覺影像

  • In the next moment, they should be moving

    在下一刻,他們可能會移動

  • and they should have shifted.

    或是會位移。

  • Alright, thank you very much.

    好,非常謝謝你們。

Why do we see illusions?

我們是怎麼產生錯覺的?

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 視覺 影像 錯覺 大腦 模糊

【TED-Ed】太神奇!為什麼我們會看到錯覺呢?(Why do we see illusions?) - Mark Changizi

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    emkulu 發佈於 2013 年 09 月 28 日
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