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  • Every second, one million tons of matter is blasted from the Sun at the velocity of one million miles per hour, and it's on a collision course with Earth!

    每一秒都有一百萬噸的物質從太陽噴射出,以每小時一百萬哩的速度面衝往地球。

  • But don't worry, this isn't the opening of a new Michael Bay movie.

    但別擔心,這並不是麥可貝新電影的開場。

  • This is The Journey of the Polar Lights.

    這是極光的旅程。

  • The Northern and Southern Lights, also known as the Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis, respectively, occur when high energy particles from the Sun collide with neutral atoms in our atmosphere.

    北極光(Aurora Borealis)與南極光(Aurora Australis)是在太陽的高能量粒子與大氣中的中子碰撞時形成。

  • The energy emitted from this crash produces a spectacle of light that mankind has marveled at for centuries.

    這種撞擊所釋出的能量產生了令人類驚奇無數世紀的壯觀極光。

  • But the particles journey isn't just as simple as leaving the Sun and arriving at Earth.

    但這些粒子的旅程並非只是從離開太陽到抵達地球這麼簡單。

  • Like any cross-country road trip, there's a big detour and nobody asks for directions.

    就像一趟穿越全國之旅一樣,總是會繞一大段路,而且沒有人願意問路。

  • Let's track this intergalactic voyage by focusing on three main points of their journey: leaving the sun, making a pit stop in the Earth's magnetic fields, and arriving at the atmosphere above our heads.

    讓我們就三個旅程要點來追蹤它們的銀河之旅:離開太陽、在地球磁場中短暫停留,最後抵達我們頭頂上的大氣層。

  • The protons and electrons creating the Northern Lights depart from the Sun's corona.

    形成北極光的質子和電子從日冕離開。

  • The corona is the outermost layer of the Sun's atmosphere and is one of the hottest regions.

    日冕是太陽大氣中的最外層,同時也是最熱的區域之一。

  • Its intense heat causes the Sun's hydrogen and helium atoms to vibrate and shake off protons and electrons as if they were stripping off layers on a hot, sunny day.

    它高強度的熱能促使太陽上的氫、氦原子震動,並像在大熱天褪去外衣般地甩落質子與電子。

  • Impatient and finally behind the wheel, these free protons and electrons move too fast to be contained by the sun's gravity and group together as plasma, an electric charged gas.

    這些焦急且終於獲得主導權的自由質子與電子,以太陽引力無法控制的速度移動,並集結形成「電漿」,一種帶電的氣體。

  • They travel away from the sun as a constant gale of plasma, known as the solar wind.

    它們以速度恆定的電漿體風暴離開太陽,我們稱之為「太陽風」。

  • However, the Earth prevents the solar wind from travelling straight into the planet by setting up a detour, the magnetosphere.

    然而,地球會藉由生成的磁層建立繞道路線,防止太陽風直行而入。

  • The magnetosphere is formed by the Earth's magnetic currents and shields our planet from the solar winds by sending out the particles around the Earth.

    磁層是由地球的磁流所形成,並透過釋放粒子環繞地球以保護這顆星球免於太陽風侵擾。

  • Their opportunity to continue the journey down to the atmosphere comes when the magnetosphere is overwhelmed by a new wave of travellers.

    太陽風能繼續進入大氣層的機會來自於磁層被另一波「旅客」淹沒到難以負荷時。

  • This event is coronal mass ejection, and it occurs when the Sun shoots out a massive ball of plasma into the solar wind.

    我們稱這種情況為「日冕物質拋射」,當太陽釋放一大團電漿體而形成太陽風時便會發生。

  • When one of these coronal mass ejections collides with Earth, it overpowers the magnetosphere and creates a magnetic storm.

    當日冕物質拋射與地球撞擊,它會制伏磁層並引發磁暴。

  • The heavy storm stresses the magnetosphere until it suddenly snaps back, like an overstretched elastic band, flinging some of the detoured particles towards Earth.

    這強烈風暴持續壓迫磁層,直到磁線像過度延展的橡皮筋一般斷裂,而將被迫繞道的粒子甩往地球。

  • The retracting band of the magnetic field drags them down to the aurora ovals, which are the locations of the Northern and Southern Lights.

    那些回縮的磁場磁力線將那些粒子拉回極光同現區,也就是北極光與南極光出現的地方。

  • After travelling 93 million miles across the galaxy, the Sun's particles finally produce their dazzling light show with the help of some friends.

    在穿越星系旅行 9,300 萬哩後,太陽的粒子終於在一些「朋友」的幫助下,生成令人目眩的極光。

  • Twenty to two hundred miles above the surface, the electrons and protons meet up with oxygen and nitrogen atoms, and they sure are happy to see each other.

    地表 20 至 200 哩之上的質子和電子與氧、氮原子相遇,而它們也非常高興見到彼此。

  • The Sun's particles high five the atoms, giving their energy to the Earth's neutral oxygen and nitrogen atoms.

    太陽粒子和原子們擊掌,把自身攜帶的能量傳遞給地球的中性氧、氮原子。

  • When the atoms in the atmosphere are contacted by the particles, they get excited and emit photons.

    當這些大氣中的原子被粒子碰撞後,會轉為激發態並釋出光子。

  • Photons are small bursts of energy in the form of light.

    光子為以光線的形式迸發的陣陣能量。

  • The colors that appear in the sky depend on the wavelength of the atom's photon.

    天上極光的顏色取決於原子所釋放出的光子波長。

  • Excited oxygen atoms are responsible for the green and red colors, whereas excited nitrogen atoms produce blue and deep red hues.

    激發的氧原子會散發綠光與紅光,而激發的氮原子則是呈藍與深紅色調。

  • The collection of these interactions is what creates the Northern and Southern Lights.

    這些交互反應的集結最終產生了北極光與南極光。

  • The polar lights are best seen on clear nights in regions close to magnetic north and south poles.

    在接近磁北極與磁南極、晴朗無雲的夜晚是最好欣賞極光的時機。

  • Nighttime is ideal because the Aurora is much dimmer than sunlight and cannot be seen in daytime.

    夜間最為理想,因為極光較日光黯淡得多,因此無法在日間被看到。

  • Remember to look up to the sky and read up on the Sun's energy patterns, specifically sunspots and solar flares, as these will be good guides for predicting the auroras.

    記得仰望天空並觀察太陽的能量模式,尤其是太陽黑子與閃焰,因為它們都是預測極光的可靠指標。

Every second, one million tons of matter is blasted from the Sun at the velocity of one million miles per hour, and it's on a collision course with Earth!

每一秒都有一百萬噸的物質從太陽噴射出,以每小時一百萬哩的速度面衝往地球。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 太陽 粒子 極光 地球 質子

【TED-Ed】極光怎麼形成的? (What is an aurora? - Michael Molina)

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    Bing-Je 發佈於 2017 年 03 月 16 日
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