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  • Some superheros can move faster than the wind.

    有些超級英雄能移動得比風速還快

  • The men in Apollo 10 reached

    1969年阿波羅十號

  • a record-breaking speed

    重返地球表面時

  • of around 25,000 miles per hour

    在太空梭裡的人即達到

  • when the shuttle re-entered

    每小時約兩萬五千哩

  • the Earth's atmosphere in 1969.

    破紀錄的移動速度

  • Wouldn't we save a lot of time

    假如我們能移動得這麼快

  • to be able to move that fast?

    不是省下了很多時間嗎?

  • But what's the catch?

    但這有何內幕呢?

  • Air is not empty.

    空氣並非無雜質

  • Elements like oxygen and nitrogen,

    像是氧及氮元素

  • even countless dust particles,

    甚至數不盡的塵埃微粒

  • make up the air around us.

    組成了環繞四周的空氣

  • When we move past these things in the air,

    當我們移動時,會和空氣中這三樣物質

  • we're rubbing against them

    擦身而過

  • and creating a lot of friction,

    進而製造許多摩擦力

  • which results in heat.

    來產生熱能

  • Just like rubbing your hands together warms them up

    就像是摩擦雙手取暖

  • or rubbing two sticks together makes fire,

    或者摩擦兩根棍子取火

  • the faster objects rub together,

    其摩擦的速度越快

  • the more heat is generated.

    就能產生越多熱能

  • So, if we're running at 25,000 miles per hour,

    所以如果我們每小時跑到兩萬五千哩

  • the heat from friction would burn our faces off.

    因摩擦力而產生的熱能會把我們的臉燒掉

  • Even if we somehow withstood the heat,

    即使人體能夠承受熱

  • the sand and dirt in the air

    空氣中的沙粒及塵土

  • would still scrape us up

    仍會同時以

  • with millions of tiny cuts

    數百萬的微小切割

  • all happening at the same time.

    來刮傷我們的肌膚

  • Ever seen the front bumper or grill of a truck?

    曾看過前保險桿或燒烤的卡車嗎?

  • What do you think all the birds and bugs would do

    你覺得所有小鳥以及蟲子會如何對付

  • to your open eyes or exposed skin?

    你那睜開的雙眼及曝露在外的皮膚呢?

  • Okay, so you'll wear a mask

    好吧!你會因此戴上防護面具

  • to avoid destroying your face.

    來避免臉部遭受損害

  • But what about people in buildings

    但在你和目的地間

  • between you and your destination?

    大樓裡的人們又會如何呢?

  • It takes us approximately one-fifth of a second

    我們大約花五分之一秒的時間去對

  • to react to what we see.

    自己看到的事物反應

  • By the time we see what is ahead of us

    在我們看見眼前事物的當下

  • and react to it -

    就得做出反應

  • time times velocity equals distance

    時間乘以速率等於距離

  • equals one-fifth of a second

    等於五分之一秒

  • times 25,000 miles per hour

    乘以時速兩萬五千哩

  • equals 1.4 miles

    等於一點四哩

  • - we would have gone past it

    我們會在超過一英哩處

  • or through it by over a mile.

    即遭逢此劫

  • We're either going to kill ourselves

    若不是以超高速度

  • by crashing into the nearest wall at super speed

    來撞進距離最近的牆而殺了自己

  • or, worse, if we're indestructible,

    或者,更糟的是,如果沒死

  • we've essentially turned our bodies into missiles

    我們會把自己的身體變成導彈

  • that destroy everything in our path.

    摧毀行經道路的一切事物

  • So, long distance travel at 25,000 miles per hour

    因此,以時速兩萬五千哩長途旅行

  • would leave us burning up,

    會把自己燒成灰燼

  • covered in bugs,

    會被各種蟲子衝撞

  • and leaves no time to react.

    而且還沒時間反應

  • What about short bursts

    那麼短距離衝刺

  • to a location we can see

    到一個放眼所及

  • with no obstacles in between?

    沒有障礙物的地方又如何呢?

  • Okay, let's say a bullet

    這麼說好了!

  • is about to hit a beautiful damsel in distress.

    一顆子彈快要打到一位漂亮、需要幫助的女子

  • So, our hero swoops in at super speed,

    而我們的英雄以超高速俯衝

  • grabs her,

    去抓住她

  • and carries her to safety.

    把她帶到安全的地方

  • That sounds very romantic,

    聽起來很浪漫

  • but, in reality, that girl will probably suffer

    但事實上,這女孩可能會因英雄

  • more damage from the hero than the bullet

    的快速移動而遭受比起子彈

  • if he moved her at super speed.

    更大的損傷

  • Newton's First Law of Motion deals with inertia,

    牛頓第一運動定律,慣性定律

  • which is the resistance to a change

    是對運動狀態變化

  • in its state of motion.

    的抵抗

  • So, an object will continue moving

    除非被外力改變

  • or staying at the same place

    否則物體會持續移動

  • unless something changes it.

    或待在相同地方

  • Acceleration is the rate the velocity changes over time.

    加速是速率隨著時間的改變

  • When the girl at rest,

    當這女孩休息時

  • velocity equals zero miles per hour,

    時速靜止不動

  • begins accelerating to reach the speed within seconds,

    在數秒內開始加速到達一定速度

  • velocity increases rapidly

    速率快速增加

  • to 25,000 miles per hour,

    到每小時兩萬五千哩

  • her brain would crash into the side of her skull.

    她的大腦會被擠壓到頭骨邊緣

  • And, when she stops suddenly,

    而當她突然停下來

  • velocity decreases rapidly back to zero miles per hour,

    速率快速回歸於零

  • her brain would crash into the other side of her skull,

    她的大腦會被擠壓到另一邊頭骨邊緣

  • turning her brain into mush.

    把大腦變成糊狀

  • The brain is too fragile to handle the sudden movement.

    大腦太脆弱,以致無法承受快速運動

  • So is every part of her body, for that matter.

    同樣的,身體任何部位也是如此。

  • Remember, it's not the speed that causes the damage

    記住,那並不是速度所造成的損害

  • because the astronauts survived Apollo 10,

    因為阿波羅十號裡的太空人是活著的

  • it's the acceleration

    是加速

  • or sudden stop

    或突然靜止

  • that causes our internal organs

    造成我們內部器官

  • to crash into the front of our bodies

    擠壓到身體前端

  • the way we move forward in a bus

    就像公車司機猛踩煞車時

  • when the driver slams on the brakes.

    我們的身體會往前推移

  • What the hero did to the girl

    這英雄帶著女孩

  • is mathematically the same as running her over

    的快速移動,在數學上相當於搭乘太空梭

  • with a space shuttle at maximum speed.

    到達極大速度

  • She probably died instantly at the point of impact.

    她很可能會在碰撞時當場死亡

  • He's going to owe this poor girl's family an apology

    英雄將欠下這可憐女孩的家人一個道歉

  • and a big fat compensation check.

    以及龐大的賠償費用

  • Oh, and possibly face jail time.

    可能還得面對牢獄之災

  • Doctors have to carry liability insurance

    醫生們必須肩負起責任保險

  • just in case they make a mistake and hurt their patients.

    以防萬一誤診而傷了病患

  • I wonder how much superhero insurance policy would cost.

    我想知道超級英雄的保單費用會有多高

  • Now, which superpower physics lesson

    那麼,你下一個想要探索的

  • will you explore next?

    超能力物理課是甚麼呢?

  • Shifting body size and content,

    調整身體大小及內容

  • super speed,

    超高速

  • flight,

    飛行

  • super strength,

    超力量

  • immortality,

    長生不死

  • and

  • invisibility.

    隱形

Some superheros can move faster than the wind.

有些超級英雄能移動得比風速還快

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 英雄 速率 摩擦 速度 時速

【TED-Ed】哇!原來超能力是真的! (If superpowers were real: Super speed - Joy Lin)

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