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  • What's your IQ?

    你的 IQ 多少?

  • 120?

    120?

  • 91?

    91?

  • And what does it all mean?

    這些數字代表什麼呢?

  • Is it even possible to define a person's intelligence by a test?

    藉由測驗定義一個人的智力是可行的嗎?

  • And does who is setting the test and why make a difference to your score?

    是誰設立了這項測驗,為何分數會有所不同呢?

  • Welcome to this short guide to IQ, made with the help of two highly intelligent experts.

    歡迎收看這部簡短介紹 IQ 的影片,

  • IQ really started with Alfred Binet, who was a Frenchman, and he was asked by his government to develop a test that could determine whether people needed remedial help with their education.

    法國人比奈是 IQ 的創始者,法國政府要求他設立一項測驗,用來判斷需要補救教學的人。

  • They later became dubbed IQ--intelligence quotient.

    日後被稱作 IQ——智商。

  • But he warned against that name because he said they weren't tests of intelligence.

    但是他警告大家有關測驗的名稱,因為他說測出的不是你的智力。

  • What they were, were tests of a certain kind of ability.

    測出來的是特定方面的能力。

  • So Binet was the originator of intelligence testing and that led to the concept of IQ that we have today.

    所以比奈是智力測驗的創始人,也導致我們現今對於 IQ 的概念。

  • The idea that somebody could have a general intellectual level that could be measured between one and 100.

    這個概念是,智商被測於 1 至100 的人,擁有一般的智力水平。

  • What happened next was that it crossed the Atlantic and was adopted by American psychologists.

    接下來,測驗跨越大西洋被美國心理學家們採用。

  • And they decided that IQ was innate, that you were born with it, there was nothing you could do to change it and that different population groups, different ethnic groups, had different innate IQ.

    他們判定 IQ 是天生的、一出生就決定的,任何事都無法改變你的 IQ,而不同的人群和民族有不同的先天性 IQ。

  • [By 1915, new immigrants trying to come into the USA were given IQ tests.]

    [截至 1915 年,想要到美國的新移民都必須做 IQ 測驗。]

  • [Ashkenazi Jews tended to score low in these tests and were discouraged from entering the USA.]

    [阿什肯納茲猶太人在測驗中傾向得到低分,因此被阻止進入美國。]

  • [People from Nordic countries tended to score higher and were encouraged to enter the country.]

    [來自北歐國家的人得到的分數較高,因此被鼓勵進入美國。]

  • This view of the early IQ testers in the United States has been subsequently decisively disproved.

    對美國早期 IQ 受試者的看法,後來被果斷地駁回。

  • With Ashkenazi Jews, at the time of the First World War, they had lower than average IQs.

    在第一次世界大戰時,阿什肯納茲猶太人的 IQ 低於平均值。

  • By the time of the Second World War, higher than average.

    但在第二次世界大戰時,卻高於平均值。

  • And the reason for that was they had better education, better nutrition, and that, on average, the parents had become better educated as well.

    這是因為他們有了更佳的教育和營養,而且父母通常也變得更有知識。

  • So those factors shifted the average IQs.

    這些因素轉變了平均 IQ。

  • The reason different groups score differently on IQ relates to the fact that IQ tests measure abstract intelligence.

    不同族群的 IQ 分數不同是因為 IQ 測驗測量的是抽象智力。

  • In other words, your ability to deal with abstract logic.

    換句話說就是,你可以處理抽象邏輯的能力。

  • And that is determined very significantly by what happens in your early years of your life.

    處理抽象邏輯的能力很大程度地是在你小時候就定下基礎。

  • So if you come from a community where there's a lot of argument, where you're encouraged to read, where you're encouraged to discuss things, on average it's likely that that community will have higher IQs.

    所以如果你來自的地區喜愛爭論或是鼓勵閱讀和討論,一般來說,那樣的社區可能會有較高的 IQ。

  • IQ tests have often, throughout history, been used to further political aims.

    從古至今,IQ 測驗經常被用作進一步的政治意圖。

  • Whether those be sexist, racist ... whatever agenda, politicians may want to put forward, IQ tests have been used to support that.

    無論是性別歧視還是種族歧視...不管是哪一項議題,政客利用 IQ 測驗,支持自身想要更進一步的目的。

  • And the idea that they are scientific because they're based on quantitative measures, has been something that's been exploited by many governments.

    IQ 測驗是以量化的方式為基礎,所以是具有科學依據的,許多政府都已經利用這項測驗。

  • IQ tests in the early 20th Century, sometimes women did far worse.

    女性在 20 世紀初期的 IQ 測驗上有時候表現的很糟。

  • That wasn't always the case.

    但情況並非總是那麼糟...

  • Intelligence tests were based on completing activities such as completing a puzzle, completing a task, looking at reaction times.

    智力測驗基本上就是完成各項活動,例如完成拼圖、完成任務並測驗你的反應時間。

  • And if someone had not engaged in those activities before, if they were for example, a girl that had never been allowed to access these kinds of activities, they wouldn't perform in the same way as somebody who had done.

    對於從未做過這些活動的人,例如一個從未被允許接觸這些活動的女孩來說,她的表現會與其他做過這些活動的人產生差異。

  • One of the dangers of IQ tests is that people see them as a measure of intelligence, whereas really what they are measuring is abstract logic.

    IQ 測驗的其中一項危險性是,人們把它視作測量智力的一種方式,然而 IQ 測驗真正測量的是抽象邏輯。

  • And there are other forms of intelligence like emotional intelligence, like practical intelligence, like long term memory, like wisdom, that they don't measure.

    有其他形式的智力,例如:情緒智力、實務智力、長期記憶和智慧,這些都是 IQ 測驗中沒有測量的。

  • I'm not opposed to IQ tests per se, I think that they are useful in measuring abilities in things like maths, science, computer science because they are measuring the same kinds of things that IQ tests measure.

    我反對的不是 IQ 測驗本身,我認為 IQ 測驗在測量某些事物的能力是很有用的,如數學、科學、電腦科學,因為這些事物和 IQ 測驗測量的東西是一樣的。

  • I think the biggest misconception about IQ is that it's the same thing as intelligence, and it's not.

    我認為對於 IQ 最大的誤解是,將 IQ 與智力混為一談,事實上兩者是不同的。

  • We've seen that IQ can change.

    我們已經得知 IQ 是可以改變的。

  • So, if you practice IQ tests, your IQ will go up.

    所以,只要練習 IQ 測驗,你的 IQ 就會提高。

  • So, environmental conditions and education can change IQ.

    環境條件和教育是可以改變 IQ 的。

  • It is not fixed.

    IQ 不是固定不變的。

  • I would hope that intelligence would never be used as a concept to make political decisions over whether or not someone has access to education, access to healthcare, access to freedom of movement, access to any of these universal human rights.

    我會希望智力永遠不會被當成作政治決定的手段,無論是決定是否可以接受教育、接受健康保險、自由活動的權利,還是任何普遍的人權。

  • Intelligence is a multifaceted thing and multifaceted things can't really be measured in terms of a single number, which is what IQ tests give you.

    智力是多面向的,而多面向的事物無法用單一數字呈現,就像是 IQ 測驗測出的數字一樣。

  • And when they've looked at the genetics of intelligence, there are thousands of genes that are implicated.

    當觀察智力基因時,科學家發現有上千個基因牽涉其中。

  • So, it is a much more complex thing than what is measured by a single IQ test.

    所以,智力是很複雜的一件事,可不是區區一個 IQ 測驗就可以測量出的。

What's your IQ?

你的 IQ 多少?

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A2 初級 中文 英國腔 測驗 智力 抽象 智商 分數 活動

IQ 是遺傳的嗎?智商高可不代表聰明! (Why IQ Is Not The Same As Intelligence | BBC Ideas)

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    Annie Huang 發佈於 2020 年 07 月 26 日
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