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  • Hello everyone.

    哈囉大家好

  • Welcome to the Langfocus channel and my name is Paul.

    歡迎來到 Langfocus 頻道,我是保羅,

  • Today we'll be answering the questionHow are British English and American English Different?”

    今天我們要來談談英式英語和美式英語的差別,

  • - one of the most commonly asked questions by learners of English.

    這是學英文的人最常問的問題之一,

  • And hopefully native speakers of English will learn a thing or two from this video as well.

    也希望英文母語人士也能從這個影片學到一些東西,

  • The truth is that both British and American English have numerous varieties, in other

    事實上,英式和美式英語各有許多變體─

  • words various accents and dialects, so in (the main part of) this video I will try to

    也就是口音和方言,所以在影片中

  • focus on the most standard, non-regional variety of each one.

    我主要會聚焦在標準的英式和美式英語。

  • Disclaimer: I'm not American, I'm Canadian.

    先聲明:我不是美國人,我是加拿大人

  • But I'm confident that we will someday be Americans after the invasion.

    但我有信心我們有一天都會變成美國人,在美國文化侵略之後

  • Standard Canadian English is very very close to General American English, so I will say

    標準的加拿大英語跟一般的美式英語非常接近,

  • the American examples myself, unless there's some specific need to distinguish American pronunciation

    所以我會自己提供美式英語的例子,除非需要分清楚

  • from Canadian.

    美式和加拿大英語的發音時,才會有加拿大英語的例子

  • There are several ways in which Britain English and the American English different: vocabulary,

    英式和美式英文的差異有多面向:單字、

  • accent, spelling, and grammar.

    口音、拼法和文法。

  • Vocabulary

    單字差異

  • In the US, people generally saygarbashortrash”, while in the UK they generally

    美國人通常稱垃圾為 garbage 或 trash,而在英國,

  • sayrubbish”.

    人們通常說 rubbish

  • Both literally and figuratively.

    「這個遊戲很垃圾 (無聊)!」

  • The game was rubbish!”

    這個句子可以照字面意義或象徵意涵來理解。

  • Americansgo on vacation”, while Britsgo on holidays”.

    美國人說 go on vacation,英國人則說 go on holidays

  • And this is also possible in American English.

    不過美國人也有可能這樣講

  • In the US people rentapartments”, while in the UK they rentflats”.

    美國人稱公寓為 apartment,英國人則是叫 flat

  • In the US, if your apartment is at street level, then you live on the first floor, and

    在美國,如果你住公寓的一樓,你會說你住在第一層樓,

  • the person above you lives on the second floor.

    樓上的人住在第二層樓;

  • In the UK, you live on the ground floor, and the person above you lives on the first floor.

    而在英國,一樓叫做 ground floor,樓上的人是住在「第一層樓」

  • If that person above you is unable or just too lazy to take the stairs, in the US they'd

    如果樓上的人沒辦法或是太懶惰不爬樓梯,

  • take the elevator.

    在美國他們會搭 elevator (電梯);

  • In the UK, they'd take the lift.

    在英國他們則稱作 lift

  • When you're bored at home, in the US you might turn on the TV, while in the UK you would

    當你在家裡很無聊,在美國你會打開電視,

  • turn on the telly.

    而英國人則稱電視為 telly

  • When you step outside of your building to go for a walk, in the US you might walk on

    當你出去散步,在美國你會說你走在 sidewalk (人行道)上面,

  • the sidewalk, while in the UK you walk on the pavement.

    在英國則是說 pavement

  • And if you're tired of walking, in the US you might take the subway.

    如果你不想走路了,你會去搭捷運,在美國搭捷運的英文是 take the subway

  • In the UK, you take the underground.

    在英國則是 take the underground

  • In the US, it's perfectly to wear pants when you're riding the subway, but in the UK you'd

    搭地鐵的時候穿長褲比較好,美國人稱長褲為 pants;

  • better wear some TROUSERS too because pants means underpants.

    英國人則是 trousers,因為 pants 在英國的意思是內褲

  • And specifically women's underpants are sometimes called knickers in the UK.

    女性內褲有時會特別被稱為 knickers

  • So when someone overreacts, in the US you might sayDon't get your panties in a bunch!”

    因此當有人反應過度時,美國人可能會說 「別讓 panties (內褲) 變成一團 (不要反應過度)!」,

  • In the UK you'd sayDon't get your knickers in a twist!”.

    英國人則說「別讓 knicker (內褲) 歪掉 (不要反應過度)!」

  • Paul how dare you be so crude.

    保羅!你怎麼這麼沒教養?

  • Now I can't show this video to my 6 year old students!

    現在我不能把這個影片給我六歲的學生看了!

  • Don't worry, they'll watch it on their phones during recess.

    別擔心,他們會在下課休息時間用手機看

  • Going back to the wordpantsfor a moment, it can also be used in British English as

    回到 pants 這個字,它在英式英語

  • an adjective, meaning something iscrappyorit sucks”.

    也可以是一個形容詞,意思是指某個東西很爛、很糟糕,

  • For exampleThat album is pants”.

    例如「這個專輯很爛」,

  • In American English, you might sayThat album sucks”.

    在美式英語,人們會說「這個專輯很討厭」

  • Accent

    口音差異

  • So I'll try to focus on General American English, and for the UK - Received Pronunciation.

    我會聚焦在通用美式英語、和標準的英式英語

  • These are the accents you're likely to hear on CNN and the BBC, respectively.

    這是在 CNN 和 BBC 你可能分別會聽到的口音

  • R-sounds

    R 發音差異

  • American English is rhotic, meaning that “r” sounds are always clearly pronounced.

    R 在美式英語是兒化音 (捲舌),有清楚發音;

  • British English is non-rhotic, meaning that the “r” sound is not pronounced unless

    在英式英語則是沒有捲舌,除非後面有母音

  • it is followed by a vowel sound.

    不然不會發出來

  • Listen to the difference.

    來聽聽兩者的差異

  • US: “My father's in the car”.

    我父親在車裡

  • UK: “My father's in the car”.

    我父親在車裡

  • Now let's focus on two words.

    現在我們來聚焦在兩個字

  • US: father UK: father.

    父親

  • US: car UK: car.

    汽車

  • Notice that the final r sound is not pronounced in British English.

    可以注意到最後的 R 在英式英語中不發音

  • Fatherends in a simple schwa vowel /ˈfɑː.ðə/.

    「父親」這個字的發音是以一個中央母音 /ə/ 結束

  • And incarthe a vowel sound is lengthened in place of the “r” sound.

    而「汽車」這個字的母音延長,取代 "r" 的發音

  • /kɑː/

    汽車

  • Now, the thing about British non-rhotic dialects that I find pretty wild is something called

    我覺得英式英語不捲舌很難駕馭的地方是

  • the intrusive r.

    「嵌入r」

  • That means that people sometimes add an r-sound to a word that doesn't actually have one,

    這是指如果後面的字是以母音為開頭,

  • if it's followed by a vowel in the next word.

    人們有時會在沒有 R 發音的字加上這個音,

  • For example, in the sentence “I saw a film”.

    例如在這個句子 I saw a film. (我看了一部電影)

  • In British English it sometimes sounds like this: “I saw'r a film”.

    在英式英語這句聽起來會像是 I saw'r a film.

  • So you can hear that there's an “r” sound connectingsawand “a”.

    可以聽到 saw 和 a 中間有 r 的音

  • I once had British on-the-job trainer, and she saidHello my name is Paula and I'll

    我曾經遇過一個英國的在職培訓員,她說「你好我叫寶拉,

  • be your trainer today”.

    我會是你們今天的培訓員。」

  • I remember thinkingPauler?

    我記得我當時在想:「你說你叫寶樂?

  • What, you can't say your own name?”

    什麼?你不講你自己的名字嗎?」

  • But, it wasn't just her.

    但是那不是她的問題,

  • That was theintrusive r”.

    原因是嵌入的 r 發音

  • T-sounds

    t 發音差異

  • In British English (and again, I must emphasize that I'm talking about the accent referred

    在英式英語 (我必須再次強調我是參考標準的英式英語)

  • to as Received Pronunciation), t sounds are pronounced as hard Ts, in other words voiceless

    T 是發成硬音 T,

  • /t/ sounds.

    也就是聲帶不振動

  • In the US, they sometimes sound like /ɾ/ (an alveolar tap) instead of /t/ (an alveolar

    在美式英語, T 有時聽起來像 /ɾ/ (齒齦閃音) 而不是 /t/

  • stop).

    (齒齦塞音)

  • This normally occurs in an unstressed syllable, between 2 vowel sounds, or between a vowel

    這常常發生在沒有重音的音節、在兩個母音之間、

  • and a rhotic sound (like an “r” sound).

    或是在母音或兒化音之間 (例如 r 音)

  • So in the US people say butter.

    所以美式英語「奶油」的發音是

  • [ˈbʌɾɚ].

    (美式英語)

  • And in the UK, they say butter.

    英國人會說

  • /ˈbʌ.tə/.

    (英式英語)

  • In the US: Stop fighting! /stɑp ˈfʌɪɾɪŋ/.

    美國人說:「不要打了!」 (美式英語)

  • In the UK: Stop fighting! /stɒp ˈfʌɪtɪŋ/.

    英國人則是 (英式英語)

  • You may have also noticed the “o” sound in the wordstopwas a little different,

    你可能注意到 stop 裡 o 的發音有一點不同

  • which brings me to...

    所以我接下來就要講

  • O sounds

    o 的發音差異

  • In the wordstop”, the American “o” sound is an unrounded vowel /ɑ/ while the

    以在 stop 這個字來說,美式英語的 o 比較像母音 /ɑ/

  • British “o” sound is rounded /ɒ/.

    英式英語的則比較像 /ɒ/

  • Another example: US hot /hɑt/ UK: /hɒt/.

    另一個例子是 hot (熱的)

  • There is also the “o” diphthong in the wordknowUS /noʊ/ (US).

    在英語發音中也有雙母音,例如 know (知道)

  • In the UK: /nəʊ/ . In the UK the sound is a schwa followed by /ʊ/ as input”.

    在英式英語母音的部分發音是中央母音加上 put 的母音發音 (/ʊ/)

  • US: show /ʃoʊ/ UK: show /ʃəʊ/

    (美式英語) (英式英語)

  • A sounds.

    a 發音差異

  • In other words, sounds represented by the letter “a”)

    就是字母 A 所代表的發音

  • /ɑː/ in UK normally becomes an /æ/ sound in American English.

    英式英語的/ɑː/ (啊) 在美式英語通常會變成 /æ/ (ㄝ)

  • For example, in the UK: half /hɑːf/.

    例如 half (一半)

  • And in the US: half /hæf/.

    (美式英語)

  • Words that are /æ/ in UK remain pretty similar in US.

    而英式英語的 /æ/ 在美式英語也是類似這個音

  • For example, in the UK: cat /kæt/.

    例如 cat (貓)

  • And in the US: /kæt/.

    (美式英語)

  • An exception is a small set of words in which the “a” is followed byrr”, in which

    一個例外是有一小部分的字 a 後面接連續兩個 r

  • case the vowel is pronounced as /e/.

    這樣的話母音 a 發音會變成 /e/ (ㄟ)

  • In the UK: marry /ˈmæɹɪ/ . In the US: marry /ˈmɛɹi/.

    marry (結婚) 在英式英語發音是 /mæɹɪ/ ,在美式英語是 /mɛɹi/

  • Because of the difference, in the USmarryandMerrysound the same.

    因此美式英語的 marry 和 merry (歡樂的) 聽起來是一樣的

  • CarryandKerrysound the same.

    carry (攜帶) 和 kerry (黑色小乳牛) 聽起來也一樣

  • Spelling: American and British spellings are largely the same, but there are a few notable

    拼字差異。美式和英式英語拼字大致相同,

  • differences.

    但仍有一些明顯的差異

  • This is in large part because Noah Webster (whom the Webster dictionary is named after)

    大部份的原因是因為諾亞‧韋伯 (韋氏字典是以這個人命名的)

  • made an effort to reform English spelling in the 1700s, in order to make the words spelled

    在十八世紀初努力改革英文拼字,讓英文的拼字

  • the way they sounded.

    能跟發音一樣

  • This resulted in some spelling changes in American English.

    這使得美式英語有些字的拼法改變了

  • Most (but not all) words that end in ~re in the UK end in ~er in the US.

    大部分(非全部)英式英語以 re 為結尾的的字在美式英語會變成 er

  • For example: centre/center, theatre/theater, metre/meter, sombre/somber.

    例如 centre/center (中心), theatre/theater (劇院), metre/meter (公尺), sombre/somber (昏暗的)

  • Some words that end in ~nce in the UK are spelled with ~nse in the US.

    有些英式英語以 nce 結束的字在美式英語會變成 nse

  • licence/license.

    駕照

  • Defence/defense, offence/offense.

    例如「防禦」、「冒犯」

  • Some words withouin the UK are spelled with “o” in the US.

    有些英式英語的 ou 拼法在美式英語會拼成 o

  • Colour/color, favour/favor, honour/honor, labour/labor, etc.

    像是「顏色」、「好意」、「榮譽」、「勞動」等等

  • The ending ~ise became ~ize in the US.

    ise 變成 ize

  • organise/organize.

    例如「組織」、

  • apologise/apologize.

    「道歉」

  • A similar change also occurs in other contexts where the “s” is voiced (in other words

    類似的情況發生在 s 發音是有聲的單字裡

  • it makes a /z/ sound).

    也就是發成 z 的音

  • Analyse/analyze.

    例如「分析」、

  • Cosy/cozy.

    「舒適的」

  • There are verbs ending with “l” that take a doubled “l” in British English when

    有些有字母 l 的動詞過去式在英式英語拼法會變成兩個 l,

  • a suffix is added.

    也就是在動詞後面加上一個詞綴時

  • In American English there is no double “l”.

    在美式英語是沒有兩個 l 的

  • travelled/traveled, cancelled/canceled, marvellous / marvelous.

    例如「旅行」、「取消」、「令人驚嘆的」

  • If you're wondering how the last one fits in with the others, remember thatmarvel

    如果你不了解最後一個字為什麼也是這個類型,請記住 marvel (感到驚奇)

  • is a verb, and then an adjectival suffix is added to it).

    是動詞,只是後面加上形容詞的詞綴

  • Grammar: There are only very minor differences in grammar between British English and American

    文法差異。英式英語和美式英語的文法

  • English.

    有細微的差異

  • Auxiliary verbs.

    像是助動詞方面

  • Brits useshallfor the future much more than Americans, as well as to ask for

    英式英語比較常用 shall 表示未來式,或者是用來

  • advice or an opinion.

    尋求別人的忠告或意見

  • Some difference in preposition use:

    有些介係詞用法也有不同

  • In the US, people sayon the weekend”, but in the UK they sayat the weekend”.

    如果要說「在周末時」,美國人說 on the weekend;英國人說 at the weekend

  • And in the US, people saydifferent fromordifferent than”, but in the UK they

    至於「跟‧‧‧不同」,美國人說 different from 或 different than

  • saydifferent fromordifferent to”.

    但是在英式英語是 different from 或 different to

  • There are some different past tense forms.

    再來是動詞過去式的差異

  • For example, in American English the past tense of the worldlearnislearned”,

    例如 learn (學習) 在美式英語的過去式是 learned

  • while in British English it's more common to saylearnt”.

    但是在英式英語比較常見的是 learnt

  • Actually, both forms are used in either country, but there is more of tendency towards one

    其實兩種拼法都會在美國與英國使用,不過在美式與英式英語

  • form.

    仍會傾向使用其中一種

  • This is true for other words like dreamed vs. dreamt, burned vs. burnt, leaned vs. leant.

    「作夢」、「燃燒」、「學習」等等的字也是同樣道理

  • Another example.

    另一個例子是

  • In the US, the past tense of dive is usuallydove”.

    在美式英語, dive (潛水) 的過去式通常是 dove

  • In the UK it's “dived”.

    但是在英式英語是 dived

  • Maybe the American form developed by analogy withdriveanddrove”.

    也許美式英語的拼法是從 drive (駕駛) 和 drove 類推而來

  • Anyways, differences like these are not consistent, but you'll notice some different past tense

    無論如何,像這樣的差異並不是一致的,

  • forms here and there.

    你會多多少少發現有一些過去式拼法的不同

  • Past participles: Sometimes past participles have a different form.

    過去分詞差異。有時兩種英語的過去分詞拼法也會不一樣

  • The most well-known example is for the verbget”.

    最有名的例子是動詞 get (得到)

  • In the US, there's get / got / gotten.

    在美式英語裡,這個字的變化是 get/ got/ gotten

  • But in the UK, it's get / got / got/.

    在英式英語則是 get/ got/ got

  • ** Both forms have existed since the Middle English period, butgottenhas fallen

    兩種變化在中世紀時期的英文就已經存在了,

  • out of use in the UK.

    但是 gotten 在英國已經不被使用

  • Gotcan be used in American English in the formhave got”, but with the meaning

    got 也可以在美式英語使用, 例如 have got

  • ofhave”, nothas received/become”.

    不過意思是「有」,而不是「已經得到、變成」

  • US: I haven't gotten the eviction notice yet.

    我尚未拿到驅逐令

  • UK: I haven't got the eviction notice yet.

    我還沒有驅逐令

  • SentencesAlright, let's check a couple of sentences and see what we find.

    句子差異。好啦,我們來看看一些句子,找出有哪些不同

  • In the US: I think we need a lawyer.

    美式英語:我想我們需要一個律師

  • In the UK: I reckon we need a solicitor.

    英式英語:我認為我們需要一個律師

  • You'll notice that a couple of words are different.

    你會注意到有些字不同

  • British people often use the wordreckonwhich meansthinkorsuppose”.

    英國人通常用 reckon 代表「覺得」、「認為」

  • Americans know this word, but rarely use it.

    美國人知道這個字的意思,但幾乎不太用

  • And while Americans would typically refer to a professional legal consultant as a lawyer,

    美國人普遍把專業的法律諮詢者稱為「律師」

  • in the UK they often saysolicitorwhich is a type of lawyer that does consultation.

    英國人則說 solicitor ,代表從事法律諮詢的律師

  • The type of lawyer who represents you in court in the UK in usually a barrister, while in

    代表你出席法院審判的律師在英國通常被稱為 barrister (出庭律師)

  • the US they are usually referred to as attorneys.

    而在美國通常叫做 attorney

  • Another sentence.

    另一個句子是

  • In the US: I'm going for a beer with my friends.

    「我要去跟我的朋友喝啤酒」

  • In the UK: I'm going for a pint with my mates.

    在英國的說法是:「我要去跟我的夥伴喝點啤酒」

  • Notice that British people oftenpintwhere Americans would saybeer”.

    可以注意到英國人通常用 pint 指稱美國人說的「啤酒」

  • Brits also say beer as a countable noun like this, but pint is used frequently.

    英國人也會用 beer 這個可屬名詞,但 pint 比較常見

  • And notice that Brits often saymatewhere Americans would sayfriend”.

    而且英國人把朋友稱為 mate ,美國人則說 friend

  • The differences between British English and American English might seem surprising or

    英式英語以及美式英語的不同可能會讓人感到驚訝或有趣

  • amusing, but remember: in this video I'm zooming in on the differences and focusing on them.

    但是請記住:在這個影片我聚焦在它們的差異

  • For the most part they are actually the same.

    這兩種英語絕大部分是相同的

  • There are some minor differences in vocabulary, in pronunciation, in grammar, and in spelling,

    只是在字彙、發音、文法和拼音有小小的不同

  • but any native speaker with a little bit of exposure to the other will quickly adapt to

    美式或英式英語的母語人士只要在另一種英語的環境待久了

  • these differences and be able to understand the other variety without any problem.

    就能快速適應兩者的差異,不太會遇到困難

  • The differences are sometimes greater if we focus on regional dialects and sociolects

    英式和美式英語與地方和社會方言的差異

  • of British English and American English.

    可能還更大

  • While most Americans probably have no trouble understanding Received Pronunciation, they

    例如美國人通常可以聽懂和看懂標準英式英語

  • mayhave some trouble understanding Cockney English, or the Georgie English of Northeastern

    但他們可能無法理解考克尼英語 (倫敦工人階級所用的方言) 、英國東北方的喬治方言

  • England, or other varieties.

    與其他的方言變體

  • But as far as standard, non-regional speech goes, I'd say that the differences are minimal.

    但以標準、非地方的英語來說,兩者之間差異還是很小的

  • However, learners of English who focus on one of the two varieties, will likely have

    不過英語學習者如果只學習其中一種英語,

  • a bit of trouble understanding the other until they gain significant more exposure to it.

    可能會有點難理解另一種英語,除非在該語言的環境中待得夠久

  • The QOD: What other differences between American and British English are you aware of?

    今日問題:你知道哪些美式和英式英語的不同?

  • In this video I was only able to give a limited number of examples, so add yours in the comments!

    在影片裡我只能提供一部份的例子,所以寫下你的看法吧!

  • Be sure to follow Langfocus on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.

    並且記得要在臉書、推特或 IG 追蹤 Langfocus

  • And once again, thank you to all of my wonderful Patreon supporters.

    另外我要再一次感謝所有在 Patreon 的支持者

  • And these ones right here on the screen are my top tier Patreon supporters, so many extra

    這些人是在 Patreon 上最支持我的人,

  • special thanks to them.

    非常感謝他們

  • And to everyone out there, thank you for watching and have a nice day.

    也祝福螢幕前的各位有個美好的一天

Hello everyone.

哈囉大家好

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英式英語與美式英語的差異 (How Are British English and American English Different?)

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    Samuel 發佈於 2018 年 10 月 19 日
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