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  • A portion of this video was sponsored by Google.

    本影片的一部分由 Google 贊助播出。

  • Oceans produce more than half of our oxygen (shoutout phytoplankton!), absorb most of the heat from global warming, and covers 70% of our planet.

    海洋產出超過總體一半的氧氣 (多虧了浮游生物!)、吸收了絕大部分全球暖化造成的熱能,並占據地球 70% 的表面積。

  • But they're also changing faster than ever.


  • So what will the ocean look like in 1000 or even 10,000 years from now?


  • Let's start with 30 years from now.

    讓我們從距今 30 年開始說起。

  • The number of fish in the sea has dropped by 50% since 1970s.

    自 1970 年以來,海裡的魚群的數量已經下降了 50%。

  • So maybe you should consider settling down with that dud, boyfriend or girlfriend because honey, there's not plenty of fish in the sea anymore.


  • In 30 years, there'll be more plastic in the ocean than fish by biomass, and species like sea bass, usually coming along north Carolina shores, will be up near New Jersey as marine life migrates to cooler waters.

    30 年後,海洋中的塑膠總量將高於魚類,而隨著海洋生物逐漸移居至更涼爽的海域,像海鱸這樣通常在北卡羅來納州海岸出現的物種將在紐澤西附近出現。

  • Sea levels have actually risen 5 to 8 inches in the last 100 years and continue to rise.

    在過去的 100 年裡,海平面實際上已經上升了 5 到 8 英寸,並仍在持續上升。

  • By 2050, 190 million people will be facing a sinking city.

    到了 2050 年,有一億九千萬的人們將面臨所居城市被淹沒的命運。

  • Ho chi Minh City will be below sea level, Alexandria in Egypt under water, and Mumbai, one of the largest and most densely populated cities in the world, submerged.


  • In just 30 years! Like I assume I'll still be alive to see this happen.

    而這些全都發生在短短的 30 年之內!我想屆時我應該還活著,能夠親眼看到這一切發生。

  • Seawalls could help, but as one scientist, Benjamin Strauss, Climate Central's chief executive said, how deep a bowl do we want to live in?

    儘管修建海堤可能會有幫助,但正如科學家兼氣候中心首席執行官班傑明·施特勞斯所說:「在 100 年後,我們想生活在多深的碗裡?」

  • 100 years from now is where our most accurate scientific models predict until.

    100 年後是我們的科學模型能精確模擬未來的極限。

  • But before we get to those predictions, I want to take a quick moment to thank today's sponsor: Google.


  • They've made so many cool new things that have helped us learn, progress and get all that extra information into our tiny little brains, so I'm happy to have them sponsoring this portion of the video.


  • Let's talk about three new features that I've been really excited.


  • The first, I'm probably the most excited about, because not only does Google allow us to keep educating ourselves, but now you can use Google Lens to visually input your homework.

    第一個可能是最讓我興奮的,因為 Google 不僅讓我們能不斷地自我學習,現在你也能使用 Google Lens 來直觀地輸入你的作業。

  • From word problems to your toughest math questions, not only will Google help you find the answer, but they'll give you a step by step guide on how to get there.

    從單詞問題到最困難的數學問題,Google 不僅會幫助你找到答案,而且會給你一步步的指南,告訴你如何完成。

  • Now, the science nerd in me is also super pumped about the more than 2000 STEM concepts that Google has made available at the touch of a finger.

    而我這個科學書呆子也對 Google 的 2000 多個 STEM 學科概念感到超級興奮,而你只要動動手指就能輕鬆獲得。(STEM 為科學、科技、工程、數學學科的總稱)

  • You can now search for things like the Pythagorean theorem, the quadratic formula, even Ohm's Law.


  • This would have saved me so much time in school, and 15 year old me is literally crying inside, but so happy for you.

    要是當年有這套系統便能幫我在學校節省很多時間,讓 15 歲的我簡直是在心裡大哭,但為你感到高興。

  • The second thing I want to tell you about is Google Hum to Search.

    我想告訴你的第二個功能是 Google 哼唱搜尋。

  • You know when you have a tune stuck in your head and you just can't figure out what it is.


  • Well now you can hum, whistle or sing it, and Google will find it for you right away.

    現在你可以哼唱、吹口哨或唱歌給 Google 聽,而它會馬上為你找到那首歌的名稱。

  • There's Hydrogen and Helium then Lithium, Beryllium.


  • But none of you would have ever forgot that song, right?


  • Okay, last feature I'm going to share is that Google has AR animals.

    好了,我最後要分享的功能是,Google 的 AR 動物功能。

  • You can use the Google app to see life-sized animals anywhere around you with augmented reality.

    你可以使用 Google 的應用程式,在你周圍的任何地方以擴充實境看到實際大小的動物。

  • Don't even have to go to the beach anymore to see a dolphin.


  • I mean, imagine being able to see them up this close and move around them in augmented reality. So cool.


  • Of course, who knows what's going on in the ocean anymore.


  • So, thanks to Google for sponsoring this portion of the video and now back to oceans.

    所以,感謝 Google 對本段影片的贊助,現在我們把主題轉回到海洋上吧。

  • 100 years from now, if carbon emissions keep going up, there'll be a 2 to 3 foot sea level rise.

    在距今 100 年之後,如果碳排放量仍持續提升,海平面將會升高 2 至 3 英尺。

  • A major reason for this rising is thermal expansion.


  • So warmer water actually takes up more space physically because of increased vibration.


  • And yes, glaciers melting adds to this as well.


  • And as the oceans heat up, the great conveyor belt is slowing down.


  • This current carries warm water from the tropics to the poles and vice versa, insulating Europe and North America from wilder weather.


  • If trends continue by 2100, the gulf stream will weaken by 34 to 45%.

    如果到 2100 年這個趨勢仍持續下去,墨西哥灣流將減弱 34% 至 45%。

  • A weaker conveyor belt means hotter summers in Europe and fiercer storms in the US; it means profound large-scale impacts on the planet in terms of weather patterns, upending agricultural practices, biodiversity, and economic stability across the vast areas of the world.


  • Not only does the ocean provide food, medicine, mineral and energy resources, it also supports jobs and national economies, serves as a highway to transport goods and people, and plays a role in national security.


  • A slower conveyor belt also means that silt and debris get carried and deposited differently.


  • And over centuries of this, the landscape of the ocean floor will change to a muddy mess.


  • Ever heard of a seashell?


  • Say bye bye!


  • As we release more carbon dioxide, and the ocean's pH continues to decrease, animals that make shells like clams and oysters will struggle.

    隨著我們排放出更多的二氧化碳,以及海洋的 pH 值持續下降,如蛤蠣與牡蠣等會製作出蚌殼的生物將會難以生存。

  • Predictions for sea carbonate and pH conditions in 2100 showed that animals like the sea butterfly or pteropod, would lose their shell within 45 days.

    根據對 2100 年海中二氧化碳濃度與 pH 值的預測,像海天使或翼足目這樣的動物,將在 45 天內失去牠們的殼。

  • And the loss of these shells and skeletons would decrease the chalky layer of mineral that's there now, meaning more muddy mess vibes.


  • And if we stay on the same emissions path by 2300, there will be a 26 foot rise in sea level.

    而如果我們在 2300 年之前仍以同樣的步調繼續排放二氧化碳,海平面將會上升 26 英尺。

  • In 500 years from now, the sea could be suffocating, literally.

    距今 500 年之後,整個海洋可能真的會全面窒息。

  • In the 1950s, there were around 50 dead zones in the ocean where oxygen was so low that nothing can survive.

    在 1950 年代,海洋中約有 50 塊氧氣含量過低而使沒有生物可以生存的死區。

  • Today there's around 500 dead zones in the ocean, and they're growing, covering millions of square miles.

    在今天的海洋中大約有 500 個死區,而且它們仍在不斷增加,覆蓋了數百萬平方英里的海域。

  • Warmer oceans hold less available oxygen, but as body temperature increases in animals, their metabolism increases and they actually require more oxygen.


  • Fishing and fish farming, support the livelihoods and families of some 660 to 880 million people.

    捕魚和養魚業支持著大約 6 億 6 千萬至 8 億人的生計和家庭。

  • That's 12% of the world's population.

    這相當於世界人口的 12%。

  • Any change to the ocean ecosystem has a direct impact on so many people.


  • Large areas of the ocean could also be stuck in layers, like a cake in a process called stratification.


  • The ocean does this naturally, but with currents, there's usually mixing of the surface and deep water, which circulates heat and nutrients.


  • In fact, the ocean absorbs over 90% of the heat and approximately 30% of carbon dioxide emissions produced by human activities.

    事實上,海洋吸收了因人類活動而產生的 90% 以上的熱量,以及 30% 的二氧化碳排放量。

  • As the surface temperature continues to increase rapidly, it becomes less dense and less able to absorb carbon dioxide.


  • And the greater the density difference between the surface and deep ocean, the slower and more difficult the mixing becomes.


  • This creates a negative feedback loop.


  • With less mixing, more carbon stays in the atmosphere, which warms the earth's surface, which prevents more mixing and on and on.


  • Stratification has increased 5% in the last 60 years and continues to grow.

    在過去的 60 年裡,分層現象增加了 5%,並仍在持續增長。

  • 1000 years from now, since the ocean floor is spreading at a fast rate, 5 centimeters a year in the mid Atlantic ridge, in a millennia, it will have spread a whopping 46 meters or 154 feet.

    距今 1000 年之後,由於洋底正以每年 5 公分的速度在大西洋中部海脊快速擴張,到一千年後,它將擴展到驚人的 46 公尺或 154 英尺。

  • And in a scenario with no reductions in emissions, scientists predict that the entire Greenland ice sheet will likely melt, causing 5 to 7 meters or 17 to 23 feet of sea level rise.

    而在不減少碳排放量的情況下,科學家預測整個格陵蘭島的冰層將可能完全溶化,導致 1000 年內海平面將上升 5 至 7 米,或 17 至 23 英尺。

  • In 1000 years, the oceans may look like this.

    1000 年後,海洋可能會看起來像這樣。

  • But there are sponges over a mile beneath the surface that are thousands of years old.


  • They're one of the earliest animals to evolve, and my guess is that in 1000 years they'll still be going strong.

    牠們是最早進化的動物之一,而我猜測在 1000年後,他們仍將繼續堅強地生存下去。

  • But what about 10,000 years in the future?


  • Scientists predict that if we just keep pumping out CO2, the earth will be 7 degrees warmer, meaning the oceans would rise a whopping 70 meters.

    科學家們預測,如果我們仍不斷地排放出二氧化碳,地球將變暖 7 華氏度,這意味著海洋將上升高達 70 公尺。

  • There'd be almost no mountain glaciers left in temperate latitudes. Greenland would give up all of its ice, and Antarctica would give up almost 45 meters worth of sea level rise.

    在溫帶緯度地區幾乎不會再有山地冰川、格陵蘭島上將不會有任何的冰層,而南極洲上的溶冰將會導致海平面升高近 45 公尺。

  • To put this in perspective, a simple 10 meter increase would displace more than 630 million people, nearly 10% of the world's population. At 25 meters, 20% of humanity is left homeless.

    從客觀角度來看,單是海平面上升 10 公尺就會導致 6 億 3 千萬人,也就是將近全球 10% 的人口流離失所。上升 25 公尺的話,將近有 20% 的全球人口將無家可歸。

  • Of course, our most accurate predictions, really only go to around that 100 year mark, not because we can't imagine that far into the future, but because there are so many variables that could change between now and then, and that's about as far as our computer models go without creating a ton of error.

    當然,我們最精確也只能預測到 100 年以後的未來,但這不是因為我們想像力不足,而是存在於現在與未來間的變數實在太多,而我們的電腦模型沒辦法在不產出大量錯誤的狀況下預測出這麼遠的未來。

  • But it will depend a lot on our own actions as a species, and how we take care of this planet that we're inhabiting.


  • Some of the carbon we're releasing right now could be around for hundreds, if not thousands, of years.


  • And whether we take the necessary steps to create a revitalized and healthy ocean, not just in 1000 or 10000 years, but even in 30 years, is up to us.

    而不只是為了一千或一萬年後,甚至單只是為了 30 年後的未來,我們是否能採取必要措施,打造充滿活力的健康海洋,全都取決於我們的行動。

  • Be sure to like this video, subscribe for more science videos and we'll see you next time. Peace!


A portion of this video was sponsored by Google.

本影片的一部分由 Google 贊助播出。

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