Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • A portion of this video was sponsored by Google.

    本影片的一部分由 Google 贊助播出。

  • Oceans produce more than half of our oxygen (shoutout phytoplankton!), absorb most of the heat from global warming, and covers 70% of our planet.

    海洋產出了超過一半的氧氣 (多虧了浮游生物!)、吸收了絕大部分全球暖化造成的熱能,並占據了我們地球 70% 的表面積。

  • But they're also changing faster than ever.

    但海洋也正以前所未有的速度不斷變遷著。

  • So what will the ocean look like in 1000 or even 10,000 years from now?

    那麼,一千年,甚至一萬年後的海洋會是什麼樣子?

  • Let's start with 30 years from now.

    讓我們從距今 30 年開始說起。

  • The number of fish in the sea has dropped by 50% since 1970s.

    自 1970 年以來,海裡的魚群的數量已經下降了 50%。

  • So maybe you should consider settling down with that dud, boyfriend or girlfriend because honey, there's not plenty of fish in the sea anymore.

    所以或許你該考慮趕快與和那個打死不開口求婚的男朋友或女朋友定下來,因為親愛的,海裡可供你挑選的魚已經不多啦。

  • In 30 years, there'll be more plastic in the ocean than fish by biomass, and species like sea bass, usually coming along north Carolina shores, will be up near New Jersey as marine life migrates to cooler waters.

    30 年後,海洋中的塑膠總量將高於魚類,而隨著海洋生物逐漸移居至更涼爽的海域,像海鱸這樣通常在北卡羅來納州海岸出現的物種將在紐澤西附近出現。

  • Sea levels have actually risen 5 to 8 inches in the last 100 years and continue to rise.

    在過去的 100 年裡,海平面實際上已經上升了 5 到 8 英寸,並仍在持續上升。

  • By 2050, 190 million people will be facing a sinking city.

    到了 2050 年,有一億九千萬的人們將面臨所居城市被淹沒的命運。

  • Ho chi Minh City will be below sea level, Alexandria in Egypt under water, and Mumbai, one of the largest and most densely populated cities in the world, submerged.

    胡志明市將低於海平面、埃及的亞歷山大城沉沒入海,而世界上最大和人口最密集城市之一的孟買也將被淹沒。

  • In just 30 years! Like I assume I'll still be alive to see this happen.

    而這些全都發生在短短的 30 年之內!我想屆時我應該還活著,能夠親眼看到這一切發生。

  • Seawalls could help, but as one scientist, Benjamin Strauss, Climate Central's chief executive said, how deep a bowl do we want to live in?

    儘管修建海堤可能會有幫助,但正如一位科學家,氣候中心的首席執行官班傑明·施特勞斯所說的:「在 100 年後,我們想生活在多深的碗裡?」

  • 100 years from now is where our most accurate scientific models predict until.

    100 年後是我們的科學模型能精確模擬未來的極限。

  • But before we get to those predictions, I want to take a quick moment to thank today's sponsor: Google.

    但在我們深入討論預測的詳情前,我想先花一點時間來感謝今天的贊助商:Google。

  • They've made so many cool new things that have helped us learn, progress and get all that extra information into our tiny little brains, so I'm happy to have them sponsoring this portion of the video.

    他們製作了相當多能幫助我們學習、進步並將知識塞進我們小腦袋的酷炫新東西,所以我相當開心他們能贊助影片的這個部分。

  • Let's talk about three new features that I've been really excited.

    就讓我們來談一談讓我非常興奮的三個新功能吧!

  • The first, I'm probably the most excited about, because not only does Google allow us to keep educating ourselves, but now you can use Google Lens to visually input your homework.

    第一個可能是最讓我興奮的,因為 Google 不僅讓我們能不斷地教育自己,而且現在你可以使用 Google Lens 來直觀地輸入你的作業。

  • From word problems to your toughest math questions, not only will Google help you find the answer, but they'll give you a step by step guide on how to get there.

    從單詞問題到最困難的數學問題,Google 不僅會幫助你找到答案,而且會給你一步步的指南,告訴你如何到達那裡。

  • Now, the science nerd in me is also super pumped about the more than 2000 STEM concepts that Google has made available at the touch of a finger.

    而我這個科學書呆子也對 Google 的 2000 多個 STEM 學科概念感到超級興奮,而你只要動動手指就能輕鬆獲得。(STEM 為科學、科技、工程、數學學科的總稱)

  • You can now search for things like the Pythagorean theorem, the quadratic formula, even Ohm's Law.

    你現在可以搜索諸如勾股定理、二次方程式,甚至是歐姆定律等概念。

  • This would have saved me so much time in school, and 15 year old me is literally crying inside, but so happy for you.

    要是當年有這套系統便能幫我在學校節省很多時間,讓 15 歲的我簡直是在心裡大哭,但為你感到高興。

  • The second thing I want to tell you about is Google Hum to Search.

    我想告訴你的第二個功能是 Google 哼唱搜尋。

  • You know when you have a tune stuck in your head and you just can't figure out what it is.

    你有過一個曲子卡在你的腦子裡,而你就是想不出它是什麼歌的經驗嗎?

  • Well now you can hum, whistle or sing it, and Google will find it for you right away.

    現在你可以哼唱、吹口哨或唱歌給 Google 聽,而它會馬上為你找到那首歌的名稱。

  • There's Hydrogen and Helium then Lithium, Beryllium.

    先是氫,再是氦,然後是鋰還有鈹。

  • But none of you would have ever forgot that song, right?

    但是你們都不會忘記這首歌,對吧?

  • Okay, last feature I'm going to share is that Google has AR animals.

    好了,我最後要分享的功能是,Google 的 AR 動物功能。

  • You can use the Google app to see life-sized animals anywhere around you with augmented reality.

    你可以使用 Google 的應用程式,在你周圍的任何地方以擴充實境看到實際大小的動物。

  • Don't even have to go to the beach anymore to see a dolphin.

    以後想看海豚的話甚至不用去海邊。

  • I mean, imagine being able to see them up this close and move around them in augmented reality. So cool.

    我的意思是,想像一下,能夠這麼近地看到他們,並在擴增實境中在他們周圍走動。真是太酷了。

  • Of course, who knows what's going on in the ocean anymore.

    當然,誰知道海洋以後會發生什麼事呢?

  • So, thanks to Google for sponsoring this portion of the video and now back to oceans.

    所以,感謝 Google 對本段影片的贊助,現在我們把主題轉回到海洋上吧。

  • 100 years from now, if carbon emissions keep going up, there'll be a 2 to 3 foot sea level rise.

    在距今 100 年之後,如果碳排放量仍持續提升,海平面將會升高 2 至 3 英尺。

  • A major reason for this rising is thermal expansion.

    海平面上升的其中一個主要原因是熱膨脹。

  • So warmer water actually takes up more space physically because of increased vibration.

    由於水分子的振動會隨著溫度上升而增加,因此溫暖的海水會佔據更多的空間。

  • And yes, glaciers melting adds to this as well.

    而沒錯,冰川的溶化也加劇了整個情況。

  • And as the oceans heat up, the great conveyor belt is slowing down.

    而隨著海洋的升溫,大洋輸送帶的流速也會被放緩。

  • This current carries warm water from the tropics to the poles and vice versa, insulating Europe and North America from wilder weather.

    這股洋流將暖水從熱帶地區帶到極地,反之亦然,使歐洲和北美洲免受惡劣天氣的影響。

  • If trends continue by 2100, the gulf stream will weaken by 34 to 45%.

    如果到 2100 年這個趨勢仍持續下去,墨西哥灣流將減弱 34% 至 45%。

  • A weaker conveyor belt means hotter summers in Europe and fiercer storms in the US; it means profound large-scale impacts on the planet in terms of weather patterns, upending agricultural practices, biodiversity, and economic stability across the vast areas of the world.

    大洋輸送帶減弱意味著歐洲的夏天會變得更熱、美國的風暴變得更猛烈,也意味著會在天氣模式方面對地球產生深刻的大規模影響、顛覆農產業、生物多樣性,以及世界廣大地區的經濟穩定。

  • Not only does the ocean provide food, medicine, mineral and energy resources, it also supports jobs and national economies, serves as a highway to transport goods and people, and plays a role in national security.

    海洋不僅提供食物、藥品、礦物和能源資源,還支持就業和國民經濟、作為運輸貨物和人員的高速公路,並在國家安全中發揮重要作用。

  • A slower conveyor belt also means that silt and debris get carried and deposited differently.

    大洋輸送帶的減弱也意味著淤泥和碎石以不同的方式被攜帶和沉積。

  • And over centuries of this, the landscape of the ocean floor will change to a muddy mess.

    而過了好幾世紀後,海底的景觀將變成一片泥濘。

  • Ever heard of a seashell?

    聽說過貝殼嗎?

  • Say bye bye!

    和牠們說再見吧!

  • As we release more carbon dioxide, and the ocean's pH continues to decrease, animals that make shells like clams and oysters will struggle.

    隨著我們排放出更多的二氧化碳,以及海洋的 pH 值持續下降,如蛤蠣與牡蠣等會製作出蚌殼的生物將會難以生存。

  • Predictions for sea carbonate and pH conditions in 2100 showed that animals like the sea butterfly or pteropod, would lose their shell within 45 days.

    根據對 2100 年海中二氧化碳濃度與 pH 值的預測,像海天使或翼足目這樣的動物,將在 45 天內失去牠們的殼。

  • And the loss of these shells and skeletons would decrease the chalky layer of mineral that's there now, meaning more muddy mess vibes.

    少了這些殼和骨架,將會減少海床上粉粒狀的礦物層,並意味著海底變得更泥濘不堪。

  • And if we stay on the same emissions path by 2300, there will be a 26 foot rise in sea level.

    而如果我們在 2300 年之前仍以同樣的步調繼續排放二氧化碳,海平面將會上升 26 英尺。

  • In 500 years from now, the sea could be suffocating, literally.

    距今 500 年之後,整個海洋可能真的會全面窒息。

  • In the 1950s, there were around 50 dead zones in the ocean where oxygen was so low that nothing can survive.

    在 1950 年代,海洋中約有 50 塊氧氣含量過低而使沒有生物可以生存的死區。

  • Today there's around 500 dead zones in the ocean, and they're growing, covering millions of square miles.

    在今天的海洋中大約有 500 個死區,而且它們仍在不斷增加,覆蓋了數百萬平方英里的海域。

  • Warmer oceans hold less available oxygen, but as body temperature increases in animals, their metabolism increases and they actually require more oxygen.

    溫暖的海洋容納了更少的可用氧氣,但動物的體溫增加也使得牠們的新陳代謝率增加,讓牠們實際上需要更多的氧氣。

  • Fishing and fish farming, support the livelihoods and families of some 660 to 880 million people.

    捕魚和養魚業支持著大約 6 億 6 千萬至 8 億人的生計和家庭。

  • That's 12% of the world's population.

    這相當於世界人口的 12%。

  • Any change to the ocean ecosystem has a direct impact on so many people.

    海洋生態系統的任何變化都會對許多人產生直接影響。

  • Large areas of the ocean could also be stuck in layers, like a cake in a process called stratification.

    大面積的海洋也可能被分化為數層,就像一個蛋糕一樣,這個過程被稱為分層現象。

  • The ocean does this naturally, but with currents, there's usually mixing of the surface and deep water, which circulates heat and nutrients.

    這種現象本來就會自然發生在海水中,但由於有洋流的調節,通常表層和深層海水會進行混合,從而使熱量和營養物質循環。

  • In fact, the ocean absorbs over 90% of the heat and approximately 30% of carbon dioxide emissions produced by human activities.

    事實上,海洋吸收了因人類活動而產生的 90% 以上的熱量,以及 30% 的二氧化碳排放量。

  • As the surface temperature continues to increase rapidly, it becomes less dense and less able to absorb carbon dioxide.

    隨著海洋表面溫度持續快速上升,表層海水的密度變小,吸收二氧化碳的能力變得更弱。

  • And the greater the density difference between the surface and deep ocean, the slower and more difficult the mixing becomes.

    而表層和深海之間的密度差越大,混合的速度越慢且難度越大。

  • This creates a negative feedback loop.

    這就形成了一個負反饋循環。

  • With less mixing, more carbon stays in the atmosphere, which warms the earth's surface, which prevents more mixing and on and on.

    隨著混合量的減少,更多的碳便停留在大氣中,使地球表面變暖,從而阻止了更多的混合,然後整個循環持續下去。

  • Stratification has increased 5% in the last 60 years and continues to grow.

    在過去的 60 年裡,分層現象增加了 5%,並仍在持續增長。

  • 1000 years from now, since the ocean floor is spreading at a fast rate, 5 centimeters a year in the mid Atlantic ridge, in a millennia, it will have spread a whopping 46 meters or 154 feet.

    距今 1000 年之後,由於洋底正以每年 5 公分的速度在大西洋中部海脊快速擴張,到一千年後,它將擴展到驚人的 46 公尺或 154 英尺。

  • And in a scenario with no reductions in emissions, scientists predict that the entire Greenland ice sheet will likely melt, causing 5 to 7 meters or 17 to 23 feet of sea level rise.

    而在不減少碳排放量的情況下,科學家預測整個格陵蘭島的冰層將可能完全溶化,導致 1000 年內海平面將上升 5 至 7 米,或 17 至 23 英尺。

  • In 1000 years, the oceans may look like this.

    1000 年後,海洋可能會看起來像這樣。

  • But there are sponges over a mile beneath the surface that are thousands of years old.

    但在海洋表面一英里下的地方,仍有存活了數千年的海綿。

  • They're one of the earliest animals to evolve, and my guess is that in 1000 years they'll still be going strong.

    牠們是最早進化的動物之一,而我猜測在 1000年後,他們仍將繼續堅強地生存下去。

  • But what about 10,000 years in the future?

    但未來一萬年後呢?

  • Scientists predict that if we just keep pumping out CO2, the earth will be 7 degrees warmer, meaning the oceans would rise a whopping 70 meters.

    科學家們預測,如果我們仍不斷地排放出二氧化碳,地球將變暖 7 華氏度,這意味著海洋將上升高達 70 公尺。

  • There'd be almost no mountain glaciers left in temperate latitudes. Greenland would give up all of its ice, and Antarctica would give up almost 45 meters worth of sea level rise.

    在溫帶緯度地區幾乎不會再有山地冰川、格陵蘭島上將不會有任何的冰層,而南極洲上的溶冰將會導致海平面升高近 45 公尺。

  • To put this in perspective, a simple 10 meter increase would displace more than 630 million people, nearly 10% of the world's population. At 25 meters, 20% of humanity is left homeless.

    從客觀角度來看,單是海平面上升 10 公尺就會導致 6 億 3 千萬人,也就是將近全球 10% 的人口流離失所。上升 25 公尺的話,將近有 20% 的全球人口將無家可歸。

  • Of course, our most accurate predictions, really only go to around that 100 year mark, not because we can't imagine that far into the future, but because there are so many variables that could change between now and then, and that's about as far as our computer models go without creating a ton of error.

    當然,我們最精確也只能預測到 100 年以後的未來,但這不是因為我們想像力不足,而是存在於現在與未來間的變數實在太多,而我們的電腦模型沒辦法在不產出大量錯誤的狀況下預測出這麼遠的未來。

  • But it will depend a lot on our own actions as a species, and how we take care of this planet that we're inhabiting.

    但是,這在很大程度上取決於我們人類作為一個物種將如何行動,以及我們要怎麼樣照顧這顆我們所居住的星球。

  • Some of the carbon we're releasing right now could be around for hundreds, if not thousands, of years.

    我們所排放出的二氧化碳可能會存在數百,甚至數千年。

  • And whether we take the necessary steps to create a revitalized and healthy ocean, not just in 1000 or 10000 years, but even in 30 years, is up to us.

    而不只是為了一千或一萬年後,甚至單只是為了 30 年後的未來,我們是否能採取必要措施,打造充滿活力的健康海洋,全都取決於我們的行動。

  • Be sure to like this video, subscribe for more science videos and we'll see you next time. Peace!

    記得要為這個影片按個讚,並訂閱來觀賞更多的科學頻道,我們下次見。掰掰!

A portion of this video was sponsored by Google.

本影片的一部分由 Google 贊助播出。

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 海洋 谷歌 海平面 預測 氧氣 動物

海洋生態危機!1000 年後的海洋會變成什麼樣子? (The Oceans In 1000 Years)

  • 3609 174
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 09 月 14 日
影片單字