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  • The Internet in the year 2009.

    在2009年的網際網路

  • We send e-mails, make calls over the internet

    我們利用它來收發信件,打網路電話

  • and discuss topics we take an interest in.

    討論我們有興趣的話題

  • Even our banking is going virtual.

    甚至連銀行業務都要虛擬化

  • But what we take for granted today

    然而在今日我們認為理所當然的事物

  • was only a vague idea fifty years ago.

    在50年前竟只是個模糊的構想

  • In order to understand how we got this far

    為了能夠瞭解我們何以發展至今日的成就

  • let's go back to 1957, when everything began.

    先把時間拉回到1957年,當這一切萌芽之初

  • Before 1957 computers only worked on one task at a time.

    1957年前的電腦,一次只能夠處理一件事情

  • This is called batch processing.

    這種方式被稱作「批次處理」

  • Of course, this was quite ineffective.

    當然,這的確是挺沒效率的

  • With computers getting bigger and bigger

    隨著電腦外型越做越大的時候

  • they had to be stored in special cooled rooms.

    就必須將其存放在特殊的冷卻機房裡

  • But then the developers couldn't work directly on the computers anymore

    但這樣一來,開發者就沒辦法直接操作電腦了

  • specialists had to be called in to connect them.

    這些專家就得應要求將其連結起來

  • Programming at that time meant a lot of manual work

    在當時,程式設計需要極大量的人工作業

  • and the indirect connection to the computers led to

    而且這些電腦之間的間接連結導致了

  • a lot of bugs, wasting time and fraying the developers´ nerves.

    很多程式錯誤,不但耗時也讓製造者神經緊張

  • The year 1957 marked a big change.

    到了1957年有了重大的改變

  • A remote connection had to be installed

    在安裝了遠端連接以後

  • so the developers could work directly on the computers.

    這些開發者就可以直接操控電腦

  • At the same time the idea of time-sharing came up.

    同時,「分時系統」的構想也開始出現

  • This is the first concept in computer technology

    這是在電腦科技中有史以來第一個

  • to share the processing power of one computer with multiple users.

    以一台電腦同時向許多用戶分享其資源的概念

  • On October 4th 1957, during the Cold War

    在1957年10月4號,美蘇冷戰時期中

  • the first unmanned satellite, Sputnik 1, was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union.

    蘇聯成功地將史上第一個人造衛星「史波尼克1號」送進地球軌道

  • The fear of a "Missile Gap" emerged.

    美國人對於「飛彈量差距」(Missile Gap)的恐懼也浮出檯面

  • In order to secure America's lead in technology,

    為了鞏固美國領導科技的地位

  • the US founded the "Defense Advanced Research Project Agency" in February 1958.

    美國於1958年2月成立了「國防高等研究計劃站(DARPA)」

  • At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people.

    在當時,各種訊息皆是經由人來相互傳遞的

  • The DARPA planned a large-scale computer network

    DARPA策畫了一個大規模的電腦網路

  • in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the doubling up

    目地是為了加速傳遞時間,同時也避免重複傳遞

  • of already existing research.

    已經有的資料

  • This network would become the Arpanet.

    這些網路就組成了「阿帕網」

  • Furthermore three other concepts were to be developed,

    此外,另外3個概念也同時開始發展

  • which are fundamental for the history of the Internet:

    成為了當今網際網路歷史發展中的根基:

  • The concept of a military network by the RAND Corporation in America.

    由美國的藍德公司(RAND)提出的軍用網路概念

  • The commercial network of the National Physical Laboratory in England.

    由英國國家物理實驗室(NPL)提出的商用網路概念

  • And the scientific network, Cyclades, in France.

    以及法國CYCLADES提出的科學網路概念

  • The scientific, military and commercial approaches of these concepts

    從科學、軍事、商業角度接近的這些概念

  • are the foundations for our modern Internet.

    是為當今網際網路的基礎

  • Let's begin with the Arpanet, the most familiar of these networks.

    讓我們先從「阿帕網」,這些網路中最熟悉的開始介紹

  • Its development began in 1966.

    其發展從1966年開始

  • Universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers.

    各大學在分享他們的電腦時基本上都很小心

  • Therefore small computers were put on front of the mainframe.

    因此,在主機前會擺出另一種較小的電腦

  • This computer, the Interface Message Processor, took over control of the network actvitities,

    這個電腦,或是「介面訊息處理器(IMP)」掌控了網路活動

  • while the mainframe was only in charge of the initialization of programs and data files.

    而主機只需要負責程式或是檔案資料的初始化

  • At the same time, the IMP also served as interface for the mainframe.

    與此同時,IMP也充當為與主機互動的界面

  • Since only the IMPs were interconnected in a network

    也因為只有IMP跟網路相路連結

  • this was also called IMP-subnet.

    這個網路也被稱作「IMP子網路」

  • For the first connections between the computers

    當第一次電腦之間開始相互連結時

  • the Network Working Group developed the Network Control Protocol [Network Control Program].

    網路工作小組開發了網路通訊協定NCP

  • Later on, the NCP was replaced by the more efficient Transmission Control Protocol.

    往後,NCP被更有效率的網路通訊協定TCP取代

  • The specific feature of the TCP is the verification of the file transfer.

    TCP協定最大的特色就是會確認檔案的傳輸

  • Let's take a short detour to England.

    接下來轉過來介紹英國

  • Since the NPL network was designed on a commercial basis

    既然NPL的網路是設計在商業的基礎之上

  • a lot of users and file transfer were expected.

    因此預計會有大量的使用者以及資料傳輸

  • In order to avoid congestion of the lines, the sent files were divided into smaller packets

    為了要避免線路擁擠,檔案傳輸需要將其先分割為數個小封包

  • which were put together again at the receiver.

    等到了接收端再重新組合起來

  • "Packet Switching" was born!

    「封包交換」由此產生

  • In 1962 American ferret aircrafts discovered middle and long range range missiles in Cuba,

    1962年,美國偵察機在古巴發現了數枚中遠程飛彈

  • which were able to reach the United States.

    有能力攻擊美國本土

  • This stoked fear of an atomic conflict.

    如此更加深了對於核子衝突的恐懼

  • At that time information systems had a centralized network architecture.

    在當時,網路資訊系統採用中心化的設計

  • To avoid the breakdown during an attack,

    為了避免攻擊所造成的資訊中斷

  • a decentralized network architecture had to be developed,

    必須開始發展「去中心化」的網路設計架構

  • which in case of loss of a node would still be operative.

    如此一來儘管失去其中一個節點,網路依舊可以正常運作

  • Communication still used to work through radio waves,

    傳輸方面依然是使用無線電波

  • that would have caused problems in case of an atomic attack:

    但若發生核子攻擊則會發生以下的問題:

  • the ionosphere would be affected and the long-wave radio waves wouldn't work anymore.

    電離層會被核爆影響,長程無線電波將會失去效用

  • Therefore they had to use direct waves, which, however, don't have a long range.

    因此,他們必須使用直線波段,然而可以傳輸的距離卻不長

  • A better solution was the model of a distributed network.

    較好的解決辦法是利用分散網路的模型

  • Thus long distances could be covered with a minimum of interference.

    如此就算是長距離也可以幾乎不受干擾的影響

  • Another milestone followed with the development of the French network "Cyclades".

    另一個里程碑是由法國的網路「CYCLADES」所立下的

  • Since Cyclades had a far smaller budget than Arpanet and thus also fewer nodes

    由於「CYCLADES」比「阿帕網」少了很多預算,因此只有不多的節點

  • the focus was layed on the communication with other networks.

    所以發展重點擺在與其他網路的相互連接

  • In this way the term "inter-net" was born.

    在如此發展下,「網際網路」一詞就此誕生

  • Moreover, Cyclades´ concept went further than ARPA's and the NPL's.

    除此之外,「CYCLADES」的概念延伸更是超越了「阿帕網」和「NPL」

  • During communication between sender and receiver the computers were not to intervene anymore,

    在發送和接受端的傳輸之間,中間的電腦再也不會進行干預了

  • but simply serve as a transfer node.

    而只是充當一個傳輸用的節點

  • Cyclades´ protocol went through all machines using a physical layer

    「CYCLADES」在傳輸時的通訊協定是經過所有安裝在

  • that was implemented into the hardware,

    電腦硬體裡的實體層

  • providing a direct connection with the receiveran end-to-end structure.

    提供了和接收端最直接的連接-頭尾相連的架構

  • Inspired by the Cyclades network and driven by the incompatibility between the networks,

    受到「CYCLADES」啟示,以及各個網路之間不相容問題的驅使下

  • their connection gained in importance everywhere.

    各地網路之間的連接變的越來越重要

  • The phone companies developed the X.25 protocol which enabled communication

    電話公司開發了X.25通訊協定,使得每個傳輸得以

  • through their serversin exchange for monthly basic charge of course.

    經過他們的伺服器,當然也藉此跟你收取每個月的基本帳單費用

  • DARPA's Transmission Control Protocol was to connect the computers through gateways...

    「DARPA」的TCP通訊協定讓每台電腦連接經過網關...

  • and the International Organization for Standardization designed the OSI Reference Model.

    還有國際標準化組織(ISO)設計了「開放式通信系統互聯參考模型(OSI模型)」

  • The innovation of OSI was the attempt to standardize the network from its ends

    OSI模型的創新之處在於試圖從網路底端將其標準化

  • and the channel's division into separate layers.

    然後再延伸至傳輸管道分配為不同階層

  • Finally, the TCP assimilated the preferences of the OSI Reference Model

    最後,TCP協定使用了OSI模型為主的設定

  • and gave way to the TCP/IP protocol

    然後將地位退讓給了「TCP/IP通訊協定」-

  • a standard which guaranteed compatibility between networks

    一個可以保證網路之間相容性的標準

  • and finally merged them, creating the Internet.

    到最後將其合併,創造出了今日的「網際網路」

  • By February 28, 1990 the ARPANET hardware was removed, but the Internet...

    在1990年2月28日,「阿帕網」的硬體被移除了,然而「網際網路」...

  • ... was up and running.

    ...也開始運作了

  • Subtitles by HackJack (aka StevXtreme)

    字幕翻譯 by 李昀泰 (aka Terry Lee & yam9999963) �

The Internet in the year 2009.

在2009年的網際網路

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B1 中級 中文 網路 傳輸 協定 電腦 通訊 網際網路

網路的歷史 (History of the Internet)

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    Zenn 發佈於 2013 年 03 月 16 日
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