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  • Most history books will tell you the Roman Empire fell in the fifth century CE.

    多數歷史書會說羅馬帝國在 公元五世紀時滅亡,

  • But this would've come as a great surprise to the millions of people

    但這件事可能會讓

  • who lived in the Roman Empire up through the Middle Ages.

    數百萬名生活在中世紀 羅馬帝國的人非常驚訝。

  • This medieval Roman Empire,

    這個中世紀羅馬帝國,

  • which we usually refer to today as the Byzantine Empire,

    現今我們認知的拜占庭帝國,

  • began in 330 CE.

    始於公元 330 年。

  • That's when Constantine, the first Christian emperor,

    第一位基督教皇帝康士坦丁

  • moved the capital of the Roman Empire to a new city called Constantinople,

    把羅馬帝國的首都 搬到新城市康士坦丁堡,

  • which he founded on the site of the ancient Greek city Byzantion.

    該城位於古希臘城市拜占庭。

  • When the Visigoths sacked Rome in 410

    西哥德人公元 410 年洗劫羅馬

  • and the Empire's western provinces were conquered by barbarians,

    及帝國西邊省分被野蠻人征服後,

  • Constantine's Eastern capital remained the seat of the Roman emperors.

    康士坦丁作為東邊首都, 保留羅馬帝國的名號,

  • There, generations of emperors ruled for the next 11 centuries.

    在那裡,歷代帝王統治 接下來的 11 個世紀。

  • Sharing continuity with the classical Roman Empire

    從原羅馬帝國直接傳承,

  • gave the Byzantine empire a technological and artistic advantage over its neighbors,

    讓拜占庭帝國比起她的鄰居 在技術及藝術上更有優勢,

  • whom Byzantines considered barbarians.

    因此拜占庭認為鄰居都是野蠻人。

  • In the ninth century, visitors from beyond the frontier

    九世紀時,從外邦來的旅人

  • were astonished at the graceful stone arches and domes

    對君士坦丁堡皇宮裡 優雅的石拱門和圓頂讚嘆。

  • of the imperial palace in Constantinople.

    一對黃金老虎盤坐皇帝王位,

  • A pair of golden lions flanked the imperial throne.

    當客人跪在地上時, 一個隱藏的機關會讓老虎吼叫。

  • A hidden organ would make the lions roar as guests fell on their knees.

    黃金鳥在身旁的黃金樹上唱歌。

  • Golden birds sung from a nearby golden tree.

    中世紀羅馬工程師 甚至使用液壓引擎

  • Medieval Roman engineers even used hydraulic engines

    將王座高高舉起。

  • to raise the imperial throne high into the air.

    其他古羅馬文化的影響

  • Other inherited aspects of ancient Roman culture

    可以從皇帝的衣著上見到,

  • could be seen in emperors' clothing,

    如傳統軍服和托加長袍;

  • from traditional military garb to togas,

    而法庭上

  • and in the courts,

    仍沿用羅馬法律。

  • which continued to use Roman law.

    拜占庭勞工階級的生活

  • Working-class Byzantines would've also had similar lives

    和古羅馬的勞工相似,

  • to their Ancient Roman counterparts;

    許多人務農或從事特定工作,

  • many farmed or plied a specific trade,

    例如製陶、

  • such as ceramics,

    製皮革、

  • leatherworking,

    漁撈、

  • fishing,

    編織、

  • weaving,

    或製作絲綢。

  • or manufacturing silk.

    但當然,拜占庭帝國

  • But, of course, the Byzantine Empire

    不只是停留在古羅馬的桂冠而已,

  • didn't just rest on the laurels of Ancient Rome.

    藝術家創新,創造巨幅馬賽克 及華麗的大理石雕刻。

  • Their artists innovated, creating vast mosaics and ornate marble carvings.

    建築師建造許多教堂,

  • Their architects constructed numerous churches,

    其中一個叫聖索菲亞大教堂,

  • one of which, called Hagia Sophia,

    她有非常高的圓頂,據傳 有一條天堂垂下的鎖鍊掛著它。

  • had a dome so high it was said to be hanging on a chain from heaven.

    帝國同時也聚集許多學者, 例如安娜.科穆寧娜,

  • The Empire was also home to great intellectuals such as Anna Komnene.

    身為 12 世紀的帝國公主,

  • As imperial princess in the 12th century,

    安娜致力於哲學和歷史,

  • Anna dedicated her life to philosophy and history.

    她對她父親治理帝國的紀錄 是歷史學家重要的來源,

  • Her account of her father's reign is historians' foremost source

    記載第一次十字軍東征時 拜占庭的政治歷史。

  • for Byzantine political history at the time of the first crusade.

    另一位學者,數學家利奧,

  • Another scholar, Leo the Mathematician,

    發明在帝國境內的烽火系統,

  • invented a system of beacons that ran the width of the empire

    位於現今的希臘和土耳其,

  • what's now Greece and Turkey.

    綿延長達 700 公里,

  • Stretching more than 700 kilometers,

    這套系統能傳送訊號到帝國角落,

  • this system allowed the edge of the Empire to warn the emperor of invading armies

    警告敵軍入侵,

  • within one hour of sighting them at the border.

    傳遞只需要一小時。

  • But their advances couldn't protect the Empire forever.

    但他們先進的技術 無法永遠保護帝國。

  • In 1203, an army of French and Venetian Crusaders

    1203 年,一支法國和威尼斯的十字軍

  • made a deal with a man named Alexios Angelos.

    和阿歷克塞.安杰洛斯達成協議,

  • Alexios was the son of a deposed emperor,

    阿歷克賽是一位被廢黜皇帝的兒子,

  • and promised the crusaders vast riches

    他承諾給十字軍巨額財富,

  • and support to help him retake the throne from his uncle.

    請求協助他從叔叔那重奪王位。

  • Alexios succeeded, but after a year,

    阿歷克賽成功了,但一年後

  • the population rebelled and Alexios himself was deposed and killed.

    人民反叛,阿歷克賽被罷黜且處死,

  • So Alexios's unpaid army turned their aggression on Constantinople.

    還沒得到報償的軍隊 因而揮軍康士坦丁堡。

  • They lit massive fires,

    他們放火,

  • which destroyed countless works of ancient and medieval art and literature,

    摧毀無數古代及中世紀的 藝術和文學作品,

  • leaving about one-third of the population homeless.

    也讓約三分之一的人無家可歸。

  • The city was reclaimed 50 years later by the Roman Emperor Michael Palaiologos,

    這城市 50 年後由羅馬皇帝 米海爾.帕里奥洛加斯重建,

  • but his restored Empire never regained all the territory

    但重建的帝國再也沒有 奪回本來的領土,

  • the Crusaders had conquered.

    那些被十字軍征服的地方。

  • Finally, in 1453, Ottoman Emperor Mehmed the Conqueror captured Constantinople,

    最後, 1453 年,鄂圖曼皇帝 征服者穆罕默德奪下康士坦丁堡,

  • bringing a conclusive end to the Roman Empire.

    為羅馬帝國劃下句點。

  • Despite the Ottoman conquest,

    儘管被鄂圖曼征服,

  • many Greek-speaking inhabitants of the Eastern Mediterranean

    許多東地中海說希臘語的居民

  • continued to call themselves Romans until the early 21st century.

    繼續稱自己是羅馬人, 直到 21 世紀早期。

  • In fact, it wasn't until the Renaissance

    事實上,一直到文藝復興時期

  • that the termByzantine Empirewas first used.

    「拜占庭帝國」才開始被使用。

  • For Western Europeans,

    對西歐人來說,

  • the Renaissance was about reconnecting with the wisdom of antiquity.

    文藝復興是和古代智慧重新連結,

  • And since the existence of a medieval Roman Empire

    既然中世紀羅馬帝國仍存在,

  • suggested there were Europeans who'd never lost touch with antiquity,

    暗示著仍有歐洲人 沒有失去和古代的連結。

  • Western Europeans wanted to draw clear lines between the ages.

    西歐人為了劃分清楚不同時代,

  • To better distinguish the classical, Latin-speaking, pagan Roman Empire

    區別古典、說拉丁語的 異教羅馬帝國時期

  • from the medieval, Greek-speaking, Christian Roman Empire,

    及中世紀、說希臘語的 基督教羅馬帝國,

  • scholars renamed the latter group Byzantines.

    學者將後者重新命名為拜占庭,

  • And thus, 100 years after it had fallen, the Byzantine Empire was born.

    因此,在帝國滅亡 100 年後, 拜占庭帝國這個詞誕生了。

Most history books will tell you the Roman Empire fell in the fifth century CE.

多數歷史書會說羅馬帝國在 公元五世紀時滅亡,

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【TED-Ed】拜占庭帝國興亡簡史 (The rise and fall of the Byzantine Empire - Leonora Neville)

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    詹士緯 發佈於 2018 年 04 月 20 日
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