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  • Everyone needs a coach.

    每個人都需要一位教練,

  • It doesn't matter whether you're a basketball player,

    不管你是棒球選手

  • a tennis player, a gymnast

    網球選手、體操選手

  • or a bridge player.

    或是橋牌玩家。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • My bridge coach, Sharon Osberg,

    我的橋牌教練,沙龍歐斯博格(Sharon Osberg),

  • says there are more pictures of the back of her head

    說他後腦勺的照片

  • than anyone else's in the world. (Laughter)

    比世上任何一人還多。

  • Sorry, Sharon. Here you go.

    不好意思,沙龍,我出賣你了。

  • We all need people who will give us feedback.

    我們都需要有人來給我們反饋。

  • That's how we improve.

    這就是我們不斷自我提升的方法。

  • Unfortunately, there's one group of people

    不幸的是,有一群人們

  • who get almost no systematic feedback

    幾乎從來沒有得到系統化的回饋

  • to help them do their jobs better,

    協助他們把工作做得更好,

  • and these people

    而這些人們

  • have one of the most important jobs in the world.

    卻擔任著世上最重要的工作之一。

  • I'm talking about teachers.

    我正在說的就是老師們。

  • When Melinda and I learned

    當米蘭達 (Melinda) 和我了解到

  • how little useful feedback most teachers get,

    大多數老師都 僅得到很少有用的反饋,

  • we were blown away.

    我們都大吃一驚。

  • Until recently, over 98 percent of teachers

    直到最近,將近 98% 的老師們

  • just got one word of feedback:

    只得到一個詞的回饋︰

  • Satisfactory.

    挺滿意的。

  • If all my bridge coach ever told me

    如果我的所有橋牌教練都只告訴我

  • was that I was "satisfactory,"

    他對我的表現挺滿意的,

  • I would have no hope of ever getting better.

    我就不可能會有進步。

  • How would I know who was the best?

    我又怎樣知道誰才是最好的?

  • How would I know what I was doing differently?

    而我又怎麼知道 我做的與別人不太一樣呢?

  • Today, districts are revamping

    時至今日,

  • the way they evaluate teachers,

    衡量老師的方法日新月異,

  • but we still give them almost no feedback

    但我們仍沒有給予 足夠幫助他們改善教學的反饋。

  • that actually helps them improve their practice.

    但我們仍沒有給予 足夠幫助他們改善教學的反饋。

  • Our teachers deserve better.

    我們的老師值得更好的反饋。

  • The system we have today isn't fair to them.

    現行的系統對他們不公平,

  • It's not fair to students,

    也對學生們不公平,

  • and it's putting America's global leadership at risk.

    並且將美國的全球領導地位 致於風險當中。

  • So today I want to talk about how we can help all teachers

    所以今天我想談談 我們如何幫助所有的老師

  • get the tools for improvement they want and deserve.

    得到他們需要且應得的改進。

  • Let's start by asking who's doing well.

    我們就從問問誰做得好開始。

  • Well, unfortunately there's no international ranking tables

    的確,很可惜國際上沒有一個 所謂的教師反饋系統的排行榜。

  • for teacher feedback systems.

    的確,很可惜國際上沒有一個 所謂的教師反饋系統的排行榜。

  • So I looked at the countries

    所以我研究了一些 學生學術表現很好的國家,

  • whose students perform well academically,

    所以我研究了一些 學生學術表現很好的國家,

  • and looked at what they're doing

    並且調查了一下 他們如何協助老師改善教學。

  • to help their teachers improve.

    並且調查了一下 他們如何協助老師改善教學。

  • Consider the rankings for reading proficiency.

    從閱讀能力來進行排名,

  • The U.S. isn't number one.

    美國並非第一名,

  • We're not even in the top 10.

    甚至連前十名都沒有。

  • We're tied for 15th with Iceland and Poland.

    我們和冰島、波蘭並列第十五位。

  • Now, out of all the places

    而今,那些普遍閱讀能力 比美國好的國家,

  • that do better than the U.S. in reading,

    而今,那些普遍閱讀能力 比美國好的國家,

  • how many of them have a formal system

    有多少擁有一個正規的系統 協助老師改善教學?

  • for helping teachers improve?

    有多少擁有一個正規的系統 協助老師改善教學?

  • Eleven out of 14.

    答案是,在 14 個國家中 就有 11 個國家有這樣的系統。

  • The U.S. is tied for 15th in reading,

    美國的閱讀能力排名是第 15,

  • but we're 23rd in science and 31st in math.

    但我們在科學學習方面是第 23 名, 數學學習方面是第 31 名。

  • So there's really only one area where we're near the top,

    所以我們只有一個領域 是可以處於領先的,

  • and that's in failing to give our teachers

    那就是我們無法幫助老師們 提高教學能力這一領域。

  • the help they need to develop their skills.

    那就是我們無法幫助老師們 提高教學能力這一領域。

  • Let's look at the best academic performer:

    看看那些擁有最好的 學習表現的地域︰

  • the province of Shanghai, China.

    中國上海。

  • Now, they rank number one across the board,

    如今,他們的閱讀、數學 和科學能力都在排行榜第一名,

  • in reading, math and science,

    如今,他們的閱讀、數學 和科學能力都在排行榜第一名,

  • and one of the keys to Shanghai's incredible success

    而上海取得非凡成功的關鍵之一

  • is the way they help teachers keep improving.

    正是他們協助老師不斷進步。

  • They made sure that younger teachers

    他們確保年輕的老師在工作時 能夠有機會去觀摩大師級老師。

  • get a chance to watch master teachers at work.

    他們確保年輕的老師在工作時 能夠有機會去觀摩大師級老師。

  • They have weekly study groups,

    在每周的研習小組里,

  • where teachers get together and talk about what's working.

    老師們能夠聚在一起 並談論甚麼樣的教學是有效的。

  • They even require each teacher to observe

    他們甚至要求每個老師 去觀察其他的老師教學並給予反饋。

  • and give feedback to their colleagues.

    他們甚至要求每個老師 去觀察其他的老師教學並給予反饋。

  • You might ask, why is a system like this so important?

    你可能會問︰為甚麼像這樣的系統那麼重要?

  • It's because there's so much variation

    這是因為有太多的變數存在於專業教學中。

  • in the teaching profession.

    這是因為有太多的變數 存在於專業教學中。

  • Some teachers are far more effective than others.

    有些老師比其他的老師更有效率。

  • In fact, there are teachers throughout the country

    事實上,我們國家到處都有教師

  • who are helping their students make extraordinary gains.

    正在幫助他們的學生 得到不同尋常的收穫。

  • If today's average teacher

    如果當今每位老師

  • could become as good as those teachers,

    都能和這些老師一樣棒,

  • our students would be blowing away the rest of the world.

    我們的學生就能比世界上 其他地方的人還優秀。

  • So we need a system that helps all our teachers

    因此我們需要一個系統 去幫助我們的老師和最棒的 (老師) 一樣好。

  • be as good as the best.

    因此我們需要一個系統 去幫助我們的老師和最棒的 (老師) 一樣好。

  • What would that system look like?

    那這樣的系統是怎樣的呢?

  • Well, to find out, our foundation

    因此,為了找出答案,我們的基金會

  • has been working with 3,000 teachers

    已經和全國各地區 3000 多名老師合作

  • in districts across the country

    已經和全國各地區 3000 多名老師合作

  • on a project called Measures of Effective Teaching.

    一項叫做效率化教學量測計畫 (Measures of Effective Teaching) 的專案。

  • We had observers watch videos

    我們會讓觀察者們 觀看老師在課堂上課的影片,

  • of teachers in the classroom

    我們會讓觀察者們 觀看老師在課堂上課的影片,

  • and rate how they did on a range of practices.

    對他們的實踐方式進行排名。

  • For example, did they ask their students

    例如,他們有詢問學生 一些有挑戰性的問題嗎?

  • challenging questions?

    例如,他們有詢問學生 一些有挑戰性的問題嗎?

  • Did they find multiple ways to explain an idea?

    他們有找到多種方法 去解釋一個概念嗎?

  • We also had students fill out surveys with questions like,

    我們也同時讓學生 填寫一些問卷諸如︰

  • "Does your teacher know

    你們的老師是否瞭解 同學們對課堂內容的掌握程度嗎?

  • when the class understands a lesson?"

    你們的老師是否瞭解 同學們對課堂內容的掌握程度嗎?

  • "Do you learn to correct your mistakes?"

    你們有學會如何更正自己的錯誤嗎?

  • And what we found is very exciting.

    而我們找到的答案令人激動。

  • First, the teachers who did well on these observations

    第一,在觀察者中得到好評的老師

  • had far better student outcomes.

    往往也更受學生的瞭解和歡迎。

  • So it tells us we're asking the right questions.

    所以這表示我們問對問題了。

  • And second, teachers in the program told us

    第二,參與計畫的老師們告訴我們

  • that these videos and these surveys from the students

    這些影片和學生的調查問卷

  • were very helpful diagnostic tools,

    對他們來說是非常有用的診斷工具。

  • because they pointed to specific places

    因為能指出他們需要改善的特定方面。

  • where they can improve.

    因為能指出他們需要改善的特定方面。

  • I want to show you what this video component of MET

    我想給你們看看效率化教學測量 的這一教師授課影片資料是怎樣的。

  • looks like in action.

    我想給你們看看效率化教學測量 的這一教師授課影片資料是怎樣的。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • (Video) Sarah Brown Wessling: Good morning everybody.

    (影片) 莎拉·布朗·偉斯林 (Sarah Brown Wessling)︰ 各位同學,早上好。

  • Let's talk about what's going on today.

    我們來談談今天的安排吧。

  • To get started, we're doing a peer review day, okay?

    在開始之前,我們將有一個同儕評估日,好嗎?

  • A peer review day, and our goal by the end of class

    在今天課堂結束之後, 同儕評估日和我們的目標

  • is for you to be able to determine

    能夠讓你們自己判斷你的論文中

  • whether or not you have moves to prove in your essays.

    是否有試圖去驗證你所寫的。

  • My name is Sarah Brown Wessling.

    我的名字是莎拉·布朗·偉斯林 (Sarah Brown Wessling)。

  • I am a high school English teacher

    我是一個中學英文老師。

  • at Johnston High School in Johnston, Iowa.

    任教於愛荷華州 (Iowa) 約翰史東地區約翰史東中學 (Johnston High School)。

  • Turn to somebody next to you.

    轉身面對你的鄰座,

  • Tell them what you think I mean when I talk about moves to prove. I've talk about --

    告訴他們當我講到驗證你所寫的時候, 你是怎麼想的。我曾說過....

  • I think that there is a difference for teachers

    我認為對老師們來說,

  • between the abstract of how we see our practice

    在我們對自己教學的看法

  • and then the concrete reality of it.

    和真正的事實上是存在差異的。

  • Okay, so I would like you to please bring up your papers.

    好了,所以現在我希望 你們可以拿出一張紙。

  • I think what video offers for us

    我想這些影片提供給我們的 是在某種程度上的現實狀況。

  • is a certain degree of reality.

    我想這些影片提供給我們的 是在某種程度上的現實狀況。

  • You can't really dispute what you see on the video,

    影片中看到的都是不可置否的,

  • and there is a lot to be learned from that,

    而且你能從中學到很多,

  • and there are a lot of ways that we can grow

    當我們真正認真觀看研究這些影片的時候,

  • as a profession when we actually get to see this.

    我們是可以通過很多方法 來提高自己的專業性的。

  • I just have a flip camera and a little tripod

    我只用了一臺短片錄影機和一個小三腳架

  • and invested in this tiny little wide-angle lens.

    並且只使用了這麼一個小小的廣角鏡。

  • At the beginning of class, I just perch it

    在課堂的一開始, 我只是把它放在教室後的一角。

  • in the back of the classroom. It's not a perfect shot.

    雖然不是最佳角度,

  • It doesn't catch every little thing that's going on.

    也不能掌握所有細節,

  • But I can hear the sound. I can see a lot.

    但我可以聽到聲音。我可以看到很多。

  • And I'm able to learn a lot from it.

    而我可以從中學到非常多。

  • So it really has been a simple

    所以它真的能成為一種 自我反思的簡單但強大的工具。

  • but powerful tool in my own reflection.

    所以它真的能成為一種 自我反思的簡單但強大的工具。

  • All right, let's take a look at the long one first, okay?

    好,我們先來看看比較長的那段,好嗎?

  • Once I'm finished taping, then I put it in my computer,

    當我結束錄影, 我就把它放到我的電腦裡,

  • and then I'll scan it and take a peek at it.

    然後我會大概瀏覽一下看看錄得怎樣。

  • If I don't write things down, I don't remember them.

    如果我没將事情寫下來,我會忘了的。

  • So having the notes is a part of my thinking process,

    所以記筆記成為我思考過程的一部份,

  • and I discover what I'm seeing as I'm writing.

    我發現當我在記筆記的時候 也是我觀察的時候。

  • I really have used it for my own personal growth

    我真的用它來實現

  • and my own personal reflection on teaching strategy

    我自己在教學方式、理論和課堂管理

  • and methodology and classroom management,

    乃至其他不同方面的

  • and just all of those different facets of the classroom.

    個人成長和反思。

  • I'm glad that we've actually done the process before

    我很高興我們事前做了這些研究,

  • so we can kind of compare what works, what doesn't.

    就可以比較出什麽是有效的,什麽是無效的。

  • I think that video exposes

    我認為這些影片揭露出 我們身為老師所固有的東西

  • so much of what's intrinsic to us as teachers

    我認為這些影片揭露出 我們身為老師所固有的東西

  • in ways that help us learn and help us understand,

    用以幫助我們學習、幫助我們了解,

  • and then help our broader communities understand

    然後幫助我們這個更廣的社群 了解到這些複雜的工作是為了甚麼。

  • what this complex work is really all about.

    然後幫助我們這個更廣的社群 了解到這些複雜的工作是為了甚麼。

  • I think it is a way to exemplify and illustrate

    我認為這是一種例證和描述的方式 幫助我們去理解教授那些我們無法在課堂計劃中提及、

  • things that we cannot convey in a lesson plan,

    我認為這是一種例證和描述的方式 幫助我們去理解教授那些我們無法在課堂計劃中提及、

  • things you cannot convey in a standard,

    也無法用標準答案來傳遞、

  • things that you cannot even sometimes convey

    甚至有時連教育學的書中都無法解釋的事項。

  • in a book of pedagogy.

    甚至有時連教育學的書中都無法解釋的事項。

  • Alrighty, everybody, have a great weekend.

    那麼,祝各位一個愉快的週末。

  • I'll see you later.

    下週見。

  • [Every classroom could look like that]

    所有的教室都能像這樣

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

  • Bill Gates: One day, we'd like every classroom in America

    比爾蓋茲(Bill Gates)︰總有一天,美國的所有課堂

  • to look something like that.

    看起來都能像這樣。

  • But we still have more work to do.

    但我們仍有許多工作要做。