字幕列表 影片播放 已審核 字幕已審核 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 So I want to start by offering you a free 首先我要提供你們一個免費的 no-tech life hack, 不涉科技的生活小撇步 and all it requires of you is this: 你只要 that you change your posture for two minutes. 改變你的姿勢二分鐘 But before I give it away, I want to ask you to right now 在我說明前，我要先請大家 do a little audit of your body and what you're doing with your body. 先檢視一下你的姿態 So how many of you are sort of making yourselves smaller? 你們之中有多少人身體是約略縮小的? Maybe you're hunching, crossing your legs, 或許你現在翹著腳駝著背? maybe wrapping your ankles. 或者雙手抱膝 Sometimes we hold onto our arms like this. 有時我們會這樣抱著手臂 Sometimes we spread out. (Laughter) 有時我們會打開雙手 (笑聲) I see you. (Laughter) 我看到囉(笑聲) So I want you to pay attention to what you're doing right now. 現在請大家專心在自己身上 We're going to come back to that in a few minutes, 我們等一下在回到這件事上 and I'm hoping that if you learn to tweak this a little bit, 希望你們可以稍微改變一下 it could significantly change the way your life unfolds. 這會讓你的生活變得很不一樣 So, we're really fascinated with body language, 所以，我們深為身體語言著迷 and we're particularly interested 特別是 in other people's body language. 別人的身體語言 You know, we're interested in, like, you know — (Laughter) — 你知道，當我們為 (笑聲) an awkward interaction, or a smile, 尷尬的互動，或微笑 or a contemptuous glance, or maybe a very awkward wink, 或輕蔑的一瞥，或不自然的眨眼 or maybe even something like a handshake. 甚至是握手這樣的一件事 Narrator: Here they are arriving at Number 10, and look at this （影片旁白）：這是第十個，看看這個 lucky policeman gets to shake hands with the President 幸運的警員可以和美國總統握手 of the United States. Oh, and here comes 噢，還有 the Prime Minister of the — ? No. (Laughter) (Applause) 來自....的首相? 不 (笑聲) (掌聲) (Laughter) (Applause) (笑聲) (掌聲) Amy Cuddy: So a handshake, or the lack of a handshake, 所以一個握手，或不握手 can have us talking for weeks and weeks and weeks. 我們都可以聊上好幾個禮拜 Even the BBC and The New York Times. 即使 BBC 和紐約時報也不例外 So obviously when we think about nonverbal behavior, 我們說到非語言行為或身體語言時 or body language -- but we call it nonverbals as social scientists -- 我們社會科學學者將之歸類為非口語語言 it's language, so we think about communication. 它就是一種語言，所以我們會想到溝通 When we think about communication, we think about interactions. 當我們想到溝通，我們就想到互動 So what is your body language communicating to me? 所以你現在的身體語言正在告訴我甚麼? What's mine communicating to you? 我的身體又是在傳達甚麼給你們? And there's a lot of reason to believe that this is a valid 有很多理由讓我們相信這是有效的切入點 way to look at this. So social scientists have spent a lot 社會科學家花了很多時間 of time looking at the effects of our body language, 研究我們的身體語言 or other people's body language, on judgments. 或其他人的身體語言在判斷方面的效應 And we make sweeping judgments and inferences from body language. 而我們根據他人的身體語言，推論並做出快速又決絕的判斷 And those judgments can predict really meaningful life outcomes 這些判斷可以幫我們預測生命裡很有意義的事件 like who we hire or promote, who we ask out on a date. 像是要雇用誰，邀請誰出去約會 For example, Nalini Ambady, a researcher at Tufts University, 舉例而言，Tufts 大學的研究員，Nalini Ambady shows that when people watch 30-second soundless clips 讓我們看到 當人們觀賞一段 30 秒 of real physician-patient interactions, 正牌醫師和病人互動的無聲影片 their judgments of the physician's niceness 他們對該醫師是否和善的觀感 predict whether or not that physician will be sued. 可用來預測該醫師日後是否會被病人告上法庭 So it doesn't have to do so much with whether or not 跟這個醫師稱職與否沒有太大關係 that physician was incompetent, but do we like that person 重點是我們喜不喜歡他 and how they interacted? 和他們互動的情形? Even more dramatic, Alex Todorov at Princeton has shown 更戲劇化的是，普林斯頓的 Alex Todorov 的研究告訴我們 us that judgments of political candidates' faces 我們在一秒內對政治人物臉部的喜好判斷 in just one second predict 70 percent of U.S. Senate 對美國參議院和美國州長的 and gubernatorial race outcomes, 選舉結果有 70% 的預測力 and even, let's go digital, 甚至，在電腦上的互動 emoticons used well in online negotiations 在線上協商時，妥善運用表情符號 can lead to you claim more value from that negotiation. 可以讓你在協商中獲的較多價值 If you use them poorly, bad idea. Right? 假如你運用不得當，不妙！對吧? So when we think of nonverbals, we think of how we judge 當我們想到非口語語言，我們就想到判斷別人 others, how they judge us and what the outcomes are. 別人如何判斷我們以及結果 We tend to forget, though, the other audience 我們往往忘記，還有其他人也受到我們非口語語言影響 that's influenced by our nonverbals, and that's ourselves. 那就是我們自己 We are also influenced by our nonverbals, our thoughts 我們也同時受自己的非口語語言、想法 and our feelings and our physiology. 感覺和生理影響 So what nonverbals am I talking about? 所以我說的究竟是甚麼樣的非口語語言? I'm a social psychologist. I study prejudice, 我是一位社會心理學家，我研究偏見 and I teach at a competitive business school, 我在一所競爭激烈的商學院教書 so it was inevitable that I would become interested in power dynamics. 因此無可避免地對權力間互動關係著迷 I became especially interested in nonverbal expressions 特別是在非口語語言表達方面 of power and dominance. 的權力和支配 And what are nonverbal expressions of power and dominance? 展示權力和支配的非口語語言又為何呢? Well, this is what they are. 嗯，讓我細細道來 So in the animal kingdom, they are about expanding. 在動物世界裡，權力和支配的非口語語言講究擴展 So you make yourself big, you stretch out, 所以你盡可能得把自己變大，你伸展身體 you take up space, you're basically opening up. 占滿空間，基本上就是開展身體 It's about opening up. And this is true 就是關於展開身體 across the animal kingdom. It's not just limited to primates. 整個動物世界都是如此，不僅限於靈長類。 And humans do the same thing. (Laughter) 人類也幹同樣的事(笑聲) So they do this both when they have power sort of chronically, 不論是習於權力的人 and also when they're feeling powerful in the moment. 或普通人偶而碰上可以大聲講話的時後，都是如此 And this one is especially interesting because it really shows us 特別有趣的原因是 how universal and old these expressions of power are. 它讓我們明白古今世界權力的展現從來是如此地一致 This expression, which is known as pride, 自尊的表現 Jessica Tracy has studied. She shows that Jessica Tracy 研究顯示 people who are born with sight 視力正常的人 and people who are congenitally blind do this 和先天視障的人 when they win at a physical competition. 在贏得比賽時都做同樣的事 So when they cross the finish line and they've won, 當他們跨過終點線贏得比賽之際 it doesn't matter if they've never seen anyone do it. 無論他們是否曾看過這種行為 They do this. 他們都展現這個姿勢 So the arms up in the V, the chin is slightly lifted. 雙臂呈V字型朝上，下巴微揚 What do we do when we feel powerless? We do exactly 那我們感到無助的時候呢? 我們做完全相反的事 the opposite. We close up. We wrap ourselves up. 我們縮起身體。我們把自己捲曲起來 We make ourselves small. We don't want to bump into the person next to us. 讓自己變得小一點，最好別碰到身旁的人 So again, both animals and humans do the same thing. 我再重複一次，人類和動物都一樣 And this is what happens when you put together high 這是在權力不對等時發生的狀況 and low power. So what we tend to do 在不對等權力狀態下，我們傾向 when it comes to power is that we complement the other's nonverbals. 和對方互補 So if someone is being really powerful with us, 若有人對我們展現權力 we tend to make ourselves smaller. We don't mirror them. 我們傾向把自己縮小些，我們不模仿他們 We do the opposite of them. 我們背道而馳 So I'm watching this behavior in the classroom, 當我在課堂上觀察這麼現象時 and what do I notice? I notice that MBA students 你猜我發現甚麼? 我發現 MBA 的學生 really exhibit the full range of power nonverbals. 把權力的非口語語言部分表達的淋漓盡致 So you have people who are like caricatures of alphas, 你會看到有些人就像動物群裡支配的雄性的變形 really coming into the room, they get right into the middle of the room 上課前大搖大擺走進教室，一屁股坐在教室正中 before class even starts, like they really want to occupy space. 好像他們真的要占據整個空間似的 When they sit down, they're sort of spread out. 當他們坐下的時候，身體會展開 They raise their hands like this. 舉手時會像這樣把手高舉起來 You have other people who are virtually collapsing 有些人基本上是攤成一堆 when they come in. As soon they come in, you see it. 他們一走進來你就會發現 You see it on their faces and their bodies, and they sit 從他們的臉上表情和身體姿勢都看得出來 in their chair and they make themselves tiny, 他們坐在椅子上，把自己縮的小小的 and they go like this when they raise their hand. 然後舉手的時候是這種畏畏縮縮的樣子 I notice a couple of things about this. 我觀察到兩點： One, you're not going to be surprised. 第一，不出所料 It seems to be related to gender. 這跟性別有關 So women are much more likely to do this kind of thing than men. 女人比男人更會顯得畏縮 Women feel chronically less powerful than men, 長期以來女人都不覺得像男人那麼強勢 so this is not surprising. But the other thing I noticed is that 所以這並不太讓人意外。但第二件我觀察到的 it also seemed to be related to the extent to which 這種表現似乎跟學生的參與程度 the students were participating, and how well they were participating. 與參與表現相關 And this is really important in the MBA classroom, 在 MBA 的課堂上來說這真的非常重要 because participation counts for half the grade. 因為參與的表現占成績的一半 So business schools have been struggling with this gender grade gap. 所以商學院一直以來都為男女生在參與上的差別傷腦筋 You get these equally qualified women and men coming in 入學的時候男女生不分軒輊 and then you get these differences in grades, 可是成績出來卻反映性別差異 and it seems to be partly attributable to participation. 而看起來一部分原因和參與有關 So I started to wonder, you know, okay, 所以我開始思考，好吧 so you have these people coming in like this, and they're 所以這群人一開始來是這副樣子，看起來積極參與 participating. Is it possible that we could get people to fake it 那是不是可能讓大家先假裝成那樣 and would it lead them to participate more? 進而影響他們，能更積極參與? So my main collaborator Dana Carney, who's at Berkeley, 我在 Berkeley 的主要合作研究夥伴，Dana Carney and I really wanted to know, can you fake it till you make it? 和我都很想知道，是不是能先假裝，到最後則成真 Like, can you do this just for a little while and actually 譬如說，先小小假裝一陣子，然後在實際行為上經驗到 experience a behavioral outcome that makes you seem more powerful? 你看來很有權力的樣子的結果 So we know that our nonverbals govern how other people 我們都知道非口語語言影響 think and feel about us. There's a lot of evidence. 他人對我們的看法。已經有很多研究證明這件事 But our question really was, do our nonverbals 而我們要問的問題是，非口語語言 govern how we think and feel about ourselves? 是否影響我們對自己的看法與感覺？ There's some evidence that they do. 確實有證據支持這個說法 So, for example, we smile when we feel happy, 舉例來說，我們開心的時候會微笑 but also, when we're forced to smile 但同樣地，當我們被迫在口中咬住一隻筆 by holding a pen in our teeth like this, it makes us feel happy. 呈現微笑的表情時，我們也會感到開心 So it goes both ways. When it comes to power, 代表這是互為因果，互相影響的。說到權力 it also goes both ways. So when you feel powerful, 亦是如此。所以當我們感到很有權力時 you're more likely to do this, but it's also possible that 你比較會這樣做，但你也可能 when you pretend to be powerful, you are more likely 假裝自己很有權力， to actually feel powerful. 然後真的覺得自己力量強大 So the second question really was, you know, 那第二個問題就是 so we know that our minds change our bodies, 我們知道心理狀態會影響身體 but is it also true that our bodies change our minds? 那身體是否能影響心理呢? And when I say minds, in the case of the powerful, 這裡所說的心理充滿力量 what am I talking about? 指的是甚麼? So I'm talking about thoughts and feelings 我指的是想法和感覺 and the sort of physiological things that make up our thoughts and feelings, 和構成我們想法和感受的生理因素 and in my case, that's hormones. I look at hormones. 我這裡是指荷爾蒙。所以我針對荷爾蒙來看 So what do the minds of the powerful versus the powerless 充滿力量或充滿無力感 look like? 在荷爾蒙層面上有什麼差別？ So powerful people tend to be, not surprisingly, 不出乎意料，感覺自己有力的人往往 more assertive and more confident, more optimistic. 比較果斷，自信，且樂觀 They actually feel that they're going to win even at games of chance. 他們確切認為機會永遠站在他們這邊 They also tend to be able to think more abstractly. 他們也較擅長抽象思考 So there are a lot of differences. They take more risks. 還有許多差異。這種人比較敢承受風險 There are a lot of differences between powerful and powerless people. 強勢的人與充滿無力感的人真的差別很大 Physiologically, there also are differences on two 在生理上有二個重要的荷爾蒙對此有影響 key hormones: testosterone, which is the dominance hormone, 一是睪固酮:也就是支配性荷爾蒙 and cortisol, which is the stress hormone. 一是腎上腺皮質醇:也就是壓力荷爾蒙 So what we find is that 我們發現到 high-power alpha males in primate hierarchies 靈長類裡的強勢男性 have high testosterone and low cortisol, 有大量的睪固酮和低量的腎上腺皮質醇 and powerful and effective leaders also have 強勢，高效能的領袖人物 high testosterone and low cortisol. 也有大量睪固酮與低量的腎上腺皮質醇 So what does that mean? When you think about power, 這表示甚麼? 當你想到權力 people tended to think only about testosterone, 人們往往只想到睪固酮 because that was about dominance. 因為它代表支配統治 But really, power is also about how you react to stress. 但力量其實也和如何處理壓力有關 So do you want the high-power leader that's dominant, 所以你會想見一個有支配地位強勢領袖 high on testosterone, but really stress reactive? 有著很多睪固酮但同時又對壓力反應過度嗎? Probably not, right? You want the person 大概不會吧，不是嗎?你會希望那個人 who's powerful and assertive and dominant, 是充滿力量，肯定果斷，非常強勢 but not very stress reactive, the person who's laid back. 但也不會對壓力反應過度，不能輕鬆以對 So we know that in primate hierarchies, if an alpha 靈長動物的社群階級裡，如果一個強勢雄性 needs to take over, if an individual needs to take over 想要奪權，如果一個雄性突然想要爭取 an alpha role sort of suddenly, 首領這個角色 within a few days, that individual's testosterone has gone up 幾天內，他體內的睪固酮一定急速增加 significantly and his cortisol has dropped significantly. 而其腎上腺皮質醇劇烈地減少 So we have this evidence, both that the body can shape 身體影響心理，由此可證 the mind, at least at the facial level, 至少就表面而言是如此 and also that role changes can shape the mind. 同時角色的轉換也會影響心理 So what happens, okay, you take a role change, 所以，如果你改變角色 what happens if you do that at a really minimal level, 如果你做一個微小改變會怎樣 like this tiny manipulation, this tiny intervention? 像這樣的操作，這樣一個小小的干預? "For two minutes," you say, "I want you to stand like this, "持續二分鐘"你說，"我要你們這樣站著， and it's going to make you feel more powerful." 它會讓你感到更充滿力量" So this is what we did. We decided to bring people 接著我們就決定做這個實驗。 into the lab and run a little experiment, and these people 我們將人們帶進實驗室做個小實驗 adopted, for two minutes, either high-power poses 這些人將擺出有權勢的姿態 or low-power poses, and I'm just going to show you 或無力的姿態兩分鐘，現在我們一起看 five of the poses, although they took on only two. 這五種姿勢，雖然他們只做了其中二種 So here's one. 這是其一 A couple more. 再兩個姿勢 This one has been dubbed the "Wonder Woman" 這個姿勢是媒體一般稱為 by the media. "神力女超人" 的姿態 Here are a couple more. 還有這兩個 So you can be standing or you can be sitting. 或站或坐 And here are the low-power poses. 這些是無助的姿勢 So you're folding up, you're making yourself small. 你雙手交叉，試著讓自己變小一點 This one is very low-power. 這張顯現非常無助的樣子 When you're touching your neck, 當你摸脖子 you're really protecting yourself. 你其實在保護自己 So this is what happens. They come in, 實際的狀況是，他們一進來 they spit into a vial, 先朝試管裡吐口口水 we for two minutes say, "You need to do this or this." 我們告訴他，擺這個姿勢，兩分鐘 They don't look at pictures of the poses. We don't want to prime them 他們不會看到姿勢的照片，因為我們不想要暗示，影響他們 with a concept of power. We want them to be feeling power, 我們要他們自己感覺力量 right? So two minutes they do this. 不是嗎? 所以他們擺了二分鐘姿勢 We then ask them, "How powerful do you feel?" on a series of items, 然後，我們拿一堆東西，問他們: "現在你覺得自己多有力量?" and then we give them an opportunity to gamble, 受試者接著會有一個博奕的機會 and then we take another saliva sample. 接著再取一次唾液樣本 That's it. That's the whole experiment. 就是這樣。這就是整個實驗 So this is what we find. Risk tolerance, which is the gambling, 我們發現到風險承擔能力，用賭博來衡量 what we find is that when you're in the high-power 擺出有權勢姿勢的人 pose condition, 86 percent of you will gamble. 有 86% 會選擇賭博 When you're in the low-power pose condition, 擺低權勢姿態的人呢 only 60 percent, and that's a pretty whopping significant difference. 只有 60% 會賭，這兩者間差異真的很大 Here's what we find on testosterone. 我們發現 From their baseline when they come in, high-power people 這些人進來的那一刻起，擺高權勢姿態的人 experience about a 20-percent increase, 睪固酮會上升 20% and low-power people experience about a 10-percent decrease. 擺低權勢姿態的人則是下降 10% So again, two minutes, and you get these changes. 所以，再說一次，只有兩分鐘，就有這種差異 Here's what you get on cortisol. High-power people 擺有權勢姿態的人 experience about a 25-percent decrease, and 腎上腺皮質醇下降 25%， the low-power people experience about a 15-percent increase. 擺低權勢姿態的人腎上腺皮質醇則上升 15% So two minutes lead to these hormonal changes 只要二分鐘可以讓這些荷爾蒙產生這種改變 that configure your brain to basically be either 使你的腦袋成為 assertive, confident and comfortable, 果斷、自信和自在 or really stress-reactive, and, you know, feeling 或高度緊張以及感到 sort of shut down. And we've all had the feeling, right? 退縮。我們都曾有過這些體驗不是嗎?