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  • Several years ago here at TED, Peter Skillman

    數年前,Peter Skillman 在 TED 這邊

  • introduced a design challenge

    介紹了一個設計競賽,

  • called the marshmallow challenge.

    稱之為「棉花糖挑戰」。

  • And the idea's pretty simple:

    它的概念非常的簡單,

  • Teams of four have to build the tallest free-standing structure

    一組四人的團隊,必須建造出最高的、能自我支撐的結構,

  • out of 20 sticks of spaghetti,

    只能使用廿根義大利麵、

  • one yard of tape, one yard of string

    一碼長的膠帶、一碼長的細繩、

  • and a marshmallow.

    跟一顆棉花糖。

  • The marshmallow has to be on top.

    棉花糖必須在頂端。

  • And, though it seems really simple, it's actually pretty hard

    然而,雖然看起來非常的簡單,實際上它的難度非常高,

  • because it forces people

    因為它強迫人們

  • to collaborate very quickly.

    非常迅速的合作。

  • And so, I thought this was an interesting idea,

    因此我認為這是個非常有趣的主意,

  • and I incorporated it into a design workshop.

    並將之包含在一個設計研習活動中,

  • And it was a huge success.

    活動非常的成功。

  • And since then, I've conducted

    從那時開始,我已經在全世界

  • about 70 design workshops across the world

    舉辦了大約七十場的設計研討會,

  • with students and designers and architects,

    研討會參與成員包括學生、設計師與建築師,

  • even the CTOs of the Fortune 50,

    甚至名列財富雜誌前五十大企業的首席技術長。

  • and there's something about this exercise

    關於這個活動的一些事物

  • that reveals very deep lessons

    揭露了關於合作本質上的

  • about the nature of collaboration,

    一些非常深層的課題,

  • and I'd like to share some of them with you.

    而我希望能夠與你們分享其中的一部分。

  • So, normally, most people begin

    所以,一般來說,多數人從

  • by orienting themselves to the task.

    引導他們進入任務目標開始著手。

  • They talk about it, they figure out what it's going to look like,

    他們談論它,嘗試弄清最後的結構將會看起來是什麼樣子,

  • they jockey for power.

    他們嘗試掌握權力,

  • Then they spend some time planning, organizing,

    然後他們花部份時間在計劃、組織上。

  • they sketch and they lay out spaghetti.

    他們快速描繪出結構,將義大利麵攤開,

  • They spend the majority of their time

    他們絕大多數的時間花在

  • assembling the sticks into ever-growing structures.

    將義大利麵條組合在一個不斷擴張的結構上,

  • And then finally, just as they're running out of time,

    直到最後,就在他們快要來不及的時候,

  • someone takes out the marshmallow,

    某人將棉花糖拿了出來,

  • and then they gingerly put it on top,

    然後他們小心翼翼將它放在頂端,

  • and then they stand back, and -- ta-da! --

    然後他們退後一步,嗒啦!

  • they admire their work.

    他們仰望著他們的成果。

  • But what really happens, most of the time,

    但事實上所發生的是,大多數時候,

  • is that the "ta-da" turns into an "uh-oh,"

    那個「嗒啦」變成了「啊哦」,

  • because the weight of the marshmallow causes the entire structure

    因為棉花糖的重量導致整個結構

  • to buckle and to collapse.

    彎曲然後崩潰。

  • So there are a number of people

    然而有些人,

  • who have a lot more "uh-oh" moments than others,

    他們發出「啊哦」的次數遠比其他人要來的多,

  • and among the worst are recent graduates of business school.

    其中最糟糕的是剛從商學院畢業的社會新鮮人。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • They lie, they cheat, they get distracted

    他們不誠實、作弊、容易分心,

  • and they produce really lame structures.

    他們所建造的結構不堪入目。

  • And of course there are teams

    當然有些隊伍,

  • that have a lot more "ta-da" structures,

    他們擁有「嗒啦」結構的機率高得多,

  • and among the best are recent graduates of kindergarten.

    其中最棒的是,剛剛從幼稚園畢業的小朋友。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And it's pretty amazing.

    這相當不可思議。

  • As Peter tells us,

    就像彼得告訴我們的一樣,

  • not only do they produce the tallest structures,

    他們不但可以做出最高的結構,

  • but they're the most interesting structures of them all.

    他們所建出來的也是所有結構當中最有趣的。

  • So the question you want to ask is:

    所以,現在你想要問:

  • How come? Why? What is it about them?

    怎麼可能?為什麼?關於他們是怎麼回事?

  • And Peter likes to say that

    彼得總是喜歡這麼說:

  • none of the kids spend any time

    「這些孩子們中沒有一個花時間在

  • trying to be CEO of Spaghetti, Inc. Right?

    嘗試擔任義大利麵有限公司的執行總裁。」是的,

  • They don't spend time jockeying for power.

    他們不花時間在爭取權利。

  • But there's another reason as well.

    但是除此之外還有另一個原因,

  • And the reason is that business students are trained

    那是因為商學院學生被訓練成

  • to find the single right plan, right?

    找出唯一「正確」的計劃,對吧,

  • And then they execute on it.

    然後他們針對計劃執行。

  • And then what happens is, when they put the marshmallow on the top,

    然後發生的事情是,當他們將棉花糖放到頂端,

  • they run out of time and what happens?

    他們已經沒有時間了,接下來發生什麼事呢?

  • It's a crisis.

    那是個危機。

  • Sound familiar? Right.

    聽起來很耳熟?是的。

  • What kindergarteners do differently

    幼稚園小朋友不同的地方在於,

  • is that they start with the marshmallow,

    他們從棉花糖本身開始著手,

  • and they build prototypes, successive prototypes,

    然後他們建構測試版本的結構,不斷地進行測試,

  • always keeping the marshmallow on top,

    總是保持棉花糖在頂端,

  • so they have multiple times to fix when they build prototypes along the way.

    所以他們一路上有許多機會修正建構不良的測試結構。

  • Designers recognize this type of collaboration

    設計師們認為反覆的過程

  • as the essence of the iterative process.

    是這類型合作所需要的本質。

  • And with each version, kids get instant feedback

    伴隨著每一個版本,孩子們得到即時的回應,

  • about what works and what doesn't work.

    學到了什麼可行,哪些又不可行。

  • So the capacity to play in prototype is really essential,

    因此擁有嘗試原型版本的機會是非常基本且重要的,

  • but let's look at how different teams perform.

    現在讓我們來看看不同隊伍們的表現吧。

  • So the average for most people is around 20 inches;

    大多數人的平均結構高度是大約廿英吋,

  • business schools students, about half of that;

    商學院的學生是大約那個數字的一半,

  • lawyers, a little better, but not much better than that,

    律師,好一點點,但也沒有好到哪裡去,

  • kindergarteners, better than most adults.

    幼稚園小朋友,比絕大多數的成年人要好。

  • Who does the very best?

    誰做得最好?

  • Architects and engineers, thankfully.

    建築師跟工程師,謝天謝地。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Thirty-nine inches is the tallest structure I've seen.

    我所親眼見過最高的結構是 39 英吋。

  • And why is it? Because they understand triangles

    為什麼他們可以達到那個高度?因為他們了解

  • and self-reinforcing geometrical patterns

    三角形及其它能夠自我重新強化穩定的幾何構造

  • are the key to building

    是建造穩定結構的

  • stable structures.

    關鍵。

  • So CEOs, a little bit better than average,

    執行總裁們,稍微比平均好一點。

  • but here's where it gets interesting.

    但是有趣的在這邊,

  • If you put you put an executive admin. on the team,

    如果你在他們的團隊中加入行政管理人員,

  • they get significantly better.

    他們的表現顯著進步。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • It's incredible. You know, you look around, you go, "Oh, that team's going to win."

    非常不可置信。你知道的,當你環顧四處,你會知道,「喔,那隊伍將會勝利。」

  • You can just tell beforehand. And why is that?

    你可以在事前就看得出來,為什麼?

  • Because they have special skills

    因為他們擁有輔助

  • of facilitation.

    的特殊才能。

  • They manage the process, they understand the process.

    他們管理程序,他們也了解程序。

  • And any team who manages

    而任何一隊,能夠管理

  • and pays close attention to work

    並且專注於工作上的

  • will significantly improve the team's performance.

    將會顯著的提昇團隊的表現。

  • Specialized skills and facilitation skills

    專業的技能與輔助的才華,

  • are the combination that leads to strong success.

    是邁向重大成功的組合。

  • If you have 10 teams that typically perform,

    如果你讓十個隊伍進行這個活動,

  • you'll get maybe six or so that have standing structures.

    最後大約會有六個左右的隊伍,他們的成果能夠穩定的站立。

  • And I tried something interesting.

    然後我嘗試了某件有趣的事,

  • I thought, let's up the ante, once.

    我想著,讓我們提高賭注一次看看。

  • So I offered a 10,000 dollar prize of software to the winning team.

    因此我懸賞等同市值一萬美元的軟體給第一名的隊伍。

  • So what do you think happened to these design students?

    你認為這些設計學生們最後怎麼了?

  • What was the result?

    結果如何?

  • Here's what happened:

    結果就是這樣。

  • Not one team had a standing structure.

    沒有一個隊伍的成果是站著的。

  • If anyone had built, say, a one inch structure,

    如果有任何一個隊伍建出,不管,一英吋的高度也好,

  • they would have taken home the prize.

    他們就能夠將獎品帶回家的。

  • So, isn't that interesting? That high stakes

    所以,看到高賭注所帶來的

  • have a strong impact.

    強大影響力很有趣吧?

  • We did the exercise again with the same students.

    當我們對同樣一群學生再進行一次這個活動的時候,

  • What do you think happened then?

    你認為會發生什麼事?

  • So now they understand the value of prototyping.

    現在他們知道了建造測試結構的重要性,

  • So the same team went from being the very worst

    因此原本是表現最差的那個隊伍,

  • to being among the very best.

    成為了領先群之一。

  • They produced the tallest structures in the least amount of time.

    他們在最短的時間內,建造出了最高的結構之一。

  • So there's deep lessons for us

    因此,這裡有個值得我們大家學習的深度課題,

  • about the nature of incentives and success.

    那就是關於獎勵與成功的本質。

  • So, you might ask: Why would anyone

    因此,你也許想問:

  • actually spend time writing a marshmallow challenge?

    為什麼會有人真的花時間設計這個「棉花糖挑戰」?

  • And the reason is, I help create

    理由是,我幫忙創造

  • digital tools and processes

    數位工具和程序,

  • to help teams build cars and video games

    以用來幫助團隊們建造汽車、電玩與

  • and visual effects.

    視覺特效。

  • And what the marshmallow challenge does

    而「棉花糖挑戰」所做的是,

  • is it helps them identify the hidden assumptions.

    它幫助了他們找出那些「隱藏的假設」。

  • Because, frankly,

    因為,坦白說,

  • every project has its own marshmallow, doesn't it?

    每一個計劃都有屬於它們自己的「棉花糖」,難道不是嗎?

  • The challenge provides a shared experience,

    這個挑戰提供了一個共享的經驗,

  • a common language,

    一個共通的語言,

  • a common stance to build the right prototype.

    同樣的立場去建造出正確的原型版本。

  • And so, this is the value of the experience,

    因此,這就是體驗的價值,

  • of this so simple exercise.

    藉由一個如此簡單的活動。

  • And those of you who are interested

    在眾的各位如果有興趣的,

  • may want to go to MarshmallowChallenge.com.

    可能會想去 marshmallowchallenge.com 網站看看。

  • It's a blog that you can look at

    那是個部落格,在那邊你可以讀到

  • how to build the marshmallows.

    如何建造「棉花糖挑戰」。

  • There's step-by-step instructions on this.

    那邊有關於這方面的詳細步驟指引,

  • There are crazy examples from around the world

    還有來自世界各地的瘋狂例子,

  • of how people tweak and adjust the system.

    你可以看到人們是如何最這個系統進行調整與細部修正,

  • There's world records that are on this as well.

    那邊也有這個活動的世界紀錄。

  • And the fundamental lesson, I believe,

    我認為,最基本的一課是,

  • is that design truly is

    設計事實上是

  • a contact sport.

    一種接觸性的運動。

  • It demands that we bring all of our senses to the task,

    它要求我們用上我們所有的感官來進行任務,

  • and that we apply the very best of our thinking,

    還要我們用上我們最高度的思考,

  • our feeling and our doing

    我們的感覺與我們的行動,

  • to the challenge that we have at hand.

    來挑戰我們手中所有的東西。

  • And sometimes, a little prototype of this experience

    而且,有時,關於這個體驗的一個小小原型,

  • is all that it takes to turn us

    就足夠轉變

  • from an "uh-oh" moment to a "ta-da" moment.

    我們的「啊哦」時刻變成「嗒啦」的一刻。

  • And that can make a big difference.

    那可以造成非常大的不同。

  • Thank you very much.

    非常謝謝各位。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Several years ago here at TED, Peter Skillman

數年前,Peter Skillman 在 TED 這邊

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