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  • Hi, this is Gabe from Towerofbabelfish.com.

  • This is the second tutorial on English pronunciation and the IPA, and it's a fun one, now that

  • you've learned voicing and place.

  • We're going to learn about what you can do at each of these places, and in the process

  • I'll try to make as many of these sounds as I can. I'm doing a video feed of my face so

  • you can see what my lips are doing.

  • So without further ado, here's the IPA consonant chart!

  • You'll see that places are on top - there are 12 of them total - we skipped retroflex,

  • which isn't used very often - it's like alveolar but with the underside of the tongue. I'll

  • do them, but I don't promise perfect accuracy; I don't speak any languages that use them,

  • so we'll see what happened.

  • We also skipped epiglottal, which almost noone uses and it's really hard to do! It's like

  • pharyngial but with the epiglottis - a piece of cartiledge that prevents food from going

  • down your windpipe. I'm not going to demonstrate because I have no experience with it at all!

  • So manner is on the left side - you'll see we have 9 of them.

  • You'll remember from the last video that a consonant is caused by closing the airflow

  • somewhat. They're arranged very roughly in an order of how closed off they are in the

  • mouth - nasal is closed off completely in the mouth, fricative is closed almost completely,

  • approximants are closed just a little bit, etc.

  • We'll start from the top - Nasal. As you might have guessed, this involves air coming out

  • of your nose. You'll recognize a lot of these consonants, and they all block the path of

  • air out of the mouth, so it travels out of the nose making an n or M -type sound. Here

  • they are in order: m ɱ n ɳ-ret ɲ-pal ŋ-vel ɴ-uvular

  • You'll notice that they're all voiced - this doesn't have to be the case; there is a symbol

  • in IPA that unvoices things - it's a little circle underneath. But the problem with nasal

  • consonants is that if your mouth is closed and you're not making any sounds with your

  • vocal coards, then all you get is air coming out of your nose. But some languages do use

  • this. Icelandic - we're going to keep coming back to Icelandic because it has all these

  • cool consonants - Icelanded uses unvoiced nasal consonants, and so you have this awesome

  • word for knife, which is hnivr. You'll notice the R should be unvoiced. Hnivr. Let's move

  • on to plosives.

  • Plosives stop the air completely and then air comes through and pops it open with a

  • little explosion of air. You'll notice that they come in pairs. There's one on the left

  • that's voiceless, and one on the right that's voiced.

  • We have: p/b t/d ʈ/ɖ-ret c/ɟ-pal k/ɡ q/ɢ and the

  • glottal stop ʔ Now for the hardest one, fricatives. There

  • are a lot of fricatives. Fricatives are when you close the articulators most of the way,

  • and air blows through in a turbulent, raspy sound. Again, you have unvoiced ones on the

  • left, and voiced ones

  • on the right. So, here goes:

  • ɸ/β f/v θ/ð s/z ʃ/ʒ ʂʐ (ich)ç/ʝ x/ɣ χ/ʁ ɦ

  • OK, Now for approximants. These should be easier for me, there are only five of them

  • on this chart. Approximants are made by...you close the airflow just a bit - not enough

  • to make a turbulent, fricative sound. It's just enough to change the sound a little bit.

  • ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Now, there's one missing here - a really important

  • one - which is /w/ - the english w. The reason it's missing from this chart is because it's

  • an approximant, but it's in two places at once. The tongue is raised in the back, like

  • the velar approximant ɰ - but also your lips are rounded, so you get /wa/

  • Now for trills In a trill, you take the active articular

  • and put it against the passive articulator like any sort of plosive thing, but you blow

  • it open and close it rapidly. And so it vibrates against there. So lets say you have the tongue

  • and the alveolar ridge: the tongue will vibrate against the alveolar ridge, and you'll get

  • a sort of repeated plosive sound. There are three of them in IPA. You have ʙ

  • r ʀ

  • These three are voiced, but again, if you stick a little circle underneath, you'll get

  • the unvoiced version. And again, in Icelandic and Welsh, you'll find this. They have voiceless

  • alveolar trill /r/

  • If trills are like repeating plosives, then taps or flaps are the opposite - it's just

  • one single, quick contact between two articulators.

  • IPA has three of them: ⱱ ɾ ɽ

  • Now for the lateral consonants. The lateral consonants are where the tongue comes up in

  • the front and closes off in the front of the mouth, but air is allowed to escape over the

  • sides so you get L-type sounds

  • There are two lateral fricatives - voiced and unvoiced - and you'll find unvoiced ones

  • in, surprise, Icelandic and Welsh. These are: ɬ ɮ

  • There are four lateral approximants are more common. We have:

  • l ɭ ʎ ʟ

  • The English, or the American standard /l/ is actually a combination of two of these.

  • You get the tongue raised in the front, like the alveolar /l/ and you get the tongue raised

  • in the back, like the velar L, so you get them both together.

  • There's one lateral flap - /ɽ/, and that's it for the IPA.

  • You've seen that you can get more sounds if you combine some of these, like in our w - which

  • is a velar approximant with rounded lips, or our L which is an alveolar and velar lateral

  • approximant. Or you can add these diacritics, like the devoicing thing for all these Icelandic

  • consonants. If your target language uses one of these, you'll find it in that language's

  • phonology article on wikipedia.

  • Let's go over the english consonants. We have the voiced bilabial nasal /m/, the voiced

  • alveolar /n/, and sometimes the velar nasal /ŋ/ in words like king

  • Our plosives are all in voiceless/voiced pairs - we have the bilabial /p/ and /b/, the alveolar

  • /t/ and /d/, and the velar /k/ and /g/. You'll notice that the voiceless ones, p t and k

  • are all aspirated, meaning that there's a big puff of air that comes out. The voiced

  • ones are not really aspirated - there's a lot less air that comes out.

  • The last plosive in English is the glottal stop, where the vocal cords shut completely.

  • You'll find it before words that start with vowels - like in uh-oh, or nuh-uh and it sometimes

  • replaces T, like button or catnip - instead of button or catnip.

  • In terms of fricatives, they're almost all in voiceless/voiced pairs. We have the labiodental

  • f/ v, the dental θ ð, the alveolar s z, the post-alveolar ʃ, ʒ, and the unvoiced

  • glottal fricative /h/

  • We have three approximants - the alveolar /r/, the palatal /j/, and the labio-velar

  • (meaning lips rounded, back of tongue up) /w/

  • Last, but not least, there's the lateral approximant /l/, which, if you're american, is usually

  • velarized too./L/

  • That's it! I'll have an Anki deck on the website with all of this info if you want to memorize

  • it easily, or you can make your own using the IPA article on Wikipedia. We'll start

  • vowels next. Until then!

Hi, this is Gabe from Towerofbabelfish.com.

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發音教程2:英語發音和IPA。Manner (Pronunciation Tutorial 2: English Pronunciation and IPA: Manner)

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    Kevin Lin 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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