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  • When I was in the sixth grade, I got into a fight at school.

    6 年級時我在學校和同學打了一場架。

  • It wasn't the first time I'd been in a fight,

    這並不是我第一次打架,

  • but it was the first time one happened at school.

    但這是我第一次在學校裡打架。

  • It was with a boy who was about a foot taller than me,

    和我打架的男孩比我高了將近 1 尺,

  • who was physically stronger than me

    他的體格比我強壯

  • and who'd been taunting me for weeks.

    而且他已經嘲諷我好幾個禮拜了。

  • One day in PE, he stepped on my shoe and refused to apologize.

    有一天我們在上體育課時,他一腳踩在我的鞋上卻不肯跟我道歉。

  • So, filled with anger, I grabbed him and I threw him to the ground.

    當時我憤怒至極,我就把他抓起來往地上摔。

  • I'd had some previous judo training.

    我以前受過一些柔道的訓練。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Our fight lasted less than two minutes,

    雖然我們只打了不到 2 分鐘,

  • but it was a perfect reflection of the hurricane

    但這場架卻真實地映照出

  • that was building inside of me

    我心中日積月累的強大風暴,

  • as a young survivor of sexual assault

    因為我是一位年輕的性侵害倖存者,

  • and as a girl who was grappling with abandonment

    我也是一位努力克服遺棄的女孩,

  • and exposure to violence in other spaces in my life.

    在我的身命中,無論在哪我都是一位奮力抵抗暴力對待的女孩。

  • I was fighting him,

    當時我和他在打架,

  • but I was also fighting the men and boys that had assaulted my body

    同時我也在和猥褻我身體的男人和男孩搏鬥,

  • and the culture that told me I had to be silent about it.

    以及反抗遭受如此對待卻要保持緘默的文化。

  • A teacher broke up the fight

    一位老師制止我們打架

  • and my principal called me in her office.

    接著校長把我叫到她的辦公室。

  • But she didn't say, "Monique, what's wrong with you?"

    但她沒對我說:「Monique 妳是怎麼回事 ?」

  • She gave me a moment to collect my breath

    反而她給了我一點時間讓我平復呼吸

  • and asked, "What happened?"

    然後才問:「發生什麼事?」

  • The educators working with me led with empathy.

    教導我的老師用同理心來引導我。

  • They knew me.

    他們知道我的個性。

  • They knew I loved to read, they knew I loved to draw,

    他們知道我喜愛閱讀,他們知道我很愛畫圖,

  • they knew I adored Prince.

    他們知道我愛慕音樂家王子。

  • And they used that information to help me understand

    並且藉由他們所知道的那些資訊幫助我理解,

  • why my actions, and those of my classmate, were disruptive

    為什麼我和同學的行為是破壞,

  • to the learning community they were leading.

    這會對老師帶領的學習社群造成破壞。

  • They didn't place me on suspension;

    老師並沒有讓我停學,

  • they didn't call the police.

    也沒有報警。

  • My fight didn't keep me from going to school the next day.

    我並沒有因為打架而不能隔天照常上學。

  • It didn't keep me from graduating; it didn't keep me from teaching.

    我沒有因此不能畢業;也沒有因此放棄投身教育。

  • But unfortunately, that's not a story that's shared by many black girls

    然而很不幸地,那並不是多數黑人女孩會分享的故事。

  • in the US and around the world today.

    現今在美國和世界各地,

  • We're living through a crisis in which black girls

    我們正在經歷一場危機,

  • are being disproportionately pushed away from schools ---

    黑人女孩以不正常的比例被學校拒於門外,

  • not because of an imminent threat they pose to the safety of a school,

    這並不是因為她們對學校的安全會造成立即的威脅,

  • but because they're often experiencing schools

    而是因為她們通常認為學校

  • as locations for punishment and marginalization.

    就是她們遭受懲罰及邊緣化的地方。

  • That's something that I hear from black girls around the country.

    那是我從全國各地的黑人女孩口中聽到的故事,

  • But it's not insurmountable.

    但這不是一個無法解決的難題。

  • We can shift this narrative.

    我們能翻轉這個故事。

  • Let's start with some data.

    讓我們先來看一些數據。

  • According to a National Black Women's Justice Institute analysis

    根據一則國家黑人婦女司法協會的分析,

  • of civil rights data

    此分析關於公民權資料

  • collected by the US Department of Education,

    並且由美國教育部搜集而來,

  • black girls are the only group of girls who are overrepresented

    黑人女孩是唯一一群

  • along the entire continuum of discipline in schools.

    在學校所有的懲處辦法中,懲戒比例過高的人。

  • That doesn't mean that other girls aren't experiencing exclusionary discipline

    那並不表示其他女孩沒有受到排他性的懲處,

  • and it doesn't mean that other girls aren't overrepresented

    也不代表其他族裔的女孩,

  • at other parts along that continuum.

    在其他部分的懲處辦法中,接受懲戒的比例不高。

  • But black girls are the only group of girls

    然而黑人女孩卻是唯一一群

  • who are overrepresented all along the way.

    在所有懲戒辦法中,懲戒比例都是過高的。

  • Black girls are seven times more likely than their white counterparts

    黑人女孩和同齡的白人女孩比較,多了 7 倍的可能性

  • to experience one or more out-of-school suspensions

    受到 1 次或多次的停學處分,

  • and they're nearly three times more likely than their white and Latinx counterparts

    黑人女孩和同齡的白人及拉丁裔女孩比較,多了將近 3 倍的可能性

  • to be referred to the juvenile court.

    受到青少年法庭的審判。

  • A recent study by the Georgetown Center on Poverty and Inequality

    最近由喬治城大學中心針對貧窮及社會不平等所做的一項研究,

  • partially explained why this disparity is taking place

    部分地解釋了為什麼會存在這種差異,

  • when they confirmed that black girls experience

    他們證實黑人女孩會經歷

  • a specific type of age compression,

    一種特別形式的年齡壓縮,

  • where they're seen as more adult-like than their white peers.

    黑人女孩和同齡白人女孩相比之下看起來比較成熟。

  • Among other things, the study found

    在其他方面,此研究發現

  • that people perceive black girls to need less nurturing,

    人們認為黑人女孩較不需要受到培育,

  • less protection, to know more about sex

    較不需受到保護且較知道什麼是性愛,

  • and to be more independent than their white peers.

    和同齡的白人女孩相比之下較獨立。

  • The study also found

    此研究還發現

  • that the perception disparity begins when girls are as young as five years old.

    在黑人女孩滿 5 歲時,這種認知差異就已經開始了。

  • And that this perception and the disparity increases over time

    而且這種觀念和差異將隨著時間增加,

  • and peaks when girls are between the ages of 10 and 14.

    在黑人女孩年齡介於 10 到 14 歲時達到高峰。

  • This is not without consequence.

    這是會有後果的。

  • Believing that a girl is older than she is can lead to harsher treatment,

    認為一個女孩看起來比實際年齡大,可能讓她受到較嚴厲的處罰,

  • immediate censure when she makes a mistake

    當她犯錯時會遭到立即地斥責,

  • and victim blaming when she's harmed.

    當她受傷時卻遭受責怪。

  • It can also lead a girl to think that something is wrong with her,

    這也可能導致女孩認為是自己出了問題,

  • rather than the conditions in which she finds herself.

    而非發現問題出在她所處的情況當中。

  • Black girls are routinely seen as too loud, too aggressive,

    黑人女孩通常被認為太聒噪、太具攻擊性、

  • too angry, too visible.

    太易怒和太顯眼。

  • Qualities that are often measured in relation to nonblack girls

    這些特徵通常都用來與非黑人女孩比較,

  • and which don't take into consideration what's going on in this girl's life

    但卻不考慮這個女孩經歷了什麼事,

  • or her cultural norms.

    也不考慮她的文化常態。

  • And it's not just in the US.

    這樣的事情不只發生在美國。

  • In South Africa,

    在南非,

  • black girls at the Pretoria Girls High School

    就讀普利托利亞女子高中的黑人女孩,

  • were discouraged from attending school with their hair in its natural state,

    被學校規勸不要頂著一頭自然的頭髮上學,

  • without chemical processing.

    頭髮必須經過化學染燙才行。

  • What did those girls do?

    那這些女孩怎麼做呢?

  • They protested.

    她們抗議。

  • And it was a beautiful thing to see the global community for the most part

    這是多麽美好的一件事,能夠看到全球大眾在大多數的情況下,

  • wrap its arms around girls as they stood in their truths.

    都支持著女孩們堅守自己的信念。

  • But there were those who saw them as disruptive,

    但有些人認為她們在搞破壞,

  • largely because they dared to ask the question,

    就只因為她們勇敢地問出:

  • "Where can we be black if we can't be black in Africa?"

    「如果黑人女孩在非洲不能保有黑人的樣貌,那還能在哪裡?」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • It's a good question.

    這是個很好的問題。

  • Around the world,

    在全球各地,

  • black girls are grappling with this question.

    黑人女孩正努力解決這個問題。

  • And around the world,

    在全球各地,

  • black girls are struggling to be seen, working to be free

    黑人女孩奮力地想被重視,努力爭取自由

  • and fighting to be included

    且奮力地爭取被包含在

  • in the landscape of promise that a safe space to learn provides.

    希望的藍圖裡,這樣她們才能在一個安全的空間裡學習給予。

  • In the US, little girls, just past their toddler years,

    在美國,剛過幼兒時期的小女孩,

  • are being arrested in classrooms for having a tantrum.

    只因鬧脾氣就在教室遭到逮補。

  • Middle school girls are being turned away from school

    女中學生不得進入學校,

  • because of the way they wear their hair naturally

    就只因為她們那一頭自然的頭髮,

  • or because of the way the clothes fit their bodies.

    或因為她們的衣著太過合身。

  • High school girls are experiencing violence

    女高中生遭受暴力對待,

  • at the hands of police officers in schools.

    而且是受到駐校警員的暴力對待。

  • Where can black girls be black without reprimand or punishment?

    黑人女孩在哪裡才可以不因為保有黑人的樣貌而受到斥責或懲罰?

  • And it's not just these incidents.

    這些事件並非全部。

  • In my work as a researcher and educator,

    因為身為一位研究員和教師,

  • I've had an opportunity to work with girls like Stacy,

    我才有機會教導像 Stacy 這樣的女孩,

  • a girl who I profile in my book "Pushout,"

    在我的書中 "Pushout" 裡我提到了她,

  • who struggles with her participation in violence.

    她和自己的暴力傾向對抗,

  • She bypasses the neuroscientific and structural analyses

    她未經過神經科學和結構分析,

  • that science has to offer

    用科學的方法解釋

  • about how her adverse childhood experiences inform

    她那負面的童年經驗如何

  • why she's participating in violence

    及為何導致她參與暴力,

  • and goes straight to describing herself as a "problem child"

    卻直接就稱自己是「問題兒童」,

  • largely because that's the language that educators were using

    這大部分正是因為老師就是如此稱呼她的,

  • as they routinely suspended her.

    原因則是因為她時常受到停學處分。

  • But here's the thing.

    重點來了。

  • Disconnection and the internalization of harm grow stronger in isolation.

    當一個人受到孤立時,傷害的脫節和內化只會更加嚴重,

  • So when girls get in trouble, we shouldn't be pushing them away,

    所以當女孩有麻煩時,我們不應該推開她們,

  • we should be bringing them in closer.

    我們應該拉近她們與我們的關係。

  • Education is a critical protective factor

    教育是一個關鍵的保護因素,

  • against contact with the criminal legal system.

    用來防止接觸刑事法律制度,

  • So we should be building out policies and practices

    所以我們必須建立方針及常規,

  • that keep girls connected to their learning,

    讓女孩的學習不中斷,

  • rather than pushing them away from it.

    而不是推開她們中斷學習。

  • It's one of the reasons I like to say that education is freedom work.

    這就是我喜歡說教育是自由工作的其中一個原因。

  • When girls feel safe, they can learn.

    當女孩感到安全時就可以學習,

  • When they don't feel safe, they fight,

    當她們覺得不安全時就戰鬥,

  • they protest, they argue, they flee, they freeze.

    她們會抗議、她們會辯論、她們會逃跑、她們會不知所措。

  • The human brain is wired to protect us when we feel a threat.

    人類的大腦天生就能在我們感到威脅時啟動保護機制。

  • And so long as school feels like a threat,

    只要女孩覺得學校是一種威脅,

  • or part of the tapestry of harm in a girl's life,

    或是女孩的一生中曾受到輾轉來自學校的傷害,

  • she'll be inclined to resist.

    她就會傾向抵抗。

  • But when schools become locations for healing,

    但當學校變成療育所,

  • they can also become locations for learning.

    學校也能變成學習的地方。

  • So what does this mean for a school to become a location for healing?

    所以對於一間變成療癒所的學校來說有什麼意義?

  • Well, for one thing, it means that we have to immediately discontinue

    這代表一件事,那就是我們必須馬上撤除

  • the policies and practices that target black girls for their hairstyles or dress.

    一再針對黑人女孩髮型和衣著的規定和常規。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Let's focus on how and what a girl learns

    讓我們著重一個女孩如何學習及學習什麼,

  • rather than policing her body in ways that facilitate rape culture

    而不是管束她的身體進而增長強暴文化,

  • or punish children for the conditions in which they were born.

    或是因孩童的原生家庭情況而處罰他們。

  • This is where parents and the community of concerned adults can enter this work.

    關注此議題的社會大眾及父母親可以從這點下手。

  • Start a conversation with the school

    從和學校對話開始,

  • and encourage them to address their dress code

    且鼓勵學校將服裝儀容

  • and other conduct-related policies as a collaborative project,

    和其他執行相關的規定作為一個合作計畫,

  • with parents and students,

    讓家長和學生共同參與,

  • so as to intentionally avoid bias and discrimination.

    就能有意地避開偏見和歧視。

  • Keep in mind, though,

    但要記住,

  • that some of the practices that harm black girls most are unwritten.

    有些最傷害黑人女孩的常規並沒有文字記載,

  • So we have to continue to do the deep, internal work to address the biases

    所以我們必須持續進行,徹底地處理這些已經內化的偏見,

  • that inform how, when and whether we see black girls for who they actually are,

    那讓我們知道,我們看待黑人女孩時是否看見了她真實的樣子,

  • or what we've been told they are.

    又或者我們看見的只是一直被灌輸的觀念。

  • Volunteer at a school

    在學校當志工,

  • and establish culturally competent and gender responsive discussion groups

    成立具文化能力及性別敏感的討論團,

  • with black girls, Latinas, indigenous girls

    團員包含黑人女孩、拉丁裔女孩、原住民女孩

  • and other students who experience marginalization in schools

    以及其他在學校遭受邊緣化的學生,

  • to give them a safe space

    提供他們一個安全的空間,

  • to process their identities and experiences in schools.

    讓他們能夠認識自我和分享在校經驗。

  • And if schools are to become locations for healing,

    如果學校變成療癒所,

  • we have to remove police officers

    我們就可以減少駐校警員

  • and increase the number of counselors in schools.

    且增加駐校的咨詢師。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Education is freedom work.

    教育是自由工作。

  • And whatever our point of entry is, we all have to be freedom fighters.

    不論我們的出發點是什麼,我們都必須是自由鬥士。

  • The good news is that there are schools

    有些學校已傳出好消息,

  • that are actively working to establish themselves

    校方已經積極地轉變校園,

  • as locations for girls to see themselves as sacred and loved.

    讓女孩在校園裡看見自己是神聖且被愛的。

  • The Columbus City Prep School for Girls in Columbus, Ohio, is an example of this.

    位於俄亥俄州的哥倫布市女子預備學校就是一個範例。

  • They became an example the moment their principal declared

    在該校校長宣布改變的同時,這間學校就變成了一個典範,

  • that they were no longer going to punish girls for having "a bad attitude."

    校長宣佈以後女孩不會因為「不良態度」而受到處罰。

  • In addition to building --

    除了建立了不可或缺的方針外,

  • Essentially, what they did is they built out a robust continuum

    學校也建立了一系列的健全章程,

  • of alternatives to suspension, expulsion and arrest.

    用來替代停學、退學、逮補的懲處辦法。

  • In addition to establishing a restorative justice program,

    除了建構一個修復式正義方案之外,

  • they improved their student and teacher relationships

    校方還改善老師和學生的關係,

  • by ensuring that every girl has at least one adult on campus

    藉由確保每位女孩在校區都至少有一位老師可以求助,

  • that she can go to when she's in a moment of crisis.

    當她遇到危機時可以向老師尋求協助。

  • They built out spaces along the corridors of the school and in classrooms

    校方沿著學校的走廊和教室建構空間,

  • for girls to regroup, if they need a minute to do so.

    讓女孩在需要的時候,有個地方可以讓自己重新振作起來。

  • And they established an advisory program that provides girls with an opportunity

    而且校方還建立了一個諮詢計畫為女孩提供機會,

  • to start every single day with the promotion of self-worth,

    讓她們每天都以提倡自我價值、

  • communication skills and goal setting.

    溝通技巧及目標設定作為一天的開始。

  • At this school,

    在這間學校,

  • they're trying to respond to a girl's adverse childhood experiences

    校方嘗試幫助受負面童年經驗影響的女孩,

  • rather than ignore them.

    而非忽略她們的過去。

  • They bring them in closer; they don't push them away.

    校方將她們拉近關懷,而不是將她們推開。

  • And as a result, their truancy and suspension rates have improved,

    校方的付出讓曠課及停學的比率下降了,

  • and girls are arriving at school increasingly ready to learn

    而且有越來越多的女孩到校,做好了學習的準備,

  • because they know the teachers there care about them.

    因為她們知道學校老師在乎她們。

  • That matters.

    這很重要。

  • Schools that integrate the arts and sports into their curriculum

    校方將藝術和運動結合納入課程,

  • or that are building out tranformative programming,

    或建立顛覆性的學程,

  • such as restorative justice, mindfulness and meditation,

    例如修復式的正義、正念認知及冥想,

  • are providing an opportunity for girls to repair their relationships with others,

    如此一來學校提供了女孩修復和他人關係的機會,

  • but also with themselves.

    同時也修復與自己的關係。

  • Responding to the lived, complex and historical trauma

    我們的學生面對持續存在且複雜的歷史創傷,

  • that our students face

    為了幫助他們,

  • requires all of us who believe in the promise of children and adolescents

    需要我們所有相信兒童及青少年潛能的人,

  • to build relationships, learning materials,

    去建立關係、學習素材、

  • human and financial resources and other tools

    人力及金融資源和其他工具,

  • that provide children with an opportunity to heal, so that they can learn.

    這些提供孩童療癒的機會,如此他們才能夠學習。

  • Our schools should be places where we respond to our most vulnerable girls

    我們的校園應該是一個提供弱勢女孩協助的地方,

  • as essential to the creation of a positive school culture.

    為了創造一個正面的校園文化這是不可或缺的。

  • Our ability to see her promise should be at its sharpest

    我們應當能最敏銳地預見女孩的無窮潛力,

  • when she's in the throws of poverty and addiction;

    當她面臨貧窮和沈溺癮疾;

  • when she's reeling from having been sex-trafficked

    當她被迫從事性交易掙扎時

  • or survived other forms of violence;

    或成為其他暴力形式的倖存者時;

  • when she's at her loudest,

    當她用盡全力大聲呼喊時,

  • or her quietest.

    或當她閉口不言保持沈默時。

  • We should be able to support her intellectual

    我們必須能夠維持女孩在智力

  • and social-emotional well-being

    和社交情感上的健全,

  • whether her shorts reach her knees or stop mid-thigh or higher.

    不論她穿的短褲是否及膝或過短。

  • It might seem like a tall order in a world

    這看似是一個艱鉅的任務,

  • so deeply entrenched in the politics of fear

    要在一個恐懼政治已根深蒂固的世界裡,

  • to radically imagine schools as locations where girls can heal and thrive,

    將學校想成是一個提供女孩療癒且茁壯的地方相當困難,

  • but we have to be bold enough to set this as our intention.

    但我們必須夠勇敢才能將這定為我們的企圖。

  • If we commit to this notion of education as freedom work,

    教育是自由工作,若我們能致力守護這個理念,

  • we can shift educational conditions

    我們可以翻轉教育現況,

  • so that no girl, even the most vulnerable among us,

    如此一來就不會有女孩,甚至是在我們當中最弱勢的那一群人

  • will get pushed out of school.

    被學校拒於門外。

  • And that's a win for all of us.

    對我們所有的人來說這就是勝利。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

When I was in the sixth grade, I got into a fight at school.

6 年級時我在學校和同學打了一場架。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 女孩 黑人 學校 老師 學習

【TED】莫妮卡 W.莫里斯 (Monique W. Morris): 為什麼黑人女孩總是學校處罰的目標 - 以及怎樣改變 (Why black girls are targeted for punishment at school -- and how to change that | Monique W. Morris)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2019 年 02 月 05 日
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