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  • You spend weeks studying for an important test.

    你花了數週的時間 準備一個重要的考試。

  • On the big day, you wait nervously as your teacher hands it out.

    在這個大日子,你緊張地 等著你的老師發考卷,

  • You're working your way through, when you're asked to define 'ataraxia.'

    當你開始考試時,你碰到一個問題 是要你定義「心神安寧」。

  • You know you've seen it before, but your mind goes blank.

    你知道你之前看過這個詞, 但你的腦中一片空白。

  • What just happened?

    發生了什麼事?

  • The answer lies in the complex relationship

    答案和壓力與記憶

  • between stress and memory.

    之間的關係有關。

  • There are many types and degrees of stress

    壓力有不同的類型和程度,

  • and different kinds of memory,

    記憶也有不同種類,

  • but we're going to focus on how short-term stress

    但我們要把焦點放在短期的壓力

  • impacts your memory for facts.

    如何影響你對於事實的記憶。

  • To start, it helps to understand how this kind of memory works.

    先了解一下這種記憶如何運作 是會有幫助的。

  • Facts you read, hear, or study

    你讀到、聽到,或研究到的事實

  • become memories through | a process with three main steps.

    會透過一個過程變成記憶, 這個過程有三個主要步驟。

  • First comes acquisition:

    一開始是「取得」:

  • the moment you encounter a new piece of information.

    也就是你接觸到 新資訊的那個時刻,

  • Each sensory experience activates a unique set of brain areas.

    每一種感官經驗所啟動的 大腦區域都是獨一無二的。

  • In order to become lasting memories,

    若要成為能持續下去的記憶,

  • these sensory experiences

    這些感官經驗

  • have to be consolidated by the hippocampus,

    就需要被海馬迴給強化,

  • influenced by the amygdala,

    會受到杏仁核的影響,

  • which emphasizes experiences associated with strong emotions.

    杏仁核所著重的是 和強烈情緒有關的經驗。

  • The hippocampus then encodes memories,

    接著,海馬迴會把記憶編碼,

  • probably by strengthening the synaptic connections

    做法可能是將原始感官經驗過程中

  • stimulated during the original sensory experience.

    所促成的突觸連結給強化。

  • Once a memory has been encoded,

    一旦記憶被編碼了之後,

  • it can be remembered, or retrieved, later.

    它就能被記住,之後也能再取用它。

  • Memories are stored all over the brain,

    記憶儲存在大腦各處,

  • and it's likely the prefrontal cortex that signals for their retrieval.

    要求取回記憶的訊息 可能是由前額葉皮質負責。

  • So how does stress affect each of these stages?

    所以,壓力如何影響每一個階段?

  • In the first two stages,

    在前兩個階段,

  • moderate stress can actually help experiences enter your memory.

    中度的壓力其實可以 幫助經驗進入你的記憶。

  • Your brain responds to stressful stimuli

    對於有壓力的刺激, 你的大腦的反應會是

  • by releasing hormones known as corticosteroids,

    釋放出一種叫做 糖皮質激素的荷爾蒙,

  • which activate a process of threat-detection

    它會啟動杏仁核中一個偵測威脅

  • and threat-response in the amygdala.

    並做出反應的過程。

  • The amygdala prompts your hippocampus

    杏仁核會提示海馬迴

  • to consolidate the stress-inducing experience into a memory.

    強化造成壓力的經驗, 讓它進入記憶中。

  • Meanwhile, the flood of corticosteroids from stress

    同時,因為壓力所產生的 大量糖皮質激素

  • stimulates your hippocampus,

    會刺激你的海馬迴,

  • also prompting memory consolidation.

    亦會促進記憶強化。

  • But even though some stress can be helpful,

    但,雖然有一點壓力是有幫助的,

  • extreme and chronic stress can have the opposite effect.

    極端和長期的壓力 可能會有相反效果。

  • Researchers have tested this by injecting rats directly with stress hormones.

    研究者測試這個想法的方式,是將 壓力荷爾蒙直接注射到老鼠體內。

  • As they gradually increased the dose of corticosteroids,

    當他們漸漸增加 糖皮質激素的劑量時,

  • the rats' performance on memory tests increased at first,

    老鼠在記憶測驗上的表現 一開始是提升的,

  • but dropped off at higher doses.

    但在更高劑量時就下降了。

  • In humans, we see a similar positive effect with moderate stress.

    在人類身上,有中度壓力時, 我們看到類似的正向影響。

  • But that only appears when the stress is related to the memory task

    但只有在壓力是與記憶工作任務 有關時才會有這個現象——

  • so while time pressure might help you memorize a list,

    所以,雖然時間壓力可能 可以協助你記住一張清單,

  • having a friend scare you will not.

    但要朋友來嚇你 造成的壓力就沒有幫助。

  • And the weeks, months, or even years

    若長期壓力造成糖皮質激素

  • of sustained corticosteroids that result from chronic stress

    維持數週、數月,甚至數年之久,

  • can damage the hippocampus

    海馬迴可能會受損,

  • and decrease your ability to form new memories.

    你形成新記憶的能力 也可能會下降。

  • It would be nice if some stress also helped us remember facts,

    如果承受一些壓力能夠協助我們 記住事實,那是好事,

  • but unfortunately, the opposite is true.

    但,不幸的是,反之亦然。

  • The act of remembering relies on the prefrontal cortex,

    「記住」這個動作 要仰賴前額葉皮質,

  • which governs thought, attention, and reasoning.

    前額葉皮質掌管思想、 注意力,和推理。

  • When corticosteroids stimulate the amygdala,

    當糖皮質激素刺激了杏仁核,

  • the amygdala inhibits, or lessens the activity of,

    杏仁核就會抑制或減少

  • the prefrontal cortex.

    前額葉皮質的活動。

  • The reason for this inhibition is so the fight/flight/freeze response

    會發生抑制,是因為這麼一來, 戰鬥/逃跑/不動的反應

  • can overrule slower, more reasoned thought in a dangerous situation.

    就能在危險的情境中壓過 比較緩慢、經過推論的思維。

  • But that can also have the unfortunate effect

    但那也可能會有不利的影響,

  • of making your mind go blank during a test.

    讓你的大腦在考試時一片空白。

  • And then the act of trying to remember can itself be a stressor,

    接著,「試圖記起來」這個行為 本身就可能會是個壓力源,

  • leading to a vicious cycle of more corticosteroid release

    導致惡性循環, 釋放更多的糖皮質激素,

  • and an even smaller chance of remembering.

    能記起來的機會就更小了。

  • So what can you do to turn stress to your advantage

    你要怎麼做,才能 把壓力轉成你的優勢,

  • and stay calm and collected when it matters the most?

    並在最要緊的時刻 保持冷靜和鎮定?

  • First, if you know a stressful situation like a test is coming,

    首先,如果你知道一個很有壓力的 情境即將到來,比如考試要到了,

  • try preparing in conditions similar to the stressful environment.

    試著在和壓力環境 類似的條件之下做準備。

  • Novelty can be a stressor.

    新奇性可能是個壓力源。

  • Completing practice questions under time pressure,

    在時間壓力之下做完練習題,

  • or seated at a desk rather than on a couch,

    或是坐在書桌前而不是沙發上,

  • can make your stress response to these circumstances

    都能讓你在真正考試時,

  • less sensitive during the test itself.

    對這些情況的反應比較不敏感。

  • Exercise is another useful tool.

    另一項很有用的工具就是運動。

  • Increasing your heart and breathing rate

    增加你的心跳率和呼吸率

  • is linked to chemical changes in your brain

    會造成你的大腦中產生化學改變,

  • that help reduce anxiety and increase your sense of well-being.

    協助減少焦慮,並增加你的幸福感。

  • Regular exercise is also widely thought to improve sleeping patterns,

    定時運動也被廣泛認為 可以改善睡眠模式,

  • which comes in handy the night before a test.

    考試的前一晚能派上用場。

  • And on the actual test day,

    到了考試的那一天,

  • try taking deep breaths to counteract your body's flight/fight/freeze response.

    試著深呼吸,來對抗你身體的 戰鬥/逃跑/不動反應。

  • Deep breathing exercises have shown measurable reduction in test anxiety

    研究顯示,深呼吸運動能 大大減少在考試時的焦慮,

  • in groups ranging from third graders to nursing students.

    研究對象範圍從三年級生 到護理學生都有。

  • So the next time you find your mind going blank at a critical moment,

    所以,下次當你發現你的大腦 在關鍵時刻一片空白時,

  • take a few deep breaths until you remember ataraxia:

    做幾次深呼吸, 直到你記起「心神安寧」,

  • a state of calmness, free from anxiety.

    定義為:一種冷靜、 沒有焦慮的狀態。

You spend weeks studying for an important test.

你花了數週的時間 準備一個重要的考試。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 壓力 記憶 杏仁核 考試 激素

【TED-Ed】那些年,有印象卻寫不出來的答案?看壓力與記憶力如何相互影響 (The surprising link between stress and memory - Elizabeth Cox)

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    Vivian Chen 發佈於 2018 年 09 月 06 日
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