Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • The first standardized tests that we know of

    我們所知道的第一個標準化測驗

  • were administered in China over 2,000 years ago during the Han dynasty.

    是超過 2 千年前自漢朝所建立的考試系統

  • Chinese officals used them to determine aptitude for various government posts.

    中國政府用這個考試來檢視每個官員的能力

  • The subject matter included philosophy, farming, and even military tactics.

    考試科目包括了哲學、農業,甚至還有軍方策略

  • Standardized tests continued to be used around the world for the next two millennia,

    在接下來的兩千年以後,標準化測驗仍在全世界慣用著

  • and today, they're used for everything from evaluating stair climbs for firefighters in France

    至今,標準化的測驗方式仍被運用在每個地方,從法國評估消防人員爬樓梯的速度

  • to language examinations for diplomats in Canada to students in schools.

    到加拿大外交官的語言測驗,再到學校學生

  • Some standardized tests measure scores only in relation to the results of other test takers.

    有些標準化測驗的評分方式是與其他考生相互比較

  • Others measure performances on how well test takers meet predetermined criteria.

    其他的評分的方式,則是看考生是否符合既定的表現標準

  • So the stair climb for the firefighter could be measured by comparing the time of the climb to that of all other firefighters.

    所以要鑑定消防人員的能力,可以比較所有的消防人員爬樓梯的速度

  • This might be expressed in what many call a bell curve.

    這樣的評分方式被稱之為鐘形曲線 (標準常態分佈)

  • Or it could be evaluated with reference to set criteria,

    或者可以根據既定的標準來評估

  • such as carrying a certain amount of weight a certain distance up a certain number of stairs.

    像是揹著特定重量的東西爬上指定的樓層上

  • Similarly, the diplomat might be measured against other test-taking diplomats,

    同樣地,外交官可能會和其他接受考試的外交官互相比較

  • or against a set of fixed criteria, which demonstrate different levels of language proficiency.

    或是用一套既定規則來評估語言的熟練度

  • And all of these results can be expressed using something called a percentile.

    而所有得到的結果可以用百分比來表示

  • If a diplomat is in the 70th percentile, 70% of test takers scored below her.

    如果一位外交官是排名在 70 百分比,代表有百分之 70 的受試者低於她的分數

  • If she scored in the 30th percentile, 70% of test takers scored above her.

    如果她是排名在 30 百分比,代表有百分之 70 的受試者高於她的分數

  • Although standardized tests are sometimes controversial, they are simply a tool.

    雖然標準化的測驗方式有時是爭議性的,但他們其實就只是個工具

  • As a thought experiment, think of a standardized test as a ruler.

    作為一個思維上的實驗,可以想像標準化測驗像是一把直尺

  • A ruler's usefulness depends on two things.

    一把尺主要有兩種功能:

  • First, the job we ask it to do.

    第一,我們會拿著直尺做的事情

  • Our ruler can't measure the temperature outside or how loud someone is singing.

    直尺不能用來量外面溫度或是誰唱歌比較大聲

  • Second, the ruler's usefulness depends on its design.

    第二,直尺好不好用主要是依據它的設計

  • Say you need to measure the circumference of an orange.

    如果說你要用它來量一顆橘子的周長

  • Our ruler measures length, which is the right quantity,

    我們的直尺量的就只是長度,看似是對的單位

  • but it hasn't been designed with the flexibility required for the task at hand.

    但它並非被設計來測量不同形狀的東西

  • So, if standardized tests are given the wrong job,

    所以如果將標準化測驗使用在不適合的地方

  • or aren't designed properly, they may end up measuring the wrong things.

    或是它們的設計並不適當,可能導致最後錯誤的結果

  • In the case of schools, students with test anxiety may have trouble performing their best on a standardized test,

    以學校的例子來說,對考試焦慮的學生而言,他們無法在考試中表現出最好的一面

  • not because they don't know the answers,

    並不是因為他們不知道答案

  • but because they're feeling too nervous to share what they've learned.

    就只是因為他們太緊張,導致無法展現出他們所學到的東西

  • Students with reading challenges may struggle with the wording of a math problem,

    有閱讀障礙的學生可能對數學問題並不熟練

  • so their test results may better reflect their literacy rather than numeracy skills.

    所以比起數學能力,其考試結果可能更可以知道他們的閱讀能力

  • And students who were confused by examples on tests that contain unfamiliar cultural references may do poorly,

    而被不熟悉的文化例子困惑住的考生,也會因此表現不佳

  • telling us more about the test taker's cultural familiarity than their academic learning.

    這樣的結果讓我們知道受試者對文化的熟悉度,而非他們學術上的學習能力

  • In these cases, the tests may need to be designed differently.

    在這些例子中,測驗方式可能需要有不同的設計

  • Standardized tests can also have a hard time measuring abstract characteristics or skills,

    標準化的測驗也會很難測出抽象化的特質或是技能

  • such as creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration.

    像是創造力、批判性思考、以及合作能力

  • If we design a test poorly, or ask it to do the wrong job, or a job it's not very good at,

    如果我們沒設計好考試形式,或是將它用在不對、不適合的地方

  • the results may not be reliable or valid.

    這樣得到的結果可能無法使人信服,也失去有效性

  • Reliability and validity are two critical ideas for understanding standardized tests.

    可靠性和有效性在標準化測驗中是很重要的兩個主軸

  • To understand the difference between them,

    要知道它們之間有什麼不同

  • we can use the metaphor of two broken thermometers.

    可以用兩支壞掉的溫度計作為例子

  • An unreliable thermometer gives you a different reading each time you take your temperature,

    一支不可靠的溫度計在每次測量溫度時,都會顯示不同的溫度數值

  • and the reliable but invalid thermometer is consistently ten degrees too hot.

    可靠卻無效的溫度計卻比起實際的溫度遠遠地熱了 10 度

  • Validity also depends on accurate interpretations of results.

    有效性也需仰賴對於結果的準確闡述

  • If people say the results of a test mean something they don't, that test may have validity problem.

    如果從人們口中解釋出的結果和測驗所顯示的不同,那考試可能會有有效性的問題

  • Just as we wouldn't expect a ruler to tell us how much an elephant weighs, or what it had for breakfast,

    就像我們不會期望一支直尺告訴我們一隻大象有多重,或是早餐牠吃了些什麼

  • we can't expect standardized tests alone to reliably tell us how smart someone is,

    我們不可以期待單單標準化測驗就能讓我們知道一個人有多聰明

  • how diplomats will handle a tough situation,

    或是外交官們如何面對一個艱困的情況

  • or how brave a firefighter might turn out to be.

    又或是一位消防員可能會變得多勇猛

  • So standardized tests may help us learn a little about a lot of people in a short time,

    所以標準化測驗可能能幫助我們在短時間初步地了解到很多人

  • but they usually can't tell us a lot about a single person.

    但通常無法讓我們深入了解到一個人

  • Many social scientists worry about test scores resulting in sweeping and often negative changes for test takers,

    很多社會科學家擔心這樣的考試分數會讓受試者感到失落或產生消極感

  • sometimes with long-term life consequences.

    有時還會影響到往後的生活

  • We can't blame the tests, though.

    不過我們不行怪這樣的測驗方式

  • It's up to us to use the right tests for the right jobs, and to interpret results appropriately.

    在對的地方用對的考試,並正確地解釋其結果,這些都是出於我們自己的選擇

  • If you would like to learn more about this topic, we highly recommend a best selling book called

    如果你們想知道更多這類的主題,我們極力推薦一本很賣座的書

  • The End of Average by Harvard Professor Todd Rose.

    由哈佛教授 Todd Rose 所撰寫的「終結平庸」

  • In it, Rose investigated the rampant misuse of standardized test with clarity and urgency.

    在這本書中,Rose 非常明確且急迫地探討了標準化測驗濫用的問題

  • He also proposes a solution to a problem.

    他也對這個問題提出一個解決方式

  • You can download the audio version of this book for free on audible.com/teded.

    你們可以從 audible.com/teded 下載免費有聲書

  • And every free trial encourages audible to continue supporting Ted-Ed nonprofit mission.

    每一次有聲書的免費試用都可以持續支持著 Ted-Ed 非營利計畫

  • We are very passionate about this issue. And, we are very grateful to

    我們對這個議題非常有興趣,同時我們也很感謝

  • any Ted-Ed community members, who take time to read or listen to this important book.

    Ted-Ed 社團中的每一個成員花時間閱讀或是聆聽這本重要的書

  • Thanks for watching. And, thanks for your support.

    謝謝你們的收看,也謝謝你們的支持

The first standardized tests that we know of

我們所知道的第一個標準化測驗

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 測驗 考試 外交官 溫度計 考生

【TED-Ed】我們該去除標準化測驗法嗎? (Should we get rid of standardized testing? - Arlo Kempf)

  • 4316 593
    osmend 發佈於 2018 年 01 月 22 日
影片單字