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  • In the years after World War II, Gross Domestic Product or GDP became the gold standard

    在二次大戰後,國內生產總值又稱GDP成為黃金準則

  • for gauging a nation's overall health and productivity.

    來衡量一個國家總體健康狀況和生產力

  • But while most countries focused on industrial output, a tiny Himalayan kingdom created

    但當大部份的國家著重在工業生產上,一個喜瑪拉雅小國創造了

  • its own method to measure worth: Gross National Happiness or GNH.

    它自己的衡量標準:國民幸福總值又稱 GNH

  • The country behind this widely adored spiritual model is Bhutan, and for many years it was

    不丹很敬重幸福指數的精神模式,多年來一直

  • considered one of the happiest and most authentic countries in the world.

    被視為世界上最快樂及最真實的國家

  • But what exactly is the actual cost of happiness?

    但幸福的實際成本究竟是多少呢?

  • Bhutan's perception as an idyllic wonderland is owed in part to its location.

    人們視不丹為田園詩裡的仙境,有部分原因是因為它的地理位置

  • The small, mountainous country sits near India, Tibet and China with a population of 750,000

    這個小而多山國家有著七十五萬人口,並坐落於印度、西藏及中國附近

  • people.

  • Unspoiled nature and a peaceful citizenry is why Bhutan is often seen as “a magic

    未被破壞的大自然和和平的人民就是不丹被視為「一個魔幻

  • time machine,” and it has a long history of rejecting outside influence to preserve

    時光機」和長時間拒絕外界的影響來維持

  • its identity.

    自己的特色

  • After defeating Tibetan forces and feuding warlords in the 16th century, Bhutan's leader

    在抵禦西藏的入侵和十六世紀的軍閥鬥爭後,不丹的首長

  • unified the country and cultivated a unique culture to differentiate itself from warring

    統一了國家和培育獨特文化,將自己從戰火中區隔出來

  • powers.

  • A distinct Bhutanese identity emerged which emphasized a communal relationship with nature

    出現了獨特的不丹身分,強調他們和大自然是共存的關係

  • and a lifestyle centered around Buddhism.

    和以佛教文化做為中心的生活型態

  • Bhutan avoided globalization and preserved its society in isolation for centuries.

    幾個世紀以來,不丹避免全球化,並與世隔絕地保存它們的社會

  • As the rest of the world modernized, Bhutan still had no currency, telephones, hospitals,

    當世界的其他角落逐漸現代化,不丹還是維持無貨幣、電話、醫院

  • or paved roads.

    和柏油路

  • It wasn’t until the late 1960s that Bhutan cracked open its doors to the outside world

    直到1960年後期,不丹才開始對世界敞開大門

  • and started to focus on development.

    並開始著重在都市發展

  • But instead of hurriedly adopting western reforms, Bhutan's beloved Fourth King Jigme

    不僅採用西方的改革制度,不丹最敬愛的第四世國王 Jigme

  • Singye Wangchuck invented Gross National Happiness to guide his country's progress.

    Singye Wangchuck 發明了國民幸福總值來帶領國家發展

  • GNH measures spiritual growth instead of rising incomes, and relies on four key pillars: good

    GNH 的衡量方法是用身心靈的成長而不是收入的成長,並重視四個主要項目:

  • governance, economic development, culture, and environmental conservation.

    良好的政府管理,經濟發展,文化發展和環境保護

  • Every policy proposal in Bhutan is screened by the GNH commission and children are taught

    不丹的每個政策提案需被 GNH 委員會審核,每位小孩在學校

  • GNH in schools.

    也被教導 GNH

  • The Center of Bhutan Studies conducts a survey on various aspects of Bhutanese life.

    不丹研究中心對不丹人各方面的生活進行調查

  • Residents are asked questions likeHow often do you experience calmness?”

    居民們被詢問的問題像是「你多常會經歷平靜的狀態?」

  • andHow much do you trust your neighbors?.”

    「你有多相信你的鄰居?」

  • This happiness experiment is celebrated by the international community, and other countries

    這幸福指數的實驗被國際社會讚賞,其他國家

  • have even created their own ministries of happiness modeled after Bhutan.

    也以不丹為範本去建立自己的幸福指數

  • But this model of state happiness didn’t extend to everyone living in Bhutan.

    但不丹,這個以幸福為標竿的國家,並沒有讓每位居民有幸福的感受

  • In the 1980s, King Wangchuck instituted a policy ofone nation, one peopleforcing

    在 1980 年代,Wangchuck 國王建立了一個政策「一個國家,一個民族」

  • all Bhutanese to dress the same and speak one language.

    強迫所有不丹人要穿一樣的服裝和講同一種語言

  • The King disregarded disparate ethnic groups, notably the Nepali-speakingLhotshampas”,

    國王忽視了不同的種族,特別是尼泊爾話中的“Lhotshampas” (洛昌人)

  • whom he exiled in large numbers.

  • To this day, the government claims the ethnic group left voluntarily.

    直到今天,不丹政府還是聲明洛昌人是自願離開的

  • Bhutan's isolationist policy saw more flaws in the 1990's.

    不丹的孤立主義政策在 1990 年代出現了更多缺陷

  • Bhutanese residents got access to television, and cell phones and cars started to become

    不丹人開始接觸電視,手機和車子

  • status symbols.

    變成了社會地位的象徵

  • Divorce, crime and school dropout rates increased, perhaps as a result of access to western technology

    離婚、犯罪和逃學率開始上升,這可能是接觸西方科技的影響

  • and materialism.

    和物質主義

  • As the country continued to develop, the concept of quote “I want moretook root in the

    當一個國家要持續發展,「我想要更多」這個概念性的話被深植在

  • Buddhist Kingdom, shifting the country's perception of happiness.

    這個佛教帝國,改變了這國家對幸福的想法

  • Today, Bhutan is a developing economy with a GDP of just $2 billion.

    今日,不丹開始發展經濟,他們的 GDP 約二十億美金

  • Many Bhutanese still work as subsistence farmers and suffer from poverty.

    很多不丹人還是自給自足的農民並受貧窮困擾

  • There's also an uptick in mental health issues and alcoholism, but Bhutan doesn’t provide

    此外,精神問題和酒精中毒也有所上升,但不丹不提供

  • basic services to address these issues.

    基本的方法來解決這些問題

  • It seems that the autocratic policy of gross national happiness is a cover for serious

    看起來國家幸福總值的獨裁政策裡包含了嚴重的

  • failures of governance, poverty and human rights abuses at home.

    失敗的治理、貧窮和當地人權迫害

  • And the King's remarkable public relations surrounding GNH protected him from international

    國王因 GNH 而有的傑出公共關係使他不受國際

  • condemnation.

    譴責

  • In the latest shift towards modernity, Bhutan's centuries-old monarchy was replaced with a

    朝著現代化發展,不丹長達幾世紀之久的君主制度被

  • parliamentary democracy.

    民主議會制度取而代

  • As the government shifts, some at the top believe that GNH may not be the foundation

    當政權轉移時,有些上曾認為 GNH 不是好的

  • for perfect policy.

    政策基礎

  • Bhutan's Prime Minister has even called the GNH a quotedistractionif it doesn’t

    不丹的總理曾經稱 GNH 為「分散」因為他沒有

  • address important social issues.

    解決重要的社會議題

  • Nevertheless, in the most recent Gross National Happiness survey, over 90% of Bhutanese still

    此外,在最近一的國民幸福總值調查顯示,近 90% 的不丹人

  • consider themselves happy.

    還是認為他們自己過得很開心

  • But with Bhutan's semi-authoritarian government ignoring chronic social issues in the pursuit

    但是不丹的半專制政府在追求統一中,

  • of uniformity, it's hard to tell just how happy the Bhutanese are.

    忽視社會的慢性問題,所以很難說不丹人幸福與否

  • Modernization hasn't shifted Bhutan's moral center completely off balance, however, as

    現代化並沒有讓不丹的道德中心思想完全轉移。然而,

  • democratic institutions are put in place, there could be more consequences if the talk

    當民主制度的建立,若只用紙上談兵的方式來談論幸福的話

  • of happiness persists over real progress.

    將會導致更多不良後果

  • For more interesting stories, check out this video from Seeker Stories on the powerful

    想了解更多有趣的故事,來看這部探索故事的影片

  • student protests in Chile that are helping reform the country's education system.

    有關智利學生反對改革國家的教育系統

  • Thanks for watching Seeker Daily, make sure to like and subscribe for new videos.

    謝謝收看每日探索,別忘了按讚和訂閱頻道欣賞更多的新影片喔

In the years after World War II, Gross Domestic Product or GDP became the gold standard

在二次大戰後,國內生產總值又稱GDP成為黃金準則

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 不丹 幸福 國家 總值 發展 政策

不丹:重視「幸福」甚於「經濟發展」的國家 (This Country Put Happiness Before Economy, But Did It Work?_

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    quirer 發佈於 2017 年 08 月 08 日
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